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statements of the things they really liked. Here are a few samples:

"The pictures I like best are those which scare you," "Good sensible pictures where people are very poor and grow rich," "Guns and police wagons, because people are all sad and excited," "Travels with Burton Holmes," “Mystery, but not too deep," "Lots of fighting when men are brave and fight for a girl," "Good books like 'Pollyanna,'” “How things are made, pictures of fisheries, etc., and good Western scenery,” “Educational pictures like The Lincoln Highwayman."

Mrs. Moulton sounds a hopeful note when she says: "The publicity given to surveys and discussions on this subject are arousing both parents and teachers to the vital need of improvement in the films on which boys and girls spend their leisure time."

Buda and Pest and the improvement of navigation on the river Danube. To go back another generation, we find that a Count Széchényi rode with Rákóczy in the revolt against the Hapsburg dynasty in the eighteenth century.

Count Laszló Széchényi is well known in this country because of his frequent visits here. His wife is an American, Gladys Vanderbilt. He has already presented to the President his credentials, issued by the Governor of Hungary, Admiral Nicholas Horthy, and is thus in regular standing here as Minister from Hungary. He is the more satisfactory as Minister, for no other Hungarian, we believe, has had so large an opportunity to acquaint himself with conditions in America as they affect his native country.

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Te record with sorrow the sudden (C) Harris & Ewing T the recent meeting of the Society

and unexpected death after an COUNT LASZLO SZECHENYI, HUNGARIAN of American Friends of Musicians MINISTER TO THE UNITED STATES

operation for appendicitis of Miss Me

lanie Bauer, for twenty-two years a in France, an organization founded to help French musicians in distress dur

years to maintain his corps of excellent member of the stenographic staff of The

teachers, who give instruction in piano, Outlook. During the latter half of that ing the war, Mr. Walter Damrosch, the president, reported that, for this pur

violin, and singing to about three hun- period she performed important secrepose, the Society had sent over more

dred boys and girls. The influence of tarial work in the editorial rooms. Her

this school has been notáble, not only At present the

faithfulness, carefulness, cheerfulness, than 800,000 francs.

on the musical instruction but on the and loyalty were a great aid to those Society is devoting its energies towards helping two funds, the Fontainebleau

morale of the children, and indeed on who are charged with the responsibility

that of the whole community, which of the editorial supervision of The Music School Fund and the Rheims

still lives amid desolation and horrors Outlook, and both her presence and her Municipal Music School Fund. The first fund is being used for the

and sees only very gradual reconstruc- efficient help will be sorely missed. In

tion. enrollment of the hundred American

The Society hopes to help the speaking of her to a fellow-member of

Rheims School and its private donors to the staff her mother referred to her as students for whom France founded the Summer School of Music last year. The

rebuild its former home, and for the "a dutiful person.” “Dutiful"-a fine French Government donated to it an en

purpose the municipality has given a word sometimes forgotten in these days tire wing of the palace of Fontainebleau.

site opposite the Public Library, do- of national and social readjustment. The School is under the protection of

nated by the Carnegie Foundation. Duty was not irksome to Melanie Bauer the French Ministry of Fine Arts and

it was a pleasure; and she has left the Society of American Friends of THE REAL END OF THE WAR the impress of that truth upon her cir

cle of friends and associates—a valuable Musicians in France. For the first time THE Hungarian Parliament having ap

and grateful legacy. in history a nation has founded a school exclusively for the citizens of another the United States and the Kingdom of friendly nation. Vive la France! Hungary, ratifications have been ex

A BASIC INDUSTRY The Rheims fund is devoted to the changed and President Harding has maintenance of the Municipal Music issued a proclamation declaring an end GRICULTURE is not only the School in that city, practically com- to the state of war. This is the final

largest industry in this country; pletely ruined by German shells. Before act in ending the conflict between the

it is the basic industry; for food, the war the School had been under the United States and the Central Powers. and cotton and wool for clothes, come direction of M. Hansen, a distinguished The Treaty is the third and final in- before furniture, automobiles, or even French musician and pedagogue. As ternational compact entered into by us movies. It is because the representasoon as the Rheims families again ar- since last July with the Central Powers. tives in Congress of the farmers hold rived in the city and rebuilding of their Now that the three treaties have that general prosperity depends upon homes began he courageously opened been ratified, diplomatic appointments agricultural prosperity that they break the school, although its building had are in order. Hungary has been alert party lines to urge legislation that shall heen entirely demolished by the German in the matter, and has appointed as her give the farmers (who together make up shells and the lessons had to be given representative here Count Laszló Szé- the greatest single industry) equal ecoin the evening (and are still being chényi, son of the late Austro-Hungarian nomic and financial opportunities with given.) at the grammar school building, Ambassador to Berlin and grandnephew men of other industries. which during the day is occupied by of the Hungarian statesman who was a This is the theme of the article on its own pu But it is because of the member of Kossuth's Ministry in 1848. "The Agricultural Bloc" by Senator gifts from the Society of American To the exertions of this Count Széchényi Capper, of Kansas, which appears in Friends of Musicians in France that M. were due the erection of the great sus- this issue of The Outlook. It will do a llansen has been able for the past three pension bridge between the cities of great deal to dispel misapprehension.

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in action," and so on) filled him with astonishment and dismay." What could have been his feeling, then, when he learned that it was only Colonel House's strenuous efforts that prevented our State Department from sending to Great Britain a note which would have been almost equivalent to a declaration of war between the United States and Great Britain? The witness in the case is Colonel House himself, who, in a let. ter to Mr. Page dated October 3, 1914, said:

Sir Cecil [the British Ambassador to the United States, Sir Cecil Spring-Rice] told me that if the dispatch had gone to you as written and you had shown it to Sir Edward Grey, it would almost have been a declaration of war; and that if, by any chance, the newspapers had got hold of it, as they so often get things from our State Department, the greatest panic would have prevailed. He said it would have been the Venezuela incident magnified by present conditions.


Whatever may be said as to exact reme- torious opposition party, is quite out of
dies proposed, the author of the article our political probabilities—and would
makes it clear that the term bloc (novel probably be injurious even if it were
in use in this country and used abroad practical.
to describe something quite different The measures proposed in Congress
from what we now see in Congress) is for farmers' protection or relief should
not a factional or partisan thing. Nor be considered, therefore, with relation to
is it a revival of wild Populist ideas, their soundness and justice. There is
much less an imitation of Russian reason to fear that they portend
Sovietism. Political conservatives are political or social revolution.
common in the bloc. Senator Capper
asserts that it is farthest from the
thoughts of any of the men in the bloc

A GREAT AMERICAN that ultimately there should be "instead

AMBASSADOR of Representatives and Senators from the several States, Representatives and

E have already referred to the Senators from steel, and from coal, and

articles relating to "The Life from railways, and from oil, and from

and Letters of Walter H. Page" agriculture, as appears to be the hope which have been appearing in the of the radical writers."

"World's Work.” The chapter published In former political combinations re- in the January issue of that periodical lating to industry, such as the one that "Pig Iron Kelly" once headed, there has been danger from grasping special interests in the sense of small combinations of large capitalists. But agriculture is a predominating, not a special, interest, and its "capitalists" are simple farmers counted by millions.

One sentence in Senator Capper's article is especially illuminating. He says that the term "agricultural bloc" describes a movement rather than a group. He means, we take it, that it is neither a bipartisan combination nor new political party.

This will reassure those who fear that the farmers' united action represents a tendency toward government by the is extraordinary in more ways than one. combination of groups rather than by It brings to light, or at least brings into the two-party political system. The clear light, facts about English and shifting of political balance of power boy American relations in the war not herethe frequent coalition and breaking up tofore fully understood; it brings out of political groups has long had a domi- strongly the personal character and the nant influence in France and Germany; deep patriotism of the American Ambasand of late in Great Britain, what with sador and of the English Foreign Secrethe Labor party and the shifting about tary; it contains two or three stories of inside the present Coalition Government diplomacy that are intensely amusing. on such questions as Ireland and foreign Americans recognized Walter Page's policies, there has been a tendency ability long ago, but so great was his toward group government.

modesty and reserve that few · people The group system sometimes in- realize fully what a service he did in the creases political flexibility, but it lessens war. So as to Sir Edward (now Viscount) responsibility and executive efficiency. Grey; the incidents in this article deThe idea is not consonant with Ameri. scribe his forbearance and his abstencan government under our written Con- tion from passion or iritability when he stitution. France may have, and has might well have been vexed and angry. had, a Socialist Premier when the We are even told that "the time came Socialist party had no parliamentary when a section of the British public was majority. With us there can be no prepared almost to stone the Foreign premier; really the President is premier Secretary in the streets of London, beas well as the fixed executive head. cause they believed that his 'subservi. Congress, to be sure, may change its ence' to American trade interests was political complexion within a Presi- losing the war for Great Britain.". dent's term, but our plan of checks and Mr. Page at the outbreak of war acbaļances rests chiefly on the Presiden. cepted the President's neutrality proclatial elections. A combination of politi- mation as right and proper; but "the cal groups in Congress, constantly seek- President's famous emendations (“We ing such alliances as would make a vic- must be impartial in thought as well as




We all remember the time when feeling was strong in this country as to the seizure or detention by England of neutral ships bound to neutral countries but carrying goods which were either contraband or very close to contraband, goods the ultimate destination of which was undoubtedly Germany. There was danger that the situation of 1812 should arise again. Great Britain might as well have given up hopes of escaping German domination if she did not stop raw material from getting to Germany. The enormous and unnatural amount of exports that were going to countries bordering on Germany proved that these things (such as cotton, to be made into guncotton, copper for shells, rubber for military purposes, and so on) did, in fact, get into Germany.

Our Ambassador, Mr. Page, and Sir Edward Grey were straining every effort to prevent friction between the United States and England. Just then Mr. Bryan, with his usual tactfulness, thought it was a good time to force upon Great Britain the acceptance of the Declaration of London. England had never ratified it, nor any other nation except the United States. Its acceptance entire would have ruined England. If the note prepared in the State Department above referred to had gone through, it would have been practically a demand from America to England that she should throw away every chance of winning the war. Page wrote House that he would resign if Lansing pressed the Declaration again after four flat rejections by England.

Meanwhile, England was treating the neutrals whose property was involved with the utmost fairness and paying big prices for everything taken. Mr. Page,


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in a letter to Colonel House, says, "We can get damages without a quarrel; or we can have a quarrel and probably get damages. Now, why in God's name should we provoke a quarrel?”

Later, when feeling ran still higher, came up the Dacia case. The ship was under American registry, but she was filled with cotton meant for Germany.. It was known that the Dacia would be seized if she sailed for a cerman port. This was the amusing outcome:

When matters had reached this pass Page one day dropped into the Foreign Office.

VISCOUNT GREY "Have you ever heard of the British fleet, Sir Edward?" he asked. Grey admitted that he had, tho

they thought that they are still talking the question obviously puzzled him. to George III!”

“Yes," Page went on musingly, The whole story of Walter Page's "we've all heard of the British fleet.

dealings with Sir Edward Grey is one Perhaps we have heard too much about it. Don't you think it's had too

that should make every American proud much advertising?"

of such representation at one of the The Foreign Secretary looked at most critical diplomatic periods of our Page with an expression that implied

history. a lack of confidence in his sanity.

"But have you ever heard of the French fleet ?" the American went on. "France has a fleet, too, I believe."

POPE BENEDICT XV Sir Edward granted that. "Don't you think that the French

HEN the great World War broke fleet ought to have a little advertis

upon startled Europe, there ing?"

were only two courses between “What on earth are you talking

which the Roman Catholic Church about?"

might choose. "Well," said Page, “there's the

It might perceive the Dacia. Why not let the French fleet cause and comprehend the meaning of seize it and get some advertising?" the war, it might see in it a new phase A gleam of understanding imme

of the perpetual conflict between an undiately shot across Grey's face.

scrupulous militarism and human rights, "Yes," he said, "why not let the Belgian royal yacht seize it?"

it might resent with indignation the reThis suggestion from Page was one pudiation by a great military nation of of the great inspirations of the war.

its solemn pledge by the invasion of BelIt amounted to little less than genius.

gium, and condemn with eloquent wrath So, instead of a British cruiser, a the repudiation of the moral law as well French cruiser seized the Dacia. She as of civilized warfare in the barbarism was promptly condemned by a French with which the invasion of France and prize court and “there was not even a Belgium was carried on. Or it might ripple of hostility."

hold itself aloof from a conflict in which The relations between Sir Edward German and Austrian Catholics were Grey and our Ambassador were friendly arrayed against French and Belgian and even amusing, although each was Catholics, hold its peace, and wait for doing his best for his own country's the war to come to its inevitable close advantage. One day Page was in Grey's and then exercise its good offices in an office and he .noticed on the wall the endeavor to bring about such a peace as canceled fifteen-million-dollar check with might issue eventually in an era of inwhich Great Britain paid the Alabama ternational good will. If the Roman claims. The British are proud of the Catholic Church had pursued the first of check-first, because they are good these courses and had succeeded where sports; second, because the settlement success was certainly doubtful and perby arbitration of the Alabama claims haps impossible, it would have saved was a great advance in international millions of lives, thousands of desolated peace relations. Page and Grey were and devastated homes, prevented the indiscussing this matter of the detention citement of vengeful national passions of the American cargoes when Page had which will outlast the century, and not a sudden idea; he pointed to the Ala impossibly have changed the history of bama check and said, "If you don't stop the world. these seizures, Sir Edward, some day But if the Protestant student of curyou will have your entire room papered rent history is inclined to lament the with notes like that!” Sir Edward later fact that Cardinal Mercier did not oc"got back" by remarking, after he had cupy the throne of Benedict XV, and read one of Mr. Bryan's rasping, un. that a spirit of self-sacrificing, heroic diplomatic notes, “This reads as though courage did not animate the Vatican

instead of the spirit of self-preserving caution, he must remember three facts. Cardinal Mercier in Belgium throughout his brilliant and never-to-be-forgotten duel with the German military authori. ties was supported by a united State and a united Church within that State. His priests were not less brave than their brave leader and as ready for selfsacrifice as he. But Pope Benedict XV had neither a united Church nor united State behind him. Italy was divided in sentiment for months after the war opened. It may be safely assumed that the Italian Church was equally divided, and it is by no means certain whether a Papal denunciation of the criminal course of the Central Powers would have strengthened or weakened the war party in Italy. The critic must also remember that any such condemnation of the crimes which eventually united almost the entire civilized world against the national criminals would almost certainly have rent the Roman Catholic Church in twain. Its strongest support in Europe was Austria; its next strongest support was southern Germany. Both Austria and Germany would have remained Catholic, but not Roman Catholic. And no Treaty of Versailles could have united the dissevered Church when the war came to an end. It must also be remembered that every one of us is limited in his powers by his temperament. Pope Benedict XV was temperamentally a harmonizer, not a fighter. If the compromising Pope and the uncompromising Cardinal could have changed places, it is certain that the Pope could not have done what Cardinal Mercier did in Belgium and it is not certain that Cardinal Mercier could have done what the Pope did in Rome. The latter appeared to sacrifice something of the moral power of the Church in order to hold it together; but it is doubtful whether he could have held it together if he had ventured to make full use of its moral power.

Whatever idealists may think upon this question, only a limited and decreasing number of irreconcilables can fail to see in current events some facts to be passed to the credit of the Pope's pacific temper. There is, I think, very little doubt that his influence has been exerted to assuage the anti-English passion of the Irish and make possible the treaty of peace between England and, Ireland. The Vatican knows how to keep its secrets, and what its influence has been during the recent pontificate is a matter of surmise, not of public record; but it cannot be doubted that the growth of friendly relations between the Church and the State in Italy is not a little due to the friendly spirit of

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Benedict XV carrying forward the pa- terness of hostility which formerly ex-
cific policy of his immediate predeces- isted has to a considerable degree
sor. That the Roman Catholic Church abated, and for this a due measure of
will ever recognize any clergy as legiti- praise is due to the kindly spirit of
mately ordained except its own I think Benedict XV.
highly improbable. I do not see how it Our readers will know who has been
can consistently do so. But the esteem elected Benedict's successor soon after
and respect for the late Pope and the this editorial reaches them. I venture
sympathy for the bereaved Church of to express the hope that the College of
which he was the head expressed in Cardinals will have the wisdom to elect
public utterances by both Protestants as the Pope's successor an ecclesiastic
and Jews indicate at least that the bit- of a like spirit and committed to a con-

tinuance of a like policy. The world has many lessons to learn, but none of more immediate importance than how to secure and maintain justice and liberty by peaceful measures and reasonable compromises. In teaching that lesson all branches of the Christian Church can exert a commanding influence, and no branch of that Church a greater influence than the Roman Catholic communion.




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IACOMO, Giacomo, Giacomo,"
cried Cardinal Gasparri early

in the morning of January 22 as he waved a silver wand over the lifeless form of Giacomo della Chiesa, Benedict XV, Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church. There was a moment of silence, and then the Cardinal proclaimed, Papa noster mortuus est."

The Pope had died an hour or two before. He was only sixty-seven years old -an early age to mark the death of a Roman pontiff. His life had doubtless been shortened by the strain of the recent war.

Benedict XV was born at Pegli, a suburb six miles north of Genoa-visitors are attracted to Pegli because of the wonderful Pallavicini gardens there. Giacomo's father was the Marquis della Chiesa. The boy was undersized and sickly, but had great mental power. He was educated for the priesthood, and shortly after entering it Monsignor, later Cardinal, Rampolla, Nuncio in Spain, engaged him as secretary. As Rampolla became one of the most remarkable ecclesiastical statesmen of his time, the secretary had exceptional training and made good use of it. He became Archbishop of Bologna, and in 1914 Cardinal. Four months later he was chosen Pope, a remarkable promotion. He had not been regarded as among the papabili—those likely to be elected. Neither had his immediate predecessors. They all fulfilled the say. ing, "He who enters the Conclave a prospective Pope emerges therefrom still

International a cardinal." Moreover, Benedict was

BENEDICT XV only sixty years old, one of the youngest pontiffs of recent times.

Hebrew" said: “There is no statement ter of the seats in the Chamber of DepuAs may be gathered from his associa- that equals this direct unmistakable plea ties and has three Ministers in the Cabi. tion with Rampolla, the new Pope rep- for equality for the Jews and against net. The Vatican and the Quirinal are resented a reversion to the statesman prejudice upon religious grounds." Bene- becoming reconciled. This is Benedict type of Leo XIII rather than to the dict also reconciled France with the XV's greatest accomplishment. Hence, spiritual type of Leo's successor, Pius X. Vatican, and there is now a resumption for the first time in the history of modWhile Benedict had not Leo XIII's brill- of diplomatic relations; he even induced ern Italy, the Italian Government oriancy and shrewdness, he well under- England to resume such relations. He dained that, in honor of a dead Pope, stood the tendencies of the time and removed the Papal order forbidding flags should be half-masted on all public attempted to put the Church in line with Catholic kings and rulers to visit the buildings, amusement places closed, and them.

King of Italy, and, opposing Pius IX's two days' mourning observed. His liberal statesmanship is evidenced policy, allowed the faithful to take their by the fact that early in his pontificate part in the Italian Government, legisla- On the Pope's death, Cardinal Gasthe Pope issued a rescript concerning tive and executive. The Catholic party, parri, Papal Secretary of State, directed the Jews about which the "American the so-called “Popolari," now has a quar- the Dean of the Sacred College of Car

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