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FOREWORD

This pamphlet is an outline of principles to govern the use of ideas so that they may become more effective weapons in the war.

The propaganda of the enemy is rooted in falsehood. He has so stated it. Nor could his policy have been otherwise. Had the truth been told, there would have been no cause for war. Were it spoken now by the enemy, his forces would soon lack the will to fight. In the beginning, falsehood has Irelped him gain certain military successes, and it will continue to help him so far as we fail to recognize it. But in the end it will be one of the major causes of his undoing.

Therefore, the truth fights on our side. But, as with every other force and weapon in the conflict, it is essential that we learn how to make the visest use of it. Only so will victory be made certain.

CONTENTS

Page

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Foreword ...
Truth and Falsehood......

Fundamental principles of information to troops. The nature of truth. Judgment in the
utterance of truth. Use of unauthenticated material. Effect of propaganda based upon false-

bood. Value of moderation. Emphasis upon the justice of a cause. War Aims..... Peace Aims....

General objectives of the Armed Forces of the United Nations. The need for orienting troops with respect to post-war questions. Justification for war. The definition of peace. The

mission of the United States Army. General Marshall's statement. The Armed Forces and the Nation......

Obligation of the citizen soldier. Responsibility of the Armed Forces to the people. Attitude

of the Army press on these questions. Change and Understanding.... Equality of Arms and Services.,.. Offensive and Defensive...

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Conduct of the War.....
Past Military Policy....
Military Targets...

t
Weapons..
The Home Front...

The value of objective treatment of news. Purpose of information to the Armed Forces. The
nature of an Army. Treatment of labor and industrial news. Treatment of difficulties on
the home front. The handling of political news. Nonpartisan character of an Army press.

Correction of errors.
The Female Form in Army Newspapers..
The Foes We Fight.......

Indivisibility of the forces of the enemy. Hitler as a symbol. The mistake oi ignoring the his.
tory of the resurgence of military power in modern Germany. The unity of the political forces

of Japan. Attitude toward the Japanese Emperor. The Vanquished...... The Fighting Quality of the Enemy.....

The wisdom of giving the enemy credit for strength. Universality of courage. Factors which

condition the fighting forces of all nations. Ridicule of the Italian soldier.
Indoctrination of Hatred....
Horror Pictures and Stories....
The United Nations ......

Need for mental and moral unity with our Allics. The oneness of the national cause and the
United Nations cause. Combatting of rumors. The Golden Rule policy. Avoidance of over-
emphasis in treatinent of American participation in military operations. Attitude toward the
occupied states. The United Nations as a political alliance.

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Questions of Race and National Origin.....

III feeling between races as an aid to the enemy. Inaccuracy of stereotyped views of racial
groups. Limitations of Army concern with racial problems. A voidance of sweeping state.

ments The Golden Rule test.
The "Yellow" Soldier......
Our Allies--Great Britain...
Our Allies—The USSR.....
Our Allies-China....
The Neutrals.....
Terminology..
Security
Balance :

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The Other Armed Services...

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Rules of War....
The Foreign-Born Soldier.
In General.......

Identification of information from enemy sources. Use of enemy propaganda. What consti.
tutes official news. War under Marquis of Queensbury rules. No syndicated columns.
Language of an Army press. Tone of an Army Press. Information relating to American battle

losses. Attitude toward the probable duration of the war. The aim of information services. Army Radio Broadcasting ..., Index

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Truth and Falsehood

The fundamental principle of American information about the war is that we will speak the truth. But, as in all other matters pertaining to security in wartime, common sense must be exercised, and common sense is action according to circumstances and not according to rules. To speak the truth is not enough; there must be a steadying judgment as to when it should be spoken, and to whom it should be addressed.

A truth need not only be well-rounded, but the utterance of it should take account of the stresses and objectives of the moment. Truth becomes falsehood unless it has the strength of perspective. The presentation of facts is self-justifying only when the facts are developed in their true proportion. Said the soldier Cromwell to the artist doing his portrait: “Yes, paint the wart on my nose, but do not make my whole nose a wart."

It is not intended to imply that in the supplying of information about the war, it is possible to avoid risk, or desirable to seek always the perfectly safe course. All action in war that is aimed at any positive end involves the weighing of one set of risks against another, and judgment resides in choosing the line of action which is most likely to serve the general purpose. This is true of information service as of any other. Information which does not inform, counsel, warn, stimulate, remind, instruct, or reiterate for the purpose of training the mind for war, is innocuous and therefore of no value to the military service.

It should be recognized that news is not the sacred property of the press, but something in the public domain. In time of war the Armed Forces themselves are creators of news and have therefore a vested interest in the way it is reported and edited by Information services. The all-important question pertaining to news and information is how victory can best be expedited by the truthful use of news. The truth works for our side.

There is never any justification, in any circumstances, for the employment of material which is known to be false. The editorial rulewhen in doubt, leave it out-holds good. When information appears to be valid and useful, but has not been wholly authenticated, it is best stated as such. But that which is known to be false or is only vaguely rumored is to be avoided.

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