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stop in Guam, which is unfortunate, for a possible commerce is the greatest inducement to production. The well-to-do natives have had in mind the starting of a schooner line to Manila. The Philippine tariff on Guam products was revoked last year, which offers an inducement for such a line. It could no doubt be made to pay; but while there is sufficient capital, the natives have no initiative or organizing capacity. They have had no way to learn.

The former station ship made quarterly health and commercial trips to Japan, China, and the Philippines. She was taken away during the war and has not been returned as yet. These trips were of the greatest value in many ways, not the least of which was the stimulation of commerce, and indirectly of production. She should be returned directly, as no work she is now engaged in can be any more important than her services in Guam.'

While copra is established, and has many advantages as a money crop, there are many other possibilities. Coffee is one of the most promising. It thrives in all localities on the island, and with a minimum of care. It is also of a very high grade. Not all the berries grown are even picked at present, but only enough for current use. Were there a market the yield could be largely increased. Lemons also are a possibility. They are of an excellent quality and would sell readily in Manila. These few items are mentioned, but almost all varieties of tropical fruits and vegetables grow in Guam.

Of possible industries, basketry and weaving are beginning to take a prominent place. There have been two teachers on the island for a couple of years, loaned by the Philippine department of education, who have stimulated much interest in this direction, as also in lace making. There are many native fibers on the island which supply unlimited material for these industries.

In conclusion, it may be said that Guam can be made self-sustaining, and can in fact support a much larger population than exists at present on the island. And the measures now in effect, modified from time to time as necessary, and supplemented by such wise provisions as experience may dictate, will certainly produce the desired result. It will then be possible to utilize Guam in such way as may appear desirable, or to leave it to the peaceful enjoyment of its own inhabitants, undismayed by typhoons and the absence of imported food.

"Her return has been ordered.

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(COPYRIGHTED)
U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD.

CHART STUDY AND PREPARATION
By Lieut. COMMANDER R. R. MANN, U. S. Navy

Officers spend much time in perfecting themselves in deep sea navigation where the ship is not endangered, but do not always acquire the maximum knowledge available before piloting into port where the danger really exists. Recent courts-martial have proven this fault. To gain this knowledge it is necessary to study all data possible and the best method of study is to work on the charts themselves, preparing them for use. A very simple method of chart preparation, and therefore study, used with success on the Asiatic Station and in the Mediterranean in entering unfa miliar ports is here described.

Ist. Be sure that all navigational books and charts are correct to date by the latest hydrographic bulletins and notices to mariners.

2d. Look up chart catalogue and pick out all charts for that vicinity which can possibly be of use.

3d. Mark the landfall chart (smallest scale) No. 1, the next to be used No. 2, the next No. 3, etc., down to the largest scale chart which will necessarily be the harbor chart.

4th. On No. i chart draw a rectangle, preferably in blue pencil, showing the limits of No. 2 chart. On No. 2 chart draw a rectangle showing the limits of No. 3 chart, etc., down to the largest scale chart. Mark the rectangle with the number corresponding to that chart for reference. The charts are now numbered consecutively so the next largest scale chart available can be immediately used when the ship's position comes into that rectangle.

5th. Now look up light lists and check radius of visibility of lights with radius given on the chart. With a compass draw circles of visibility adding distance the light itself, not the glare, can be seen due to your own height over 15 feet as indicated in Table 14, Bowditch.

6th. Next lay off sectors of visibility through which lights can be seen as given by the light lists, keeping in mind the heights of

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