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special Secretary of State for the Colonies. But the Agents-General are still maintained. the interposition of your mace. When the ordinary call for order is ineffective to quell disturbance in the House, the Sergeant-at-Arms, at the Speaker's direction, takes up the mace from the table where it lies, and with it confronts the disorderly members. Before this symbol of the majesty of the House, they are expected to quail and sink into their seats. There is in the Speaker's power but one last resource more dreaded than this, and that is to “name " the disorderly member.

25, 26. For the Address see Note on the English Constitution, page 322. Its menacing front in this case was the declaration of a state of rebellion in Massachusetts, and a call for immediate action to suppress it. One of the heavy bills of pains and penalities was that referred to in the opening sentences of this speech as “ the grand penal bill.” See note, p. 1, 1. 8.

PAGE 9, 5–12. An occasional system here means a policy which lacks the guidance of far-reaching principles, and so contents itself with makeshifts to meet new occasions or emergencies as they arise a policy of shifts. The object referred to in l. 6 and 12, and repeatedly throughout this discussion, is the Colonies themselves.

22. That is, the subject of their commerce has been treated,' etc. The gentleman was a Mr. Glover, who presented a petition from the West India planters praying that peace might be made with the American Colonies. His literary reputation, complimented here, is now quite forgotten. The bar is a movable barrier or rail in the main aisle, beyond which none but officers and members are allowed to pass. All other persons, if permitted to address the House, must do so standing outside this barrier.

Page 10, 9. state, where we should say statement. See also p. 56, 1. 4.

21–23. The exports from England to Africa consisted almost wholly of articles used in barter for slaves, who were shipped thence to the Colonies. The exchange on the coast of Africa was but an incident in a larger transaction beginning in England and ending in America. The amount of these exports is, therefore,

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rightly added by Burke to the total of direct exports to the Colonies.

Page 12, 10 ff. To secure a more vivid sense of the unexampled vigor and growth of the Colonies than mere statistics could give, Burke pauses here to turn upon the subject the gorgeous illumination of this paragraph. The attempt is a daring one, and is carried out with characteristic opulence and splendor. The good taste of portions of it has been questioned; particularly the academic and conventional fulsomeness of lines 24–35; but that would hardly have counted as a fault in a century which admired such displays. 22, 23.

Already old enough to read the deeds of his fathers, and able to know what virtue is; ' — adapted from Virgil, Ecl. iv. 26.

27–35. the fourth generation, since George III., was, not the son, but the grandson of George II. made Great Britain by the union with Scotland in 1707. The higher rank of peerage was that of Earl, to which Lord Bathurst had been advanced from that of Baron, the lowest hereditary degree. The new title added to the honors of the family was that of Baron Apsley, conferred upon Lord Bathurst's son when the latter became Lord Chancellor.

Page 14, 10. deceive, i.e., beguile, lighten, an echo of Latin usage in the case of the parallel word, fallere.

27–29. Alluding to the famous story of a Roman father condemned to die of starvation, but secretly nourished by his daughter from her own breasts, until the discovery of her devotion and the admiration it aroused brought about his release.

Page 15, 11. The Serpent, - a constellation within the Antartic circle.

17. run the longitude. This expression seems not to be current with nautical men; although they naturally interpret it as spoken of a course sailed due east or west, so that the ship’s progress is reckoned in longitude alone. On the other hand, the context seems to call for a course due south, or nearly so following a great circle of longitude, or meridian. It may be that Burke has used the phrase here strictly, as the sailors understand it; meaning that some of the American whalers, after their African cruise, sailed westward to Brazil, as perhaps they might do on their homeward cruise. Or it may be that without strict question of nautical interpretation he used the sonorous phrase in the other sense, which seemed obvious enough to him.

PAGE 16, 10. complexion, in its original signification of temperament, the way in which a person is put together;' and so generally in Burke. Passages like that which follows here (pp. 16, 17) justify Matthew Arnold's high praise of Burke, “ because almost alone in England he brings thought to bear upon politics; he saturates politics with thought.”

Page 18, 9, 10. During the great struggle against the tyranny of the Stuarts.

21–24. Notably in Rome, an example always present to Burke's mind. PAYNE.

PAGE 19, 27–29. popular,— democratic, “of the people and by the people. merely popular, — wholly so. the popular representative — the portion which represents the people. Cf. Burke's more explicit statement, p. 52, 1. 34 ff.

31. aversion is now followed by to, after the manner of its synonyms, dislike, repugnance, etc. But in Burke's time the force of a Latin etymology or of Latin usage was still strongly felt, and often determined both idiom and meaning of English words. Hence the from in this case. The young student, whose sense for idiom and usage needs to grow more sure and more intelligent, should not fail to notice these cases as they arise. Even though unacquainted with Latin, he should lose no time in acquiring the habit of consulting directly the Latin Lexicon. With a little resolution and a little help at first, the difficulties will speedily vanish; while the gain in conscious power and in grasp of language is invaluable. For examples at hand try piety, p. 14, 1. 27, communion, p. 20, 1. 27, and constitution, 22, l. 21.

PAGE 21, 29–31. This high and jealous spirit of the free-born in Rome in the midst of a servile class may be illustrated from almost any page of Shakespeare's Julius Cæsar. Our Teutonic and Scandinavian ancestry was habitually, though incorrectly, called Gothic by writers of the last century. such were the Poles, for at this time they had ceased to be an independent nation.

race.

PAGE 22, 6, 7. The lead seems still to be held by the lawyers. The law is still considered to be the most natural avenue to a political career. 12. Plantations -colonies, the plantings of a new society or

The term is regularly so used in acts and charters, and has no reference whatever to cultivation of the soil.

18–21. In the hope of paralyzing all concerted action on the part of the colonists, an order was issued forbidding the calling of town-meetings after Aug. 1, 1774. But a way was soon found, and within the limit of the law, to hold such meetings without calling them. The last called meeting before that date was simply adjourned to whatever time was thought desirable, and its legal existence was thus prolonged indefinitely.

25, 26. This was Thurlow, a famous lawyer, and afterwards Lord Chancellor. At this time he was Attorney-General, and a conspicuous figure among the Ministers on the Treasury Bench. Directly in front of him was the narrow space of open floor; hence, the designation of his position as “on the floor.” To guard its freedom of speech, the House of Commons in earlier times used its utmost powers to prevent any attempt at reporting its debates. It thus became, and still is, a grave breach of decorum for a member to use pencil and paper in the House at all, unless it were to make a brief note of a point to which he would reply. Burke thus understands Thurlow's note-book and pencil, and avails himself of the unusual action to identify, without naming him, the person he means.

32. “ Studies pass over into character,” or “What we pursue takes shape again in our life;" a famous aphorism from Ovid, Heroid. Ep. xv. 83, quoted also by Bacon in his essay Of Studies.

PAGE 23, 15–17. A splendid figure developed out of Horace's fine phrase in the opening of one of his Odes (Bk. iv. 4), comparing Drusus in his victorious career to Jove's eagle, “the thunder's winged minister,” ministrum fulminis alitem.

PAGE 24, 26, 27. with all its imperfections on its head, Adapted from the words of the ghost in Hamlet, Act I., Scene

V. 79.

33.

Page 30, 8. “ To the despoiled are still left arms.” — JUVENAL, Sat. viii. 124. 26. Cf. Acts xix. 19.

more chargeable, involving heavier charge, more expensive.

PAGE 31, 35, 36. Quoted from that treasury of bathos, The Art of Sinking in Poetry, ch. xi. The remote source of the lines in “one of Dryden's plays,” though affirmed by various editors, seems to lack verification.

PAGE 32, 26, 27. Sir Edward Coke, a famous lawyer under Elizabeth and James; Attorney-General in 1603, when Raleigh was tried for treason. “ While the prisoner defended himself with the calmest dignity and self-possession, Coke burst into the bitterest invective, brutally addressing the great courtier, as if he were a servant, in the phrase long remembered for its insolence and injustice, “Thou hast an English face, but a Spanish heart!””

Encyc. Brit.

PAGE 33, 14, 15. ex vi termini — by the very nature of the expression.

PAGE 34, 29. addressed — petitioned the Crown in Address. Cf. Note on Forms of Procedure, p. 322.

PAGE 36, 7. startle, intransitive, meaning start. Cf. Dictionary.

27–29. From Paradise Lost, II., 592-594.

PAGE 38, 12, 13. American financiers — financiers who would hope to raise a revenue by taxing America.

24. Mr. Rice.

34. shall tell you — is bound to,' is sure to;' with fuller recognition than is now common of the original meaning of this auxiliary.

Page 39, 3. Acts of Navigation, passed first in 1651, re-enacted later, and repealed only within our own century. They were designed to secure to England a practical monopoly of the carrying trade by sea. According to them, no vessel of another realm might bring either to England or to her colonies anything except the actual products of that realm. Cf. Encyclopedia, s. v. Navigation Laws.

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