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statements of the things they really liked. Here are a few samples:
"The pictures I like best are those which scare you," "Good sensible pictures where people are very poor and grow rich," "Guns and police wagons, because people are all sad and excited," "Travels with Burton Holmes," "Mystery, but not too deep," "Lots of fighting when men are brave and fight for a girl," “Good books like 'Pollyanna,'" "How things are made, pictures of fisheries, etc., and good Western scenery," "Educational pictures like The Lincoln Highwayman."
Buda and Pest and the improvement of navigation on the river Danube. To go back another generation, we find that a Count Széchényi rode with Rákóczy in the revolt against the Hapsburg dynasty in the eighteenth century.
Count Laszló Széchényi is well known in this country because of his frequent visits here. His wife is an American, Gladys Vanderbilt. He has already presented to the President his credentials, issued by the Governor of Hungary, Admiral Nicholas Horthy, and is thus in regular standing here as Minister from Hungary. He is the more satisfactory as Minister, for no other Hungarian, we believe, has had so large an opportunity to acquaint himself with conditions in America as they affect his native country.
Mrs. Moulton sounds a hopeful note when she says: "The publicity given to surveys and discussions on this subject are arousing both parents and teachers to the vital need of improvement in the films on which boys and girls spend their leisure time."
IVE record with sorrow the sudden (C) Harris & Ewing
W and unexpected death after an At the recent meeting of the Society COUNT LASZLO SZECHENYI, HUNGARIAN A of American Friends of Musicians MINISTER TO THE UNITED STATES
operation for appendicitis of Miss Me
lanie Bauer, for twenty-two years a in France, an organization founded to help French musicians in distress dur
years to maintain his corps of excellent member of the stenographic staff of The ing the war, Mr. Walter Damrosch, the
teachers, who give instruction in piano, Outlook. During the latter half of that president, reported that, for this pur.
violin, and singing to about three hun period she performed important secrepose, the Society had sent over more
dred boys and girls. The influence of tarial work in the editorial rooms. Her than 800,000 francs. At present the
this school has been notable, not only faithfulness, carefulness, cheerfulness,
on the musical instruction but on the and loyalty were a great aid to those Society is devoting its energies towards
morale of the children, and indeed on who are charged with the responsibility helping two funds, the Fontainebleau
that of the whole community, which of the editorial supervision of The Music School Fund and the Rheims
still lives amid desolation and horrors Municipal Music School Fund.
Outlook, and both her presence and her and sees only very gradual reconstruc- efficient help will be sorely missed. In The first fund is being used for the
tion. The Society hopes to help the speaking of her to a fellow-member of enrollment of the hundred American students for whom France founded the
Rheims School and its private donors to the staff her mother referred to her as
rebuild its former home, and for the "a dutiful person." "Dutiful”—a fine Summer School of Music last year. The French Government donated to it an en
purpose the municipality has given a word sometimes forgotten in these days tire wing of the palace of Fontainebleau. site opposite the Public Library, do of national and social readjustment.
Duty was not irksome to Melanie Bauer The School is under the protection of nated by the Carnegie Foundation. the French Ministry of Fine Arts and
-it was a pleasure; and she has left
the impress of that truth upon her cirthe Society of American Friends of THE REAL END OF THE WAR Musicians in France. For the first time The Hungarian Parliament having ap
cle of friends and associates—a valuable
and grateful legacy. in history a nation has founded a school 1 proved the Treaty of Peace between exclusively for the citizens of another the United States and the Kingdom of friendly nation. Vive la France! Hungary, ratifications have been ex
A BASIC INDUSTRY The Rheims fund is devoted to the changed and President Harding has maintenance of the Municipal Music issued a proclamation declaring an end . GRICULTURE is not only the School in that city, practically com- to the state of war. This is the final
largest industry in this country; pletely ruined by German shells. Before act in ending the conflict between the 11 it is the basic industry; for food, the war the School had been under the United States and the Central Powers and cotton and wool for clothes, come direction of M. Hansen, a distinguished The Treaty is the third and final in before furniture, automobiles, or even French musician and pedagogue. As ternational compact entered into by us movies. It is because the representasoon as the Rheims families again ar- since last July with the Central Powers. tives in Congress of the farmers hold rived in the city and rebuilding of their Now that the three treaties have that general prosperity depends upon homes began he courageously opened been ratified, diplomatic appointments agricultural prosperity that they break the school, although its building had are in order. Hungary has been alert party lines to urge legislation that shall been entirely demolished by the German in the matter, and has appointed as her give the farmers (who together make up shells and the lessons had to be given representative here Count Laszló Szé- the greatest single industry) equal ecoin the evening (and are still being chényi, son of the late Austro-Hungarian nomic and financial opportunities with given.) at the grammar school building, Ambassador to Berlin and grandnephew men of other industries. which during the day is occupied by of the Hungarian statesman who was a This is the theme of the article on its own pupils. But it is because of the member of Kossuth's Ministry in 1848. “The Agricultural Bloc" by Senator gifts from the Society of American To the exertions of this Count Széchényi Capper, of Kansas, which appears in Friends of Musicians in France that M. were due the erection of the great sus- this issue of The Outlook. It will do a llansen has been able for the past three pension bridge between the cities of great deal to dispel misapprehension. Whatever may be said as to exact reme- torious opposition party, is quite out of in action," and so on) filled him with dies proposed, the author of the article our political probabilities—and would astonishment and dismay." What could makes it clear that the term bloc (novel probably be injurious even if it were have been his feeling, then, when he in use in this country and used abroad practical.
learned that it was only Colonel House's to describe something quite different The measures proposed in Congress strenuous efforts that prevented our from what we now see in Congress) is for farmers' protection or relief should State Department from sending to Great not a factional or partisan thing. Norbe considered, therefore, with relation to Britain a note which would have been is it a revival of wild Populist ideas, their soundness and justice. There is almost equivalent to a declaration of much less an imitation of Russian no reason to fear that they portend war between the United States and Sovietism. Political conservatives are political or social revolution.
Great Britain? The witness in the case common in the bloc. Senator Capper
is Colonel House himself, who, in a letasserts that it is farthest from the
ter to Mr. Page dated October 3, 1914, thoughts of any of the men in the bloc
A GREAT AMERICAN
said: that ultimately there should be "instead
Sir Cecil [the British Ambassador of Representatives and Senators from
to the United States, Sir Cecil the several States, Representatives and TVTE have already referred to the Spring-Rice] told me that if the disSenators from steel, and from coal, and
patch had gone to you as written and articles relating to "The Life
you had shown it to Sir Edward Grey, from railways, and from oil, and from
and Letters of Walter H. Page"
it would almost have been a declaraagriculture, as appears to be the hope which have been appearing in the tion of war; and that if, by any of the radical writers." "World's Work.” The chapter published chance, the newspapers had got hold
of it, as they so often get things from In former political combinations re- in the January issue of that periodical
our State Department, the greatest lating to industry, such as the one that
panic would have prevailed. He said “Pig Iron Kelly" once headed, there has
it would have been the Venezuela inbeen danger from grasping special inter
cident magnified by present condi
tions. ests in the sense of small combinations of large capitalists. But agriculture is
We all remember the time when feela predominating, not a special, interest,
ing was strong in this country as to the and its "capitalists" are simple farmers
seizure or detention by England of neucounted by millions.
tral ships bound to neutral countries One sentence in Senator Capper's arti
but carrying goods which were either cle is especially illuminating. He says
contraband or very close to contraband, that the term "agricultural bloc" de
goods the ultimate destination of which scribes a movement rather than a group.
was undoubtedly Germany. There was He means, we take it, that it is neither
danger that the situation of 1812 should a bipartisan combination nor a new
arise again. Great Britain might as political party.
well have given up hopes of escaping This will reassure those who fear that
WALTER H. PAGE
German domination if she did not stop the farmers' united action represents a
raw material from getting to Germany. tendency toward government by the is extraordinary in more ways than one. The enormous and unnatural amount of combination of groups rather than by It brings to light, or at least brings into exports that were going to countries the two-party political system. The clear light, facts about English and bordering on Germany proved that these shifting of political balance of power bay American relations in the war not here- things (such as cotton, to be made into the frequent coalition and breaking up tofore fully understood; it brings outguncotton, copper for shells, rubber for of political groups has long had a domi- strongly the personal character and the military purposes, and so on) did, in nant influence in France and Germany; deep patriotism of the American Ambas- fact, get into Germany. and of late in Great Britain, what with sador and of the English Foreign Secre Our Ambassador, Mr. Page, and Sir the Labor party and the shifting about tary; it contains two or three stories of Edward Grey were straining every effort inside the present Coalition Government diplomacy that are intensely amusing to prevent friction between the United on such questions as Ireland and foreign Americans recognized Walter Page's States and England. Just then Mr. policies, there has been a tendency ability long ago, but so great was his Bryan, with his usual tactfulness, toward group government.
modesty and reserve that few people thought it was a good time to force upon The group system sometimes in realize fully what a service he did in the Great Britain the acceptance of the creases political flexibility, but it lessens war. So as to Sir Edward (now Viscount) Declaration of London. England had responsibility and executive efficiency. Grey; the incidents in this article de- never ratified it, nor any other nation The idea is not consonant with Ameri. scribe his forbearance and his absten- except the United States. Its acceptcan government under our written Con- tion from passion or iritability when he ance entire would have ruined England, stitution. France may have, and has might well have been vexed and angry. If the note prepared in the State Departhad, a Socialist Premier when the We are even told that "the time came ment above referred to had gone Socialist party had no parliamentary when a section of the British public was through, it would have been practically majority. With us there can be no prepared almost to stone the Foreign a demand from America to England premier; really the President is premier Secretary in the streets of London, be- that she should throw away every as well as the fixed executive head. cause they believed that his 'subservi. chance of winning the war. Page wrote Congress, to be sure, may change its ence' to American trade interests was House that he would resign if Lansing political complexion within a Presi- losing the war for Great Britain." .. pressed the Declaration again after four dent's term, but our plan of checks and Mr. Page at the outbreak of war ac- flat rejections by England. balances rests chiefly on the Presiden- cepted the President's neutrality procla- . Meanwhile, England was treating the tial elections. A combination of politi- mation as right and proper; but “the neutrals whose property was involved cal groups in Congress, constantly seek President's famous emendations (“We with the utmost fairness and paying big ing such alliances as would make a vic- must be impartial in thought as well as prices for everything taken. Mr. Page,
in a letter to Colonel House, says, “We
instead of the spirit of self-preserving can get damages without a quarrel; or
caution, he must remember three facts. we can have a quarrel and probably get
Cardinal Mercier in Belgium throughout damages. Now, why in God's name
his brilliant and never-to-be-forgotten should we provoke a quarrel?”
duel with the German military authoriLater, when feeling ran still higher,
ties was supported by a united State came up the Dacia case. The ship was
and a united Church within that State. under American registry, but she was
His priests were not less brave than filled with cotton meant for Germany.
their brave leader and as ready for selfIt was known that the Dacia would be
sacrifice as he. But Pope Benedict XV seized if she sailed for a German port.
had neither a united Church nor a This was the amusing outcome:
united State behind him. Italy was
divided in sentiment for months after When matters had reached this pass Page one day dropped into the
the war opened. It may be safely asForeign Office.
sumed that the Italian Church was
VISCOUNT GREY "Have you ever heard of the Brit
equally divided, and it is by no means ish fleet, Sir Edward?" he asked.
they thought that they are still talking certain whether a Papal denunciation of Grey admitted that he had, though the question obviously puzzled him. to George III!”
the criminal course of the Central Pow"Yes," Page went on musingly, The whole story of Walter Page's ers would have strengthened or weak"we've all heard of the British fleet.
dealings with Sir Edward Grey is one ened the war party in Italy. The critic Perhaps we have heard too much
that should make every American proud must also remember that any such conabout it. Don't you think it's had too much advertising?"
of such representation at one of the demnation of the crimes which evenThe Foreign Secretary looked at most critical diplomatic periods of our tually united almost the entire civilized Page with an expression that implied history.
world against the national criminals a lack of confidence in his sanity. "But have you ever heard of the
would almost certainly have rent the French fleet ?" the American went on.
Roman Catholic Church in twain. Its POPE BENEDICT XV "France has a fleet, too, I believe."
strongest support in Europe was AusSir Edward granted that.
TV THEN the great World War broke · tria; its next strongest support was "Don't you think that the French fleet ought to have a little advertis
upon startled Europe, there southern Germany. Both Austria and ing?"
were only two courses between Germany would have remained Catholic, “What on earth are you talking which the Roman Catholic Church but not Roman Catholic. And no Treaty about?"
It might perceive the "Well,” said might choose.
of Versailles could have united the disPage, “there's the Dacia. Why not let the French fleet cause and comprehend the meaning of severed Church when the war came to seize it and get some advertising?" the war, it might see in it a new phase an end. It must also be remembered A gleam of understanding imme
of the perpetual conflict between an un- that every one of us is limited in his diately shot across Grey's face.
scrupulous militarism and human rights, powers by his temperament. Pope Bene"Yes," he said, "why not let the Belgian royal yacht seize it?"
it might resent with indignation the re- dict XV was temperamentally a harThis suggestion from Page was one pudiation by a great military nation of monizer, not a fighter. If the comproof the great inspirations of the war.
its solemn pledge by the invasion of Bel- mising Pope and the uncompromising It amounted to little less than genius.
gium, and condemn with eloquent wrath Cardinal could have changed places, it So, instead of a British cruiser, a the repudiation of the moral law as well is certain that the Pope could not have French cruiser seized the Dacia. She as of civilized warfare in the barbarism done what Cardinal Mercier did in Belwas promptly condemned by a French with which the invasion of France and gium and it is not certain that Cardinal prize court and “there was not even a Belgium was carried on. Or it might Mercier could have done what the Pope ripple of hostility."
hold itself aloof from a conflict in which did in Rome. The latter appeared to The relations between Sir Edward German and Austrian Catholics were sacrifice something of the moral power Grey and our Ambassador were friendly arrayed against French and Belgian of the Church in order to hold it toand even amusing, although each was Catholics, hold its peace, and wait for gether; but it is doubtful whether he doing his best for his own country's the war to come to its inevitable close could have held it together if he had advantage. One day Page was in Grey's and then exercise its good offices in an ventured to make full use of its moral office and he 'noticed on the wall the endeavor to bring about such a peace as power. canceled fifteen-million-dollar check with might issue eventually in an era of in- Whatever idealists may think upon which Great Britain paid the Alabama ternational good will. If the Roman this question, only a limited and declaims. The British are proud of the Catholic Church had pursued the first of creasing number of irreconcilables can check--first, because they are good these courses and had succeeded where fail to see in current events some facts sports; second, because the settlement success was certainly doubtful and per- to be passed to the credit of the Pope's by arbitration of the Alabama claims haps impossible, it would have saved pacific temper. There is, I think, very was a great advance in international millions of lives, thousands of desolated little doubt that his influence has been peace relations. Page and Grey were and devastated homes, prevented the in- exerted to assuage the anti-English pasdiscussing this matter of the detention citement of vengeful national passions sion of the Irish and make possible the of the American cargoes when Page had which will outlast the century, and not treaty of peace between England and a sudden idea; he pointed to the Ala impossibly have changed the history of Ireland. The Vatican knows how to bama check and said, "If you don't stop the world.
keep its secrets, and what its influence these seizures, Sir Edward, some day But if the Protestant student of cur- has been during the recent pontificate you will have your entire room papered rent history is inclined to lament the is a matter of surmise, not of public with notes like that!” Sir Edward later fact that Cardinal Mercier did not oc- record; but it cannot be doubted that "got back” by remarking, after he had cupy the throne of Benedict XV, and the growth of friendly relations between read one of Mr. Bryan's rasping, un that a spirit of self-sacrificing, heroic the Church and the State in Italy is not diplomatic notes, "This reads as though courage did not animate the Vatican a little due to the friendly spirit of Benedict XV carrying forward the pa- terness of hostility which formerly ex- tinuance of a like policy. The world cific policy of his immediate predeces- isted has to a considerable degree has many lessons to learn, but none of sor. That the Roman Catholic Church abated, and for this a due measure of more immediate importance than how will ever recognize any clergy as legiti- praise is due to the kindly spirit of to secure and maintain justice and libmately ordained except its own I think Benedict XV.
erty by peaceful measures and reasonhighly improbable. I do not see how it Our readers will know who has been able compromises. In teaching that can consistently do so. But the esteem elected Benedict's successor soon after lesson all branches of the Christian and respect for the late Pope and the this editorial reaches them. I venture Church can exert a commanding influsympathy for the bereaved Church of to express the hope that the College of ence, and no branch of that Church a which he was the head expressed in Cardinals will have the wisdom to elect greater influence than the Roman Cathopublic utterances by both Protestants as the Pope's successor an ecclesiastic lic communion. and Jews indicate at least that the bit of a like spirit and committed to a con
THE POPE DIES AND HIS MANTLE FALLS
66 IACOMO, Giacomo, Giacomo," I cried Cardinal Gasparri early
in the morning of January 22 as he waved a silver wand over the lifeless form of Giacomo della Chiesa, Benedict XV, Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church. There was a moment of silence, and then the Cardinal proclaimed, “Papa noster mortuus est."
The Pope had died an hour or two before. He was only sixty-seven years old -an early age to mark the death of a Roman pontiff. His life had doubtless been shortened by the strain of the recent war.
Benedict XV was born at Pegli, a suburb six miles north of Genoa-visitors are attracted to Pegli because of the wonderful Pallavicini gardens there. Giacomo's father was the Marquis della Chiesa. The boy was undersized and sickly, but had great mental power. He was educated for the priesthood, and shortly after entering it Monsignor, later Cardinal, Rampolla, Nuncio in Spain, engaged him as secretary. As Rampolla became one of the most remarkable ecclesiastical statesmen of his time, the secretary had exceptional training and made good use of it. He became Archbishop of Bologna, and in 1914 Cardinal. Four months later he was chosen Pope, a remarkable promotion. He had not been regarded as among the papabili—those likely to be elected. Neither had his immediate predecessors. They all fulfilled the say. ing, "He who enters the Conclave a prospective Pope emerges therefrom still a cardinal.” Moreover, Benedict was only sixty years old, one of the youngest pontiffs of recent times.
As may be gathered from his association with Rampolla, the new Pope represented a reversion to the statesman type of Leo XIII rather than to the spiritual type of Leo's successor, Pius X. While Benedict had not Leo XIII's brilliancy and shrewdness, he well under stood the tendencies of the time and attempted to put the Church in line with them.
His liberal statesmanship is evidenced by the fact that early in his pontificate the Pope issued a rescript concerning the Jews about which the "American
Hebrew" said: “There is no statement ter of the seats in the Chamber of Depu-