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sort of refusal. He lifted his chest and VERY few days the office and the its way to all parts of the city in inshoulders and returned to the attack. loiterers in the garage experienced numerable ways. It went forth by scrap His voice was high.

the thrill of seeing a man hired. One trucks going to the other mills, by de"Me work two weeks--no pay—my Monday we “took on" fifteen. They were livery wagons passing strolling workbaby no eat, me no eat three day—" picked out from "priority lists” we had men, by women returning home from

"I will look the matter up and see if been keeping for months. Out of a work, by workmen out early and going we can't do something. Come and see jammed outer office we nodded one by home on trolley cars. It went into New me again."

one to the fifteen. They came into the Poland, and New Naples, and New RusThe ideas in the wire-drawer's mind inner office quickly, half hopeful, half sia, and before morning would certainly were very simple, conclusive ones. They suspicious. Then came the ritual: be noised abroad in adjoining towns. were that his family was starving, that "Name?"

In a half-hour the street in front of the he had come for help and hadn't got it. "Where you live?”

employment office was jammed with a One hand flew jerkily upward. He “How old?"

crowd that began to interfere with drew his fingers across his throat.


traffic. I went out into the crowd. "You want kill me, I guess," he said, "How many children?"

"Say," said a man whom I used to see and left in a stumbling flight.

They went out through a side door in the machine shop, "they tell me the After the encounter the office sat a and through an iron gate into the street. company's taking on two hundred men little stunned. Then the employment Some of them held up the red paste- this afternoon.” manager ran out in the street after the board pass like a flag as they stepped The employment manager came to the wire-drawer. He arranged to have his into the crowd of devouring eyes. door and looked at the crowd. family fed by the Salvation Army.

The news of those fifteen jobs found "That's all," he said.




BY CHARLES K. TAYLOR NY one at all interested in the all- for boys! The camp site was admirably recognize at once Dr. Henry Stark, our around training of young Ameri- chosen, occupying, as it did, a broad and famous authority on physical training

cans last summer would surely dry plateau sufficiently high above the and no less famous sculptor. have approached Mountain Lake with level of the lake. Trees were all through the keenest kind of, interest. For here the camp, and a solid mass of them hid

LAD to have you come," said the was that amazing laboratory, that camp the hills right behind it. All this struck

Major. “We have been very propof experiments, where school-men, physi- one at once at first glance. It was evi- erly reticent up to this time, and I think cal training experts, and the Army were dently not the usual hot, dusty army we would do well to continue reticent, co-operating for the first time, endeavor. camp. It was rather a "woodsy" kind for, after all, one cannot accomplish very ing to solve great questions presented of camp, with plenty of sun, to be sure, startling things in five weeks. But here by the boy of sixteen and seventeen- but plenty of welcome shade as well. and there we have run across an idea those vitally important ages of entrance As for the lake, it seemed clear and that seems to work. I believe we three into manhood.

sparkling, with a good beach and nu- have learned more than the boys.” The No doubt there was some general kind merous diving piers.

others nodded emphatically. of training that would grip the boy of Upon entering the camp bounds my "Well," continued Major Sartorius, this age group and aid in giving him a car, of a deservedly famous type, was "one understands more by seeing than clean character, in making him an in- held up by a very businesslike sentry, by sitting here talking. Let's take our telligent citizen, in giving him a good neat as a pin, who would not let me by visitor in turns and tell him of our physique, and in developing such mat- until the corporal of the guard had special interests." They agreed at once. ters as self-discipline, resourcefulness, looked me over.

"You do the honors first, Major," said initiative, and a capacity for obedience No, I was not bringing in "smokes" or Dr. Nieman, smiling. as well as for leadership. A rather am- other contraband. Yes, I was expected "Not at all,” said the Major, “the bitious programme, but how infinitely by Major Sartorius. Fortunately, the school takes precedence.” worth while! The schools alone could Major's letter was at hand. The seven- "Oh, well,” exclaimed Dr. Stark, not accomplish it; and then so many teen-year-old guardian scrutinized it laughing, “toss a coin, as usual, and boys of sixteen and seventeen are no severely, nodded his head, and I was in. have it over with.” Whereupon they all longer in school. The physical-training After passing several groups of laughed. A coin was produced, and the folk could not accomplish any such pro- tents—company groups, I learned they Major won the doubtful privilege, after gramme, despite the close relationship were called—there appeared a rustic all. between physical and mental efficiency bungalow with all the earmarks of a “Usual army luck,” grinned the sculpand the relationship of both to charac- headquarters about it. Here another tor. "Well, go ahead, and don't tell him ter. The Army could not do it at all, sentry was politely but firmly curious, everything. Leave something for us." despite the hardy old colonels who but in a moment I was ushered into a would swear that the Army is the best bright, breezy office where interesting E started for the nearest company school for the cultivation of all the ideas were being evolved.

group. "Quite true," said the graces of mind and body! By some The room had three broad desks. At Major in answer to my question. "Not marvel of fortune these three agencies one sat a very obviously military per- one of us is the head. It is thoroughly were got together, and Camp Young sonage with a major's decoration. At a co-operation. I confess, I had my America was the result.

the next was another man in khaki, but doubts at first. We West Point products You probably heard very little about with no military insignia. This was are sometimes a little too sure about it. Not a great deal was permitted to doubtless Dr. Nieman, the well-known things concerning which we have had get into the press, but that little was educator. The third desk was occupied little or no experience. I learned in a quite enough to arouse one's curiosity. by a fine-looking man of handsome hurry that handling boys is very difAnd so it was that the writer was im- physique, wearing khaki "shorts," khaki ferent from handling men. In the bepelled to visit Mountain Lake in time to woolen "sport" stockings, canvas rubber- ginning Dr. Nieman gave me a lecture observe the fifth and last week of the soled shoes, and a sleeveless khaki jer- on boy psychology, and I didn't believe camp.

sey. When in addition I say that he half of what he said. Then he went Hill country, with plenty of woods had thick red hair and wore a black and proved it. And I found, to my surand water-what an appropriate place ribbon-guard on his glasses, you will prise, that there is more difference in


characteristics and outlook between a amazing rapidity, and machine-like pre- As we spoke we passed through a curboy of sixteen and one of eighteen than cision in drill is not especially valuable tain of trees to the edge of an immense between eighteen and twenty-eight. I with lads of this age, though I once meadow, over which hundreds of youths had planned, of course, to make this thought differently. Our drill does not in khaki were scattered. At first it was very much like the usual army training take more than thirty minutes per day, just a jumble of moving figures and camp. But I planned without Messrs. though there was a little more in the lumber. Then it resolved itself into Nieman and Stark, and, as the regula- beginning. You see, all we planned to many little groups, each one actively tions for us provide that a majority do was to make possible a fairly pre- engaged with some kind of structure. rules, they outvoted me two to one on sentable evening parade, and that we In one part of the field stood several several cherished matters.” have done."

tripod observation towers, and two or We strolled through the nearest com- "Where did you get your non-coms?” three more went up as by magic as I pany village. It was deserted. Also it I asked.

watched. The Doctor nodded at my exwas quite immaculate. The ground "We chose them from the boys as clamation. around the tents was in perfect order. soon as any showed capacity,” said he. Yes," said he, “I believe there is a We examined a few tents. Each cot "Our captains and lieutenants are match between regiments A and C in was in order, and each boy's belongings. mostly teachers, physical directors, and tower construction and erecting," said But those cots were certainly not regu

Scoutmasters who have seen service, he. “The best company of A against the lation cots! I remarked as much, and

and who also know a lot about boys. best company of C. Each squad makes the Major grinned.

I'd like to get all the male teachers of a tower from rough materials-green “Those cots," said he, “represent the boys into camps of this kind. Good timber and refuse from the dump. The policy evolved by Dr. Nieman, abetted both for the men and the boys. In this record time for a thirty-foot tower, with by some of the engineering folk. Their kind of camp the majority of officers platform, railing, and ladder, is, I beprinciple is this: We wish to develop should be school-men, men knowing lieve, thirty minutes. There goes anresourcefulness and initiative. The boys, who have had army training.

other tower!He squinted his eyes. usual military machine applied to boys Boys differ from men, and so should be "A is on the left. They have, so far, at the formative age tends to destroy under men who know boys. This is five towers to three of C's. Smart both. So this general rule was made- something that many army folk did not work!" So it was. nothing would be done for a boy that realize until recently, and something the Near at hand were two larger towers, he could do for himself, nothing pro

folks responsible for the 'Citizens' made after the same fashion, and bevided for him that he could readily Camps' probably do not know even now, tween them youths were swinging an make. The manual-training experts

or they would never open a man's camp aerial and simultaneously setting up said that with canvas and boards any

to lads of seventeen and sixteen. I need wireless equipment on an improvised sixteen-year-old boy could make a satis- not criticise. I had to be taught my- platform near one of them. factory cot in about forty-five minutes. self." He laughed a little ruefully.

“Each regiment has its wireless So when they came our boys were given

"Besides the drill, the only other fiends," said the Doctor. "They race seven feet of canvas and shown the purely military feature is the rifle each other getting up towers and aerials. lumber-pile. Also they were given work," continued the Major, “excepting, Also they improvise all kinds of makesketches and a photograph-one set per of course, our field engineering, which shifts when we have a war game," he squad, each squad forming tent is our best and most interesting experi- continued, “and of course are in touch group."

ment. But we are keen for the rifle with Washington every now and then." That accounted for the cots! Yet they work. We use the Springfield mostly, We began wandering about the field. were of sturdy design and obviously as though light-weight boys are likely to Here several groups were putting up comfortable as any army cot.

use a special light-weight gun-bolt ac- frames for different kinds of buildings. "They had to put up their own tents tion, of course. Boys pick up such A thirty-foot-wide ravine was crossed by first,” continued the Major. "Oh, no; things with singular rapidity. These a veritable multitude of foot-bridges of they didn't find a nice camp waiting for

five weeks have given us a large num- all possible types. them, all set up. When the boys were ber of really excellent marksmen."

“Those bridges are very familiar," assigned to their companies and their

said I, “and some of them, the bowcompanies to their areas, they found a E now returned to the headquar- string span, for instance, not easy to pile of rolled-up tents and a pile of tent

make of green timber. It must take a poles. There were some almost pain- tractiveness. Yes," said he, "and it lot of teaching and a big staff of instrucfully humorous incidents when the boys was designed and built by a platoon of tors to accomplish such work in so short were getting the hang of those tents. juvenile engineers in about five days." a time!" And when they were more or less up

When I showed astonishment, he “Not at all," said the Doctor, emthere was an inspection by yours truly, laughed. “Wait till you have seen more phatically. “This work justifies what in the usual deadly, cold, blood-curdling of their work," said he.

many educational psychologists have army fashion-you know."

I was now turned over to Dr. Nieman, been claiming, and that is, that this parYes, I know," was my sad reply. who arose promptly and led me to a ticular age is the very best for developEven now I could cheerfully witness the great field some hundreds of yards ing a constructive capacity. Boys at hanging of one or two super-critical away, a field that bordered the lake. As this time have a real impulse toward officers who made life a burden not so we approached it there came the steady building things and putting things tovery long ago. rattling of many hammers.

gether. Why not utilize it? I have “So some tents came down, but in a "The Major gave me an outline of found by tests that it is infinitely easier couple of hours the company villages your principles," said I, “but the mili- to teach engineering of this kind to were ready for their citizens, and then tary part of the programme seemed a boys of this age than to men of twentythey got to cot-making. The job began little scant."

one." right after breakfast. By noon all was "Well, why shouldn't it be?” ex- “And as to teaching," he continued, complete-tents up, cots made, with claimed he. “The most militaristic na- "they need precious little-if you make blankets correctly folded in their proper tions of Europe knew better than to a point of not giving it to them. That places.”

make automata of adolescent boys. But is part of our game. It quite horrified It seemed to me that boys would take a little of it is all right-fine! It helps. my good friend the Major at first when a keen interest in a camp they had Our evening parade, with its flag cere- he found we were not going to stand helped make themselves.

mony, comes to mean a lot to a boy. over these youngsters and merely order "My forte," continued the Major, "is And the amount of drill necessary for them to do this and that, and so do all of course the military end of the pro- that performance is just enough-and this work mechanically. No, sir, We gramme. Well, we don't have much no more.

You will see. And now for sometimes showed them models, somedrill. Boys learn such things with our finest work. Behold!”

times photographs or sketches, some.


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A the boys fling into the mess trent.

times all three, and then told them to go to it. They had to make all kinds of things out of any material they could get—boards from the dump, green trees from the woods, and so on. We gave them the tools, and not too many of them. Do you see the result? Is not this performance certain to aid very directly in developing resourcefulness and initiative? Just as putting up their tents and manufacturing their cots began it."

“And yet you seem to accomplish this development of individual resourcefulness without losing control or discipline," I commented, for the hundreds of boys were obviously keeping steadily at their work, with no unnecessary noise or

"Certainly we keep good discipline," declared the Doctor. “As a part of our teaching of citizenship, at the very be ginning we showed unmistakably the necessary connection between co-operation, law and order, and personal liberty, and by the last, of course, we mean the liberty to do things that are worth while, for our benefit or pleasure, that do not interfere with the benefit and pleasure of others. They soon realized that such laws and regulations as we have are but rules of the game, making effective co-operation possible. After all, it is all very simple—that is, to all but the sentimental radicals, who are not interested in reasons, but only in feelings, and usually, to tell the truth, in feelings aroused because they cannot follow the dictates of all their emotions."

Passing through the field, we reached the shore, and there beheld a number of piers of various kinds extending into the water, most of them being adaptations of the foot-bridges seen in the ravine.

"Naturally, the boys wanted diving

piers," said the Doctor," and of course idea? Do you see that skinny K.P. over we provided no piers of any kind. So there? Sure, the one with the carrot they just built their own piers. Do you hair. Well, he comes from D Company. see what we are working at?"

They got 6 points in two days. We It was only too obvious, and I had

didn't get any.

Can't get anything on nothing but rather amazed compliments us, though they come around with for the Doctor.

microscopes—almost!" The corporal's About this time a clear-voiced bugle pride in his company's record is indeblew. Others promptly took it up, and scribable. before I knew it the scattered squads The table talk was healthily noisy, merged into companies and the com- full of fun, of boyish “kidding," and of panies marched away, we following. all that kind of joyous badinage that Before long came the bugles again, and helps a boy get rid of his unsocial pecusuddenly my whole digestive apparatus liarities and to gain a good temper as longed for the beans and the bacon well as a power to take a joke with a sandwiches of ancient memory! It was laugh. I might add, too, that it was no that kind of bugle-call, you know.

little satisfaction to note that the con

versation was invariably clean and that NEAR-BY company village showed there was no profanity. I frankly asked

the corporal how they managed that. "Guess I'll give you another experience," "Ho,” declared he, wagging his head, said the Doctor. That company com- “any buddy that talks smut here sure mander was most hospitable. Certainly gets educated! A lot got educated the he would dig me up a mess kit and sit first week. The Major did it. He began me with his boys—provided I preferred it. No namby-pamby talks, but he-man the boys' to the officers' mess, which stuff. We aren't much on swearing were exactly alike, only the latter was either. You see, the officers don't, and a little more civilized. So I was given we fellows like to copy our officers. Our a complete outfit and put in charge of a captain don't like it-swearin'. That's strapping corporal-aged seventeen, and different from just cussin', you know. come a thousand miles, so he told me, to He don't like swearin', and what he this camp.

don't like-well, we don't like either. Just like old times! There was the You see, he's no end of a corking fellow." same old line for grub, but the grub Well, to tell the truth—and I didn't was mighty fine grub, excellent in qual- tell it out loud either—this wasn't like ity and bounteous, and everything clean any army camp or mess of my experibeyond criticism. I made some such re- ence. mark to my friend the corporal. "Huh!” Mess over, each boy washed his kit said he, “you can bet those K.P.'s keep and washed it well, and then placed it things clean! The fellows get that job on a long rack under his number. in turns, and the outfit gets a gosh-awful "They dry in the air, you see,” exinspection every now and then, and they plained the corporal, "and of course it keep a score, and companies that get gives those birds something more to ininspection points have to provide K.P.'s spect." He gave his own kit a terrifyto work in the kitchens of some other ing squint, examining every corner, company! Isn't that the dog-gonest then hung it in place and offered to take


mine to his captain. "So long," said The Doctor looked at me gravely and way too. Besides this, we have as many he, hospitably. "Come again."

said nothing, so I continued my tirade. outdoor games and sports as facilities "What did you learn at mess?" asked "I suppose, before they go home, that and schedule permit. We cannot do a the Major a little while afterwards, when you measure them all again. You find lot in five weeks, but we do what is posI joined the three leaders in their bun- that some measurements have increased, sible. As our mornings are given to galow.

and you doubtless note them all down specific training, such as engineering, "Learned a lot, Major," said I, "and, as gains. How do you know they are map-making, signaling, first aid, sanitain particular, that it is possible to have real gains, and not merely increases due tion, and the like, so much of the aftera big camp of young fellows and to have to normal growth? Yet that is what noon is given to physical training, it thoroughly decent and clean in its many schools do, note growth increases largely under the guise of games and talk. It's fine. But don't you feel it is and term them 'gains.'”

sports. At 4:30 comes the grand swim, a little unnatural, Major?”

Dr. Stark laughed very heartily. and those who cannot swim are taught "Unusual, I'm sorry to say," he re- “Thank you," said he. "I never before at all speed. From the swim almost to plied; "but not unnatural, Boys are heard so concise a summary of the ob- mess the boys have the time largely at naturally decent, but, just as one would jections to the usual kind of measuring. their own disposal, and they are very expect, they tend to imitate the men Well, first of all, we do not believe the likely then to take up specialties, such with whom they come in contact. Ob- average type to be the only proper one. as wireless and the like. Then comes a jectionable men are almost always the Not at all. We say that if a boy is in few minutes of drill, just before mess, noisy ones, therefore the most conspicu- good health, and not of the abominable ending with a parade. After mess libous, and therefore the ones most likely purely 'fat' type, then his weight is cor- erty for individual interests; then we to be imitated by boys. That is more rect, no matter what it is. We do be- have frequent ‘movies' of a carefully boy psychology. The Doctor here ex- lieve it is normal for some to be very selected type and talks concerning plained it all long before the camp slender and others to be very stocky, things worth while knowing. Taps at opened. I find he is right. Our men are with all gradations between. But we do nine." decent and clean. Therefore the boys demand that a boy be well-developed for "I suppose you use those talks for are, or become so. It works. It is a his type of build !

teaching sex hygiene sometimes." success. I think are developing "Rational enough; but how do you Dr. Stark's face promptly clouded. something worth while." work it?" I asked.

"I am not strong for this indiscriminate "You may be certain of it," I ex- "Simply enough,” said he. "Look, lecturing on sex hygiene. It is a deluclaimed, with enthusiasm.

here are this boy's measurements. You sion to think that a knowledge of so"Well, we're not through with you see his height is 68 inches and his called 'facts' will aid in giving a boy yet,” said the Major, gratified. “Dr. weight 135. Here are his various girths, moral character. In fact, it is largely Stark may have something to show you. and so on. Underneath them are proper arrant nonsense, promulgated by fadHe gets most of his innings early in the measurements for boys of his height dists who know nothing of boy psymorning and later on in the afternoon. and weight. So, you see, he is judged chology. A thief knows all the facts' Your turn, Doctor."

according to his natural type of build. against stealing and the drunkard

And as he goes above or below the knows all the facts' against drinking, HOME in here first, and I'll show you standard points are added to, or sub- and the one will steal and the other

something,” said the Doctor, going tracted from, 100. This boy has 85, hav. thieve until their idcals change. Give into an adjoining office. Here were ing lost 10 on chest expansion and 5 on a boy proper ideals, and you won't have many small drawers of index cards. He shoulder girth. That means something to worry about sex hygiene. Ideals. pulled a drawer and took out a card at very definite to that boy. He will do They are what count most, and a lot of random. “Here,” said he, “is the physi. his individual exercises in order to get us sit up nights endeavoring to devise cal record of Private Elbert Jones, of rid of his minus quantities, achieve his methods that will give our boys so high Duluth, Minnesota. No faults noted by hundred, or better. Some go much bet- an idealism that clean living and think. the medicos. And here are his physical ter."

ing just follow naturally. With older measurements."

"Well, that is first class,” said I. "But men, yes, you can lecture them in "Aren't physical measurements al- how can you report gains, as different groups. With boys, no. It is more of most worthless?" I asked, disappointed. from normal growth increases?"

an individual affair, and sometimes ob"I fear I have a real prejudice against "Simply enough. A little time goes viously has to be done. But with the them as far as their doing any possible by. The boy is a little taller and a mass of boys-ideals. That's the secret good to the individual boy is concerned. little heavier. All right. Up go the re- -ideals." When you have them, what do they quirements to make as good a score as mean? How can you tell whether a he made first. He must increase nor- SPENT the afternoon, then, with Dr. boy's measurements are what they mally all over to retain his first score. Stark, who showed me all the many should be or not? Well, I suppose you If he gets a higher score, then he has fine games and sports going on throughdo the usual thing, and compare them really improved. The highest physical out the camp, and I saw the lake with the average measurements, and honor this camp gives is for percentage

churned to foam when company by comsay that a boy who is so old and so of physical improvement, though we pany the youngsters hurled themselves tall should weigh about so much and give a fine one for physical perfection into the clear waters. And then I have certain measurements to corre- too. Now all this, you see, is individual was shown a variety of things menspond with his age and height. Most work. lass calisthenics are useful, but tioned by the Doctor, and finally I ended schools do that very thing. And yet, not enough for boys still in the flexible the parade-ground,

very my dear Doctor, why should a boy have age, when a little individual work can snappy drill and a most beautiful evea certain approximate weight when he mean so much."

ning parade, aided by an excellent band. has a certain age and height? Perhaps I was surprised to find any individual There are few ceremonies so beautiful he resembles a very slender father, and work at all in the camp, and said so. or appealing, from the marching and so is ten per cent or more below the "It is an essential part of the game," countermarching of the band to the average in weight. Does that mean he said he, "and is given an extra appeal coming down of the flag and the final has malnutrition or something else by being put on a competitive basis. marching by of the companies. And my malign? Not at all. It is as normal They compete for improvement and fine time was at an end. With mess calls for some to be slender and others to be physique by individuals and by com- ringing cheerily in my ears the ancient stocky as for still others to approach panies. That is one part of our work. flivver hurried me away for the ten the general average. There is no earthly Another is mass calisthenics. There is miles to the diminutive station, where, reason why only the average' type of just a touch of this, but it has a psycho- in good time, came a train to take me build should be considered the healthy logical value outside of the merely regretfully away to stuffy cities and inone."

physical. It is disciplinary in a fine different humanity.




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