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The total monetary circulation in July, 1892, is stated as $5,000,000, of which $2,388,000 was paper. The total circulation and reserve were estimated at $20,000,000.
The following is a list of the banks with their capital in 1889: Banco de Crédito Auxiliar ...
2, 000, 000 Banco de Crédito Unido.
5, 000, 000 Banco Italo-Oriental.
8,000,000 Banco de la Bolsa....
3, 000, 000 Banco Departmental de la Colonia.
I, 000, 000 Banco General Uruguayo ...
IO, 000, 000 Banco del Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Montevideo...
10, 000, 000 Banco Trasatlántico del Uruguay.
22, 000, 000 Banco de Cobranzas, Locacion y Anticipios..
400, 000 Banco del Plata....
20, 000, 000 Banco Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorro .
10, 000, 000 Banco Hipotecario y Constructor de Tacuarembó.
I, 000, 000 Banco Agrícola Comercial del Uruguay..
10, 000, 000 Banco del Comercio Minorista
I, 000, 000
$103, 400,000 Besides the fourteen banks enumerated above, there were nineteen companies and forty-two associations of different kinds authorized to do business in securities and credits, with an aggregate capital of $144,791,000.
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, EDUCATION, ETC. The number of public and private schools in the several Departments has already been mentioned.
In the public schools, primary instruction is compulsory between the
ages of six and fourteen years, and the attendance is quite up to that in other States, in proportion to the population. The statistics for 1891 show the existence of 483 public schools, with 43,676 pupils. The number of teachers employed in these was 863, of whom 272 were male and 591 female; 688 natives and 175 foreigners.
The normal school for girls was attended by 33 students, and during the year, there was established a similar institution for boys, at which the attendance was 41. The statistics of private schools for 1891 show that there were then 375. The total attendance at these schools was 21,945.
It will be seen, then, that the total attendance at the public and private schools of the Republic in 1891 was 65,621.
The average of salaries paid to male teachers in the public schools in 1891 was $36.27 and to females $35.71 per month.
The number of public schoolhouses was 94, and the amount expended in support of primary instruction in 1890 was $690,574. The amount of capital invested in public school buildings in 1891 was $663,362.
The University of Uruguay has been alluded to elsewhere.
The Military School had 79 students of 14 to 24 years, 16 professors, and 11 adjuncts.
The School of Arts and Trades is a flourishing institution, and conducted on a military plan. Each pupil who enters is bound to remain for a term of years, and must not be more than 14 years old. The plan of instruction embraces a wide range. Commencing with simple carpentry, the pupil is gradually conducted to more difficult and artistic work, such as wood and metal carving and engraving. Painting, drawing, music, etc., represent the fine arts in the course.
The gunboat Rivera, which afterwards did good service, was constructed by the workmen of this school.
The institution had in 1889 172 pupils, bound for four, five,
or six years.
Almost every town in the Republic has one or more daily newspapers, the total number in 1891 being 105.
Naturally, the most important and influential of these are published at the capital, and are:
El Siglo (two editions daily), La Nacion (semiofficial), La Razón (two daily editions), El Bien-Publico (Catholic organ), El Telégrafo Maritimo (commercial), The River Plate Times (English), The Express (English), El Ferrocarril (evening), La
Tribuna Popular (evening). Besides, there are others of less circulation in Spanish, French, and Italian.
Several interesting reviews are published at the capital, and scientific, artistic, and literary societies and clubs are numerous. Mention be made of the Uruguay Athenæum, the Catholic Athenæum, the University Athenæum, the Military Atheneum, the Society of Arts and Sciences, the Musical Association, and the Lycée.
The different nationalities have their respective clubs in Montevideo, at which lectures, balls, and receptions are given, and the Montevideans have enjoyed the pleasure of listening to the world's best singers and actors. The Solis Theater rivals in decoration and arrangement the best of Europe and of North America.
The National Museum at Montevideo contains 14,124 different objects in the sections devoted to archeology, history, zoology, botany, mineralogy, etc., among which are many interesting relics of the races that peopled the country before the Spanish conquest.
The National Library contains more than 20,000 volumes and 2,300 manuscripts, and the University Library possesses some
MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.
The Republic has no gold currency of national coinage, but the coins of foreign countries circulate freely. The following are the legal values of the several gold coins in circulation : Twenty-mark piece (Germany).
$4.60 Argentine $5.... Eight florins (Austria).
3. 73 Twenty milreis (Brazil)..
10. 56 Condor (Chile)....
8. 82 Twenty pesos (Colombia)......
18. 66 Doblón of 100 reales and 10 escudos (Spain). . Twenty-five pesetas piece (Spain). .... Eagle (United States of America). Twenty francs (France, Italy, etc.).
3. 73 Pound sterling (Great Britain).
4. 82 4. 66 9. 66 18.66 10.45 18.66
Twenty sols (Peru).
There are about $2,000,000 in silver in circulation, coined in the mint at Buenos Aires.
The monetary unit is the peso, or dollar of silver, of 100 centenas, or cents, whose approximate value compared with the United States silver dollar, is $1.035.
The notes of the various banks of issue make up, with the abovementioned coins, the circulating medium of the currency. The amount of their issues has been stated elsewhere. The notes of the banks, except the National Bank, are redeemable on demand in coin.
The Metric System has been officially adopted in Uruguay, but, as in other South American countries, the majority of the people still use the old weights and measures.
The following tables exhibit the weights and measures of Uruguay,
with their metric equivalents:
Weights and measures.
I Légua lineal .....
LAND AND SUPERFICIAL MEASURES.
Square meters. 1 Légua cuadrada..
= 26, 563, 716. I Cuadra cuadrada..
7, 378. 81 I Vara cuadrada..
· 737881 I Pié cuadrado ...
.081987 I Pulgada cuadrada.
.000569 1 Línea cuadrada ..
.000004 I Suerte de estancia..
-19, 922, 787.