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dinals to summon them to the Vatican since the election of Urban VI (1378) formula: "Testor Christum dominum for two purposes: first, to observe the no one, we believe, but a cardinal has qui me judicaturus est, me eligere quem Novendial, or the nine-day mourning been elected.
secundum Deum judico elegi debere"and obsequies after the death of a Pope; The full number of cardinals is ser- that is to say, "I call to witness the and, second, on the tenth day, to be enty. Actually there are only sixty; Lord Christ, who will be my judge, that present at the beginning of the Conclave of them, thirty-one are Italians. But I am electing the one who, according of Cardinals for the election of a new the Sacred College when it meets in con- to God, I think ought to be elected." Pope. This election is always a solemn clave is rarely, if ever, complete. Espe. The ballots are cast. In the corner and vitally important affair, for the cially is this true in these days when of the Chapel is a small stove in which Roman Catholic Church, the greatest cardinals must come from the ends of they are afterwards burned. Straw is corporation in the world, is perhaps the the earth, while the Conclave must begin used to make the smoke from the chimonly one whose president has power to on the tenth day after the Pope's death. ney dense, and so a sign to those outside compel absolutely unquestioning obe. For the Conclave, part of the palace that a vote has been taken. If thick dience. The Church rules by its cardi. of the Vatican, including the Sistine smoke does not appear at the usual time nals, archbishops, bishops, priests, dea- Chapel, is walled off. From it all but for voting, the crowd outside assumes cons, and then through the laity. But cardinals, their secretaries and servants, that a Pope has been elected. The final all are subject to the direction of one are excluded. The door to the outer votes are burned like the rest, but no head. From his judgment there is no world is not opened except to admit straw is used in the burning, hence the appeal, because, according to the Ro- some cardinal late in arriving. The smoke is white. man Catholic view, the apostolic suc food is sent up from a kitchen below. A two-thirds vote is necessary to elect. cessor of St. Peter heads a church or In the election of a new Pope two bal. As soon as an election occurs the sucganization which has come directly from lots are taken every day in the Sistine cessful candidate announces his acceptChrist. Roman Catholics interpret liter Chapel. Cardinals are seated along the ance of the office and the cardinals then ally the words of Jesus: “Thou art walls. Before each seat is a table with conduct him to the altar, robe him in Peter, and upon this rock I will build paper, ink, pens, and a list of the mem- Papal garments, and do homage to him. my Church." The Pope is thus Christ's bers of the Sacred College. In the mid- The wall is torn down and a cardinal vicegerent.
dle of the Chapel, on a table, stand two announces the Papal election to the peoAnd yet any Roman Catholic of legal vases. In one of them the ballots are ple outside. age may aspire to the Papacy. Since the cast; in the other they are placed when When the present Conclave elects, it election of Adrian V (1276), however, counted. Each cardinal deposits his will have chosen the two hundred and no one not a priest has been elected, and ballot, repeating at the same time this sixtieth successor of St. Peter.
EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE FROM WASHINGTON
BY ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT
A s I approached the news-stand I Of course Administrations differ in this the assumption that in any dispute over
A saw that the newsman was talk- respect. Under President Roosevelt, the property rights between their nationals I1 ing across the counter to a cus- American Government took care to see in a foreign country and the nationals tomer; and when I caught his words he that American citizens in foreign lands or the government of that country, their was in the middle of a sentence:
were protected; but even then when own nationals are to be defended. This “... when I was in the Philippines. John Hay sent his famous telegram, has led to what has been termed "ecoAnd do you suppose the Government “We want Perdicaris alive or Raisuli nomic imperialism," and in certain would do anything to help me get home?dead," and thus secured the release of cases to the extension of political power Not on your life! And that was where an American citizen from captivity by over alien lands. the American flag flew. Just the same a Moroccan bandit, he called his mes. If all peoples of the world were in Shanghai. Just the same in Mexico. sage a “concise impropriety." Under equally civilized, the extreme American If you get into any difficulty don't ex- President Taft, Mr. Knox, as Secretary policy could with safety, and in fact pect to get any help from the American of State, followed a policy of supporting, with general benefit, be universally Consul. No, sir! No use to see him to some degree at least, the commercial adopted; but there are great areas of You go to the British Consul. Evening interests of Americans in China; but he the world in which the people are unStar'? Yes, sir; that's right. Two did not fare altogether well, and was civilized or in a primitive stage of civili. cents."
criticised by his own fellow-countrymen zation; and there are areas in which That, in the terms of one man's ex- for pursuing what was called "dollar the people, though possessing a highly perience, states fairly well the reputa diplomacy." Under President Wilson, developed civilization in some respects, tion which the American Government Mr. Bryan reversed that policy and fol. lack a stable or trustworthy government has for looking out for the welfare and lowed a course which was widely under- with which the governments of other interests of American citizens in foreign stood as virtually notifying all Ameri- peoples can deal or on which they can countries. There is a saying to this cans that if they set foot on foreign soil rely. It is because most of Asia which efect: "If you want information, call they did so at their own risk. No other is not colonized by Western Powers is on the German Consul; if you want pro- great country has ever had a policy like such a region that the nations now gathtection, call on the British Consul; if that. On the contrary, nations which ered at Washington are engaged in try. you want a drink, call on the American are strong enough to do so make it a ing to solve those problems that are Consul.” Like all current sayings, it is practice of standing behind their na grouped under the term Far Eastern significant as evidence, not of the truth, tionals (that is, their subjects if the Affairs. but of what is commonly believed to be nation is a monarchy, their citizens if The anomaly of this Conference (one the truth. American travelers or resi a republic). They not only undertake that could not well have been avoided) dents abroad do not expect their Gov- to see that the right of their nationals is China. She is both doctor and paernment to stand by them as the British to life and liberty is preserved, or if tient. She is one of the sovereign naGovernment stands by British subjects. violated is vindicated, but also act on tions engaged in discussing the problems; and yet she has a Government so It is precisely this alternative that the loss of what Japan as a late comer feeble, so entangled with itself, so cor- this Conference is attempting to adopt into the enterprise of getting spheres of rupt, so incompetent, that it has occa as a policy for all the nations involved influence in China has gained. The obsioned the very problems under discus- That, however, is not a simple and jections raised in this Conference to any sion. In fact, the problems there would easy task. It means that all the inter- plan which might occasion doubts about be more easily solved in some respects ested nations must join in the under existing privileges have been chiefly if China had no government at all. The taking. It cannot be carried through raised by Japan. status of foreigners and foreign inter- if one holds out.
Some of those privileges, however, ests has been complicated by the fact Even then the task is not really under have been secured since the time when that in some cases these foreigners. in way. If all the nations with interests John Hay obtained from all the Powers other cases foreign governments on in China should honestly attempt to co- interested in China assent to his Open their behalf. have entered into agree operate in adjusting their conflicting in- Door Doctrine. This policy announced ments with such government as China terests, they would simply be forming a anew here at Washington is not new. has had. or with Chinese officials or combination to exploit China, dividing It was established by Mr. Hay and reprovincial authorities. Many of these the spoils, but rendering China more iterated by the agreement jointly signed agreements are of long standing and than ever helpless. They cannot really by Mr. Root (Mr. Hay's successor as form the basis of commercial and social begin to find a solution for the prob- Secretary of State) and the then Japalife. Some of them have been secret. lems of the Far East unless they find nese Minister to the United States, Baron Some of them were imposed upon the a way by which China herself can be. Takahira. In the later Lansing-Ishii Chinese against their will; others were come responsible for fulfilling her side Agreement it was, in Japanese opinion. welcomed by the Chinese as preferable of each contract. There must not only modified, because that recognized that to the arbitrary dictates of their own be a square deal among the Powers, but Japan had special interests in China. corrupt officials. But, just or unjust, also a square deal to China. They must Whether modified or not, however, it they constitute a body of restrictions hold China's government to account for - has not been uniformly observed. that make it impossible, as long as they what it does; but they must also give Japan's - Twenty-one Demands upon last, for any government that China China a chance to secure a government China constituted an open disregard of may have to exercise freely the func- that can be held to account.
.. the principle. Unless, therefore, the tions of sovereignty. Furthermore, so At this Conference the tendency is to Powers are to revert to the cutthroat disorganized is China that there is no do just this. It might have been to form competition that was making of China universal agreement as to what China an international syndicate, a sort of a mere prey and was leading to conflicts is. Does China include Tibet? It does, corporation of nations, to take over the and inevitable war, they must stop seekaccording to the “Constitution" of the task of doing for China what she has ing special monopolistic privileges, and Chinese “Republic:” but according to been unable or unwilling to do for her they must let everything they have done the practice of other nations, the Brit- self. That, however, is not what these or hereafter do be known to the world. ish, for example, it in fact does not nations have done. The evident purpose The Open Door, if it is to be a fact inMongolia—is that a part of China? One is to make every arrangement with the stead of a motto, involves, then, the of the Japanese delegates was asked object of assisting China ultimately to double policy of self-denial and publicity. that question, and he declined to com- take upon herself the authority and re- To make the policy of self-denial mit himself. How about Manchuria? sponsibility that has been distributed effectual the Conference, after a long The Japanese acknowledge that to be a among many hands, Chinese and for discussion, evolved from a proposal by part of China, for their claims to cer- eign.
Mr. Hughes a resolution consisting of tain rights in Manchuria rest upon Of the nations represented here, the three articles. By the first the Western agreements they made with the Chinese one obviously most reluctant to commit nations and Japan agreed not to seek or Government under Yuan Shi-kai. If, herself to practical measures for carry
any however, ruling authority is the test, it ing out this plan is Japan. For this general superiority of rights in China, might be quite as accurate to say that reluctance it is hard to blame her. Byor such monopoly as would deprive the region around Peking is a part of her nearness to China she has a great other nationals of the right of underManchuria, for a large part of northern advantage which other nations do not taking any trade or industry or would China is under the domination of the possess. With the collapse of Russia frustrate the practical application of Manchurian general. Chang Tso-lin. Un and with the elimination of Germany as equal opportunity. Of course this would der such conditions the nations that a dangerous competitor in Shantung, not apply to patents or copyrights, as place their power behind the claims of Japan has a chance for exploiting China was made plain by an additional sentheir own subjects or citizens are bound which she does not eagerly forego. Intence. By the second China bound herto be in conflict with such authority as fact, she made the best of this advan
self to observe this principle in dealing China has and with one another. Amer tage during the World War. One can with al
e third ica has citizens in China, but has never recognize this fact and at the same time the Conference arranged for the estabuniformly and persistently put force acknowledge the sincerity and common lishment of a Board of Reference to behind their claims. It is true that at sense of those Japanese who say, as did which disputes concerning conflicting the time of the Boxer outbreak America the Japanese Ambassador to the United claims could be brought for investigajoined with other nations in restoring States, Baron Shidehara, the other day:
tion and not decision but report. A order; but even then she did not keep
fourth resolution, providing that exist.
Apart from any sentiment in the all the money that was paid by China
ing claims could by common consent be
matter, it is directly to Japan's interto her as indemnity, but returned to
brought before the Board of Reference,
est to associate herself with the other China all that was not needed for re
Powers in agreements tending to was withdrawn by a British delegate imbursement for loss, as she did in a
stabilize China's domestic as well as (Sir Robert Borden) when Japan obsimilar case concerning Japan. As a her foreign relations.... By making jected. Inasmuch, however, as nothing consequence, the United States is the Open Door and equal opportunity
prevents any two parties to a dispute trusted in China as is no other country, a fact instead of a motto, as Mr.
from bringing an existing claim before but American interests suffer from a
Hughes has said, Japan cannot fail to
the Board, anyway, the withdrawal was
be benefited as well as China, and by certain disadvantage.
significant only as an indication that regulating and making public estabFor a nation, under such circum
lished rights in the future the dan
apparently every nation (certainly Great stances, to back its nationals “to the
gerous system of seeking improper Dritain as well as America) was willing limit” means war. There is only one
advantages will be terminated.
to refer to the Board its existing claims alternative; that is to adjust the differ
as well as any future claims it may have, ences and to come to some common There are Japanese who take this except Japan. agreement.
broad view and yet are reluctant to risk Then the Conference proceeded to
apply this principle of equal opportunity through self-denial to the specific question of railway management. Within a nation's sphere of influence in China its nationals might easily be made the beneficiaries of discrimination in rates or facilities. Indeed, the charge has frequently þeen made that on the South Manchuria Railway, which is under Japan's control, Japanese receive privileges which are denied to other nationals. So all the nations, including China, promised not to exercise or permit unfair discrimination on the rail. ways in China, in particular in respect of nationality as to passengers, or origin or destination of goods, or of the ship on which they may be conveyed after or before transportation on the railways; and all these Powers agreed that any question of such discrimination might be referred to the Board of Reference. At Mr. Hughes's suggestion, the nations recorded their hope that all the railways (now under diverse control, some of them under foreign ownership and management, some Chinese Government lines) would ultimately be unified into a system under Chinese control.
(This, by the way, does not include the Chinese Eastern Railroad, which is a problem by itself, for it was built by Russia as a continuation of the TransSiberian Railway, is owned mainly (seventy-five per cent) by French stockholders, and is now under the control of an interallied commission headed by an American. This railway is still under consideration, with a view possibly to ultimate restoration to a regenerated Russia.
Having thus dealt with the policy of equality through self-denial, as I call it, the nations turned their attention to equality through publicity. After a prolonged discussion, which I have not the space here to report, the nations at the Conference agreed to publish all the agreements with China or concerning China of which they had knowledge, in so far as they affected China's international relations. Of course this does not include private contracts for the sale of ordinary goods; but it does include such matters as the sale of munitions, and of course all treaties or conventions between China and other nations, and treaties or conventions between foreign nations concerning China, or agreements between foreign nationals and the Chinese Government. There is a provision in the Covenant of the League of Nations for the publication of all future treaties; but the Washington plan concerns all treaties now in force, and includes such agreements to which private or corporate persons are parties that are international in scope. The resolution incorporating these provisions is elaborate and detailed. It provides that all such agreements shall be filed with the Secretariat of the Conference, and that China shall notify all these nations of any. agreement she or any local authority has with any one of them or any other foreign nation or any of their nationals.
WARREN GAMALIEL HARDING D ENHAPS the least conspicuous of all the great figures I of the Armament Conference has been that of the man who called it. Mr. Harding has not driven; but he has led. There are some who believe that the best way to get joint action among men is for one of them to tell the rest what to do. Mr. Harding has never acted on that theory. In his home town of Marion he was a leader in local affairs because he could get men together to talk matters over and come to a common understanding for common action. In the conduct of his newspaper he secured co-operation by making his associates, as it were, his partners. Now he has acted in the same way upon seeing the need for joint action among nations. And because of his belief in the power of public opinion, he has secured, through the press (which as a newspaper man he values), the co-operation, not merely of statesmen, but of peoples. His belief in the usefulness of neighborliness he shares with what is called the average citizen. This is his one big contribution to the affairs of state And now Mr. Lloyd George follows him and talks in the same way of the proposed Conference at Genoa. The Harding Doctrine is spreading. And, having started this Conference at Washington, President Harding has stepped into the background and left Mr. Hughes to guide the assembled delegates in the attempt to make an international neighborhood out of the nations they represent.
And it invites other Powers to adhere concerted an action to end the rivalries to this agreement.
and conflicts that have made of her an In the meantime the nations assem almost passive cause of war. The few bled here reverted to the policy of self- who sneer at what has been done be denial and agreed not to support "any cause of what has not been done are not agreement by their respective nationals serving China or the cause of internawith each other designed to create tional good will. It is true that all that spheres of influence or to provide for the has been done is as yet tentative. It is enjoyment of exclusive opportunity in still in the committee stage. It has yet designated parts of Chinese territory." to be assembled into a common agree
So far as I have been able to learn ment. at this time, the best friends of China One or two questions undecided are extraordinarily gratified by this can hold up progress on all the rest. record of progress. Not until now has The process of consulting in two or there been in all of China's history so three languages is necessarily slow, par
ticularly when discussion has to wait for answers to inquiries sent by cable half-way around the world. This is not a congress or legislature. Nothing can be carried over the protest of a minority. Even when adopted here, each conclusion remains inconclusive until at least the Senate here and the corresponding authorities in other countries approve it.' Then the achievements of these past few days, obscured as they have been by public interest in other contemporary events, will be recognized as not the least among the products of this Conference.
II. THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL CONFERENCE
EGINNING with President Har- Nation's stability-qualities of common selves in the plight of Russia. If any ding and virtually closing with sense, trustworthiness, persistence, in American has a sense of humor, it is William Jennings Bryan, the first telligence, courage.
the American farmer. It was a Versession of the National Agricultural There was, however, a yet stronger monter at this Conference who described Conference was furnished with one contrast, but one not visible. These the farmers' plight by the following striking contrast. Mr. Harding, digni men came from every State in the story: A farmer drove to the town one fied, reposeful, suave, commanded by his Union. They represent fully one-third, evening in his buggy. He went to the bearing, his temperament, and his man- perhaps more nearly one-half, of the general store, where he imbibed too ner respectful and sympathetic attention population. Not all of them are "dirt freely. When he got into his buggy, the and won approval. Mr. Bryan, by turns farmers.” Not a few of them are manu old mare lay down in her tracks. As informal, oratorical, fiery, scathing, facturers or distributers. All, however, he took up the reins he clucked and elicited applause, laughter, and even represent that part of the population said, "Git up, there, Nell, or I'll drive yells, and confirmed in the faith those whose livelihood depends directly upon right over you." The American farmer, who agreed with him. Mr. Bryan agriculture and the callings allied with said the speaker, is like the old mare. appealed to the narrow motive of class it. And these men, almost without ex. He left it to his hearers to infer that welfare by saying that there had been ception, have been encountering condi- the rest of the country cannot go on no time in thirty years when there had tions that literally constitute disaster. till the farmer gets back on his feet. not been a Wall Street bloc; the differ It was during the first day's session The President's speech evidently made ence being that, while the Wall Street that man after man reported agricul. a great impression on his audience. Inbloc acted secretly, the agricultural bloc ture carried on, not only without profit, deed, it was not so much a speech as a acted openly. Mr. Harding, on the other but actually at a heavy loss. Potato paper, read in even, distinct tones, withhand, appealed to the motive of National growers and dairymen of the north out any effort at oratory. He pointed welfare by saying that the farmer's in- eastern States, cotton planters of the out that there were really two problems terest is a truly National interest, and South, farmers of the corn belt, people in the present state of agriculture. One not entitled to be regarded as primarily of the wheat country, stock raisers East was the problem of meeting an existing the concern of either a class or a sec- and West alike have had to market their emergency; the other was one of protion, “or," he added, departing from his products at prices below cost of produc- viding a permanent modification of prepared address, "a bloc." But that tion and transportation, and all are policy. He reviewed briefly the history was not the only contrast in this the facing conditions ahead of them that of landownership, showing how “the first conference of its kind.
look still worse. In some cases the ownership of the land became the symThe setting and the audience fur farmers of entire communities have bol of favor and aristocracy, while the nished a contrast quite as striking. The been virtually without purchasing power working of it was the task of menials," ballroom of the New Willard Hotel is for two years. Contrast with that pic and how the soil has gradually been not exactly one's notion of a normal ture of conditions the tone of the spokes- emancipated from this low estate. He farm environment. It isn't quite as men for these sections. In some other urged changes in the law adapting ornate as the Clock Hall at Paris, where countries it would be the tone of Com- credit to the farmer's turnover period, the Peace Conference sat, but its scheme munism and even Bolshevism. Here the and giving the same access to ample of decoration hardly suggests the close tone was that of sober, reasonable re capital which the business man enjoys. ness to nature, the vigor of open-air life. adjustment, fair dealing, and progress. He indorsed the movement toward cothe daily contact with hard reality, the Even the most radical measures of re- operative action in farm marketing. He virile struggle, that characterize the con- lief that any one advocated were de- urged measures to prevent fluctuations stant experience of men who are proud fended, not by means of a plea for class in production, possibly having in mind to be known as "dirt farmers." And or group privilege, but by arguments for the principle of cutting down the peaks the men who constituted that assem the removal of alleged exceptional dis- of production and filling up the troughs blage were in face and bearing typical abilities. The most radical utterances which was applied in the Conference on of the multitudes who are to-day, as came from the spokesman from North Unemployment. He suggested electrifithey always have been, the strength of Dakota-the home of the Non-Partisan cation of railways as a benefit to agrithis country. Here and there I could League--and from Mr. Bryan; and, culture, and he definitely indorsed the see a gray beard, but for the most part though these utterances might be op- St. Lawrence waterway project to exbronzed, firmly featured, clean-shaven posed on the ground that they were tend the seaways to the inland of the faces set above strong, well-knit bodies. economically unsound, they could hardly continent. He urged reclamation and To look at these men was enough to con- be tolerated by the most tolerant of forestry. And he put before his hearers firm one's faith in the permanence of revolutionary Socialists,
his estimate of the farmers' profession as the Republic, If appearance was any What is certain to save such a situa- calling for the highest intelligence, the guide at all, these three hundred mention is a sense of humor. No people greatest versatility, and the best training. or so had qualities that explain the with a sense of humor could find them January 23, 1922.