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Millimetre

.0393 inch.

I inch I centimetre =

2.5399 centimetres. -3937 inch.

I foot I metre

30.4794 centimetres. B

39.3707 inches. I kilometre

I yard

.9143 metre. 0.6213 mile. I mile I geographical mile or knot=1.152 mile=2,027 yards=1,854 metres.

1.6093 kilometre. 60 geographical miles=i degree.

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I cubic metre = 35.3165 cubic feet. I cubic foot = .02831 cubic metres. 1 United States ton of shipping 40 cubic feet = 32.143 United States bushels =

1.1326 cubic metres.

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Chapter VIII.

COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.

The ports of entry of Uruguay on the Rio de la Plata are Montevideo, through which by far the greater part of the foreign commerce of the Republic is carried on, Maldonado, and Colonia, and of less importance, Paloma, Coronilla, Castillo Grande, Buceo, and Ensenada del Inglés. On the Uruguay, are Nueva Palmira, Carmelo, Independencia or Fray Bentos, Paysandú, Salto, Constitución, and Santa Rosa. On the Rio Negro, are Soriano and Mercedes. San Salvador is on the river of the same name.

Through these ports, is carried on the foreign trade of the country, which is estimated at $50,000,000 per annum, a magnificent total for a nation of 700,000 people. The increase has not been so great as in some other countries, but it has been constant and healthy. Few ocher countries can show a foreign commerce that averages $70 per inhabitant. The report of the Special Commission sent by the Government of the United States to study South American commerce shows Uruguay to be the most actively commercial nation of Latin America.

Of the exports in 1891, Great Britain took 18.37 per cent; France, 23.27 per cent; Germany, 5.45 per cent; Spain, 0.84 per cent; and the United States, 6.85 per cent.

Of the imports, 28.85 per cent came from Great Britain, 13.05 from France, 9.72 from Germany, 9.63 from Spain, and 4.89 from the United States.

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Each successive year up to 1889 shows an increase in the entries and clearances of steamers and sailing vessels in the ports of the Republic. In 1889, the number of these reached 35,582, and their aggregate tonnage was 12,444,462, being an increase over the preceding year

of 329 vessels, and 1,892,838 tons. In 1890, the number of vessels entered was 32,213, with a total tonnage of 11,442,894. In 1891, the number of vessels was 27,207 and the tonnage 9,482,644.

The following table exhibits the entries and clearances for Montevideo for the year 1891:

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Of the vessels arriving in 1891, there came in ballast 15 steamers of 14,355 tons register and 12 sailing vessels of 5,876 tons; and 43 sailing vessels of 22,752 tons register made no operation in this port, proceeding with all their cargo up the river Plate. Of the clearances of 1891, there left in ballast 41 steamers of 26,690 tons register and 176 sailing vessels of 147,169 tons.

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Of these, 102 steamers of 31,254 tons and 171 sailing vessels of 8,346 tons entered in ballast, and 72 steamers of 22,461 tons and 519 sailing vessels of 42,507 tons cleared in ballast.

At all the other ports of the Republic there arrived in 1891, 9,637 vessels (5,180 steamers and 4,457 sailing vessels) of a registered tonnage of 2,009,951 tons, of which, however, nearly threefourths were in ballast. The proportion of vessels coming from foreign ports contained in the above figures can not now be obtained.

The great increase in navigation will be seen when it is considered that in 1886 the number of steamers arriving in Montevideo was 611, and of sailing vessels 545, with a total of 1,232,416 tons burden.

Montevideo has excellent steam communication with the following European ports by regular lines: Liverpool, Pacific Steam Navigation Company, Houston Line, Lamport & Holt's Line. London, Houlder Bros., Holland & Co., ete. Southampton, Royal Mail Company, and Belgian Mail. Antwerp, Belgian Mail, Lamport & Holt, Houston Line. Havre, Chargeurs Réunis. Bordeaux, Messageries Maritimes. Marseilles, Société des Transports Maritimes. Genoa, La Veloce and General Haitian Navigation Company. Barcelona, Compañia Transatlantica Española, and Marqués de Campo Line. Glasgow, Lamport & Holt, Allan Bros., Bell & Co., etc.

With its comparatively long coast line, where ports may be opened; with the large and navigable rivers that form the greater part of its boundaries, where already exist ports whose capacity has not begun to be tested; with its internal waterways deep enough for interior navigation, the Republic of Uruguay possesses all the facilities that nature can give a nation for a commerce that must continue to increase with the development of its industrial re

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sources.

Little more than twenty years ago, communication between

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Uruguay and foreign countries was almost entirely dependent on sailing vessels, the arrival and departure of steamers being one or two per month; but to-day, there is hardly a port in the world better provided than Montevideo with steam communication with the great commercial centers of the world.

FOREIGN COMMERCE.

The following table shows the value of imports into Uruguay, by countries from 1886 to 1892, inclusive:

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Great Britain
France
Brazil
Spain
Italy
United States
Germany
Belgium
Cuba...
Argentine Republic
Chile..
Holland
Paraguay.
Norway and Sweden
Denmark ....
Portugal..
India, China, Japan.
Peru and Ecuador.
Switzerland..
Colombia..
Mauritius.
Austria-Hungary
Canary Islands...
Russia
Not specified

Dollars.
9, 526, 774
4, 531, 988
2, 623, 939
2, 200, 030
2, 400, 466
I, 584, 908
3, 042, 014
I, 594, 266

189, 954
763, 347
119, 819

27,985 130, 953

861, 937

193, 008 517, 562 197, 712 133, 084 174, 065

535 2, 282

62, 332
12, 107

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55, 491
2, 605
7, 430
9, 418
I, 739

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