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lowing presents the wages usually paid in the various trades and industries.

Apprentices, in general, receive lodging, board, and clothing:

Servant maids, $6 to $12 per month and board; bakers, $18 to $36 per month; brewers, $40 to $50 per month; brickmakers, $1 to $1.20 per day and board; chairmakers, $1.60 to $2 per day; hatmakers, $18 to $22 per month; cart drivers, $16 to $24 per month; boilermakers, $50 to $80 or $100 per month; cigarmakers, $1.20 to $1.50 per day; coachmen, $20 to $25 per month; hair cutters, $14 to $20 and board; conductors of diligences, $35 to $40; confectioners, $20 to $40 and $60; shoemakers, $15 to $20; overseers, $30 to $35; seamstresses, 6 to 8 reales per day and board; cooks, male, $15 to $35 per month, bed and board; cooks, female, $12 to $16 per month, bed and board; servants (general), $10 to $18 per month, bed and board; gilders, $2 per day; harvesters, $10 to $15 per month and board; restaurant waiters, $15 to $20 per month, bed and board; watchmakers, $15 to $20 per month, bed and board; lackeys, $40 to $60 per month; gardeners, $18 to $30; day laborers, 80 cents to $1 per day; mattress-makers, $12 to $15 per month and board; sailors, $15 to $25 per month and board; mechanics, $60 to $100 and $150 per month; modistes, $20 to $30 per month; nurses, $20 to $30 per month; pastry cooks, $35 to $40 per month; fishermen, $20 to $25; painters, $1.20 to $2.50 per day; photographers, $35 to $55 per month; posters, $10 to $12 per month and board; potters, 15 to 20 reales daily and board; teachers, $30 to $60 per month and board; bookbinders, $30 to $35 per month; sawyers, 18 to 20 reales daily; tailors, $20 to $30 per month; locksmiths, $1.50 to $1.80 per day; stonecutters, 12 to 16 reales per day; bookkeepers, $50 to $200 per month; turners, 18 to 25 reales per day; dyers, $15 to $25 per month; coopers, 12 to 15 reales per day; glaziers, 12 to 15 reales per day; printers, $40 to $45 per month.

The workday comprises eleven hours.

The demand for mechanical labor in its different branches is good in Uruguay, but the subdivision of these branches has not been carried so far as in the United States, and all-round skill in each is most required.

The liberal professions, as in all the Latin-American countries, are overcrowded with natives, so that there are few or no inducements, except in special cases, for foreign lawyers, physicians,

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teachers, etc., to settle in Uruguay. The immigrant who, fairly equipped for the industry to which he proposes to devote himself, will resign himself to endure the first hardships inseparable from settlement in a new country, and will arm himself with patience and perseverance, can not fail, on the fertile soil of the Oriental Republic, to reap an abundant reward for his trials and efforts.

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THE LIBRARY

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Chapter VII.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION, FINANCE, BANKING, EDUCATION.

The numerous water ways throughout the Republic, both those which have already sufficient depth for navigation and those which, by a little dredging, can be made navigable, afford abundant facili ties for internal communication by steamboat and sail. The principal of these streams have been mentioned in the descriptions of the various Departments.

The Government, in view of the difficulty of transportation of heavy machinery and materials to and from the mining districts, and of developing more rapidly some agricultural sections, has

, during recent years, given considerable attention to the construction of railways, as a means of communication where none existed, and as affording facilities more direct and rapid, even where water communication was possible.

Uruguay possesses six main lines of railway (1,567 kilometers, about 930 miles, in length) in actual in operation. They are: the Central, the Northeastern, the Eastern, the Northern, the Northwestern, and the Midland Railroads. Extensions are making to all the above lines, and branches are under construction. The roads were all built under guaranty of a rate of interest, generally 7 per cent on the capital employed in their construction. No laws are in force regulating railway rates. · All the roads are in the hands of private corporations.

The Central Uruguayan Railway starts at Montevideo and runs through the whole territory of the Republic, until it reaches the Brazilian frontier at the town of Santa Ana do Livramento, the

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