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Photo by Asahel Curtis, Seattle

AN ALASKAN TOWN, WITH ITS SAWMILL WHICH IS SUPPLIED BY THE NATIONAL FOREST

ALASKA-THE LAST OF THE FRONTIER

BY W. B. GREELEY
CHJEF, UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE

LASKA is the last of the Ameri. sources as equivalent in importance to powers to the Interior Department, on

can frontier. Alaska is the only her area. Because the management of the plea of cutting out conflicts and 11 place left where “trails run out this vast frontier wealth is a National overlaps in administration. Some of and stop," where people are killed by job-and the last of its kind-Alaska is the proposals, like building a National bears, where unmapped ranges challenge a 'storm center. Over and above her railway from the coast to the interior, the explorer. In Alaska we are reliving surge the schemes of politicians, the de like utilizing Federal steamers to give the absorbing story of the West. We signs of corporations, constructive pro- Alaska better marine transportation, are see as on a screen the mushroom mining posals, well-based criticisms, biased at constructive. Some are futile, some are camp and the bleak homestead, the tacks, and the unreconstructed ex dangerous. The development of Alaska pioneer and the tin-horn gambler, the ploiters of the West who would break has not been guided wisely in all resingle-handed enterprise of the frontiers- Alaska up and parcel her out if they spects. Certain Federal laws under man living on the present and the mon- could. Federal mismanagement is held which she is governed are obsolete or eyed interest intrenching for the future, accountable for the slow progress of inadequate. Some of them have been men who create industries and men who Alaska, for her decline in population. enforced too arbitrarily or at too great play with forests, mines, or water pow. Incessant reiteration has led many to a distance. But in seeking the progress ers as with poker chips. It is the story believe that Alaskan affairs have been of our northern frontier there are cerof Idaho or California retold. Old muddled by a multiplicity of Federal tain bed-rock facts which every one clashes reappear. The pioneer is res- bureaus, that she has been bound down must heed. tive, the speculator at odds with bureau. with red tape, that her industrial The commercial growth of Alaska is crats.

growth has been blocked by Conserva- not a matter of laws, bureaus, or reguAlaska is the Nation's last big job in tion theories.

lations. It is a matter of geography and frontier management. She contains one To "free Alaska" it has been urged trade. It is controlled by her location sixth as much land as all of the States that all public property and administra- on the north western tip of the conti. combined, and ninety-eight per cent of tive agencies in the Territory be turned nent; by the cost of moving her prod. it is National property. Alaska is no over to a local Development Board. An- ucts to people who want them; by the longer "Seward's Folly" or "Uncle other plan simply regroups certain Fed- value of gold, copper, fish, and paper in Sam's ice-box." It is probably no ex- eral functions, particularly by transfer- the markets of the world; by the cost aggeration to appraise her raw re- ring the National Forests and water of labor, machinery, and supplies. Hit!:erto there have been no paper mills in men, and settlers of southern Alaska. with the greatest sea-food resources of the publicly owned forests of Alaska for They have been widely used for fish the world, with many million acres of precisely the same reason that there plants, manufacturing enterprises, set- raw plow land in a climatic zone largely have been no sawmills in millions of tlements, and town sites. They have untried by American agriculture, with acres of privately owned forests of Ore paid a substantial revenue to the roads forests and minerals of vast extent, gon. The mining of low-grade gold ore and schools of the Territory. They have Alaska has need of the best brains and has slumped in Alaska, just as the min- produced high-grade spruce lumber for organized skill of the Government in ing of silver ore slumped in Colorado the general markets and war needs of many different specialized branches. and Nevada when the cost of producing the country. Their paper-making re- Were the bureaus created for technical the metal exceeded its market price. sources have been systematically studied or administrative work in these various Millions of fertile areas lie untilled in and offered for development under terms fields not on the job in Alaska, it would the Yukon Valley solely because the which insure industrial stability, terms be proof of their inertia or incompeworld's wheat market can be supplied which experienced manufacturers ac- tence. No one appreciates this fact betmore cheaply from North Dakota or cept. The Federal Water Power Com- ter than the thinking business men of Argentina. The deserted placer camps mission is handling more business in Alaska. of Alaska are no whit different from Alaskan power sites to-day than in any Nor will anything be gained by shufPoker Flat and a hundred other aban- other section of the United States where fling the Federal agencies in Alaska and doned "diggings" in the Sierras. Wise the development of forest industries is redealing them between departments. laws and efficient bureaus can, and the commercial motive; and large quan The work must still be done, and each must, aid the industrial development of tities of National Forest timber have part of it must be done by specialists in Alaska, but they cannot work magic. already been secured by paper manufac- that subject. A staff of rangers, superAlaska is no more immune to the econo- turers.

visors, and lumbermen will be needed mies of manufacture and trade than any Give every bad law and piece of red to run the National Forests under Deother part of the United States. She tape its due weight; the net effect upon partment X no less than under Departwill develop only so fast as the markets the development of Alaska is relatively ment Z. This is a large-sized job which of the world can absorb her products. unimportant.. Check off the imposing cannot be done well without an organi

The impatience of the frontier is un- list of Alaska's resources--metals, fish, zation of trained and experienced men willing to accept these stern realities. timber, coal, petroleum, marble, water and a local head responsible for it and Alaska is still under the spell of the power, fur, agricultural land-every one nothing else. There is small prospect gold strike. the quest for quick wealth of them is available to men of energy of betterment in either cost or efficiency under which men made fortunes or and capital. Every one of them will be through transferring this organization went broke. And Alaska has a fine developed as rapidly as economic con- to some other executive in Alaska and faith in herself. Things are bound to ditions warrant. Let us lay once for all cutting it off from the department liappen: new industries are bound to the ghost of the Federal sentry patrol which is handling identical work everycome Something must be holding the ling a dead-line around Alaska's wealth. where else in the United States. And country back. And that "something" is

The considerable number of Federal what is true of Alaska's forests is true found in the way Alaska's resources are agencies in Alaska is often attributed of her fisheries, her agricultural lands. yoverned. The Federal bureaus furnish by critics to bureaucratic jealousies and her unreserved public domain. her minan easy target. Hence the assertion, outreachings. What does the presence erals, her migratory birds. often repeated and as often accepted at of thirty-odd administrative and investi. There would be little sense in having face value that the bursting wealth of gative activities in the Territory really one Federal agency manage the 136.000.the young country is padlocked by signify? Simply the range and vastness 000 acres of National Forests in the Washington bureaucrats.

of her resources, the number of differ- present States and a different and The second basic fact which must be

et which must be ent things that must be done through wholly disconnected organization manrecognized by every one who studies the public initiative to convert Alaska from age the 20,000,000 acres of National Alaskan situation is that whatever a frontier wilderness into a State. With Forests in a future State. There is litfaults may exist in her administration, thousands of miles of uncharted coast, tle to commend, either as business orthe locking up of natural resources is not one of them. “Pinchotism" has been anathema to many Alaskans because the Conservation policies of Roosevelt and Pinchot were not fully understood, and particularly because their fruition was long delayed by inspired opposition. Extensive withdrawals of forests, water powers, coal and oil lands were made prior to 1910. The Alaskan coal fields were opened to development by the Coal Leasing. Law of 1914 and her oil deposits by the Oil Leasing Law of 1920. A number of public water powers were utilized under the inadequate laws preceding the Power Act of 1920, which provides a fair basis for developing these resources comparable to that established for the use of coal, oil, and timber.

The twenty million acres of National Forests in Alaska have always been open to local use or export. They have supplied every sawmill on the Alaskan coast with its logs. They have furnished packing-cases and piling to most of the Alaskan salmon canneries and mining timbers to many of her mines. They have provided free building mate Photo by courtesy of U. S. Forest Service rial and fuel for the prospectors, fisher SAWMILL AT KETCHIKAN, ALASKA, SUPPLIED ENTIRELY BY NATIONAL FOREST TIMBER

[graphic]

Photo by courtesy of U. S. Forest Service

CUTTING SPRUCE AND HEMLOCK LOGS IN THE TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST, ALASKA

ganization or public policy, in having ests at stake in the agricultural re- absurdity. Much of the red tape which one organization of Federal experts deal sources of Alaska as in the agricultural has been criticised in Alaska is in the with the fisheries of the Atlantic coast resources of the Great Plains, in the black and brown bear class—more or and Puget Sound, while a separate and forests and water powers of Alaska as less ridiculous and more or less inconseunrelated staff of the same kind-in an in the forests and water powers of the quential. Certain things are serious, other department-deals with the fisher- western Cascades. As the migratory like the delay in securing title to public ies of Alaska. It is not difficult to see birds of the far north cross many States land after all legal requirements have whither such proposals lead us. An im- in their yearly travels, so are the prod- been met or the statutory rule which mediate result is the very duplication of ucts of Alaskan forests, mines, and fish- compels the advertisement of very small functions and duties in different execu- eries distributed over the entire coun- lots of National Forest timber before it tive departments which the Government try. The problems of Alaska are simply can be sold. The shifting or consolidahas specifically undertaken to eliminate. parts of National problems. Each of tion of Federal bureaus would not A more serious result is cutting Alaska them must be treated as a whole. We remedy such conditions in the slightoff from the technical and financial re- have developed a National policy as to est, and, on the other hand, there is not sources of Federal agencies whose ex- public water powers, as to public for one of them but could be made right by pert services the Territory needs. The ests, as to public coal and oil deposits. simple changes in laws that are now very frontier character of Alaska makes Each of these National policies should obsolete or in the local conduct of public her need all the greater for the best the be carried out in Alaska by the same business. country can give in developing each National agency as in Wyoming or The greatest evil in the management group of resources, and that best can be Oregon, whatever that agency may be, of Alaska is government at long range. given only by the Federal departments with the same direct relationship, the Too much authority is kept in Washingorganized and built up for the maximum same fundamental authority, and, above ton. There are too many delays in getservice, each in its own field. Yet it is all, with the same public responsibility. ting things done. Officers in Alaska are even advocated that the Department of The greatest danger underlying most of bound by too many cut-and-dried reguAgriculture, the most effective leader in the proposals for "something different lations or decisions which may be hoary agricultural science the world over, and apart" in Alaska is the danger of a in departmental usage but are not should surrender its experiment stations gradual breakdown in the policies adapted to the conditions of the far in Alaska, leaving the future of her which this country has adopted for North. The General Land Office, for exfarm lands to a local "development making its public resources of the ample, has three separate offices in the board."

widest and most permanent benefit. Territorial capital-a Register, a SurLet us not forget that Alaska is part What, then, of the overlaps and con- veyor-General, and a Chief Examiner. of the United States. Alaska is the last flicts in the management of Alaskan They all function independently, each as of the Territories, and some day will be affairs, of the duplicating bureaus and to its own part in the entry, survey, and a State in her own right. Her geo- harassed settlers? It is a pity that the patenting of public lands; they all regraphical and economic relations to the black and brown bear have at last been port separately to the Commissioner of rest of the country are scarcely different placed under the same official guardian, the General Land Office at Washington; from those of Oregon or Washington in depriving the Alaskan reformer of the and none of them finally settles any1870. The Nation has the same inter- most classic example of administrative thing. A homestead or mining claim

[graphic]

Photo by courtesy of U. S. Forest Service

THE FIRST PAPER PULP MILL BUILT IN ALASKA, AT FORT SNETTISHAM

shuttles back and forth between one or of National Forest timber. Another, of through appropriate instructions and another of these local offices and Wash greater importance, prohibits homestead inspection. By this means the evils of ington-four or five round trips at least entries, conveying surface rights only, long-range administration will be overbefore a patent is secured, although less on fertile agricultural land which is come, but without endangering our Nathan a single acre may be involved. underlaid with coal. The legislation tional policies for the use of public reThese old laws should be changed. A dealing with Alaskan fisheries needs sources and without cutting Alaska off representative of the General Land revision to prevent a serious depletion from the effective help of each Federal Office in Alaska might well direct all of of this great resource. Betterments of department in its own field. its activities, with authority to accept this sort are in progress, and bureau- The greatest National interests at entries, approve surveys, and issue crats responsible for work in Alaska stake in Alaska are her timber and patents. But the Interior Department are taking the lead in bringing them water power. Sooner or later these reshould retain control of policies and de- about.

sources will support a large paper incide appeals.

And, finally, the National interests in dustry. Trade conditions since the war Pleas for the mere shifting of bu- Alaska should be handled very largely have brought them into demand and reaus in Alaska may easily divert us by men in the Territory itself. Decen given them commercial value. It is from real ways of aiding the Territory. tralization, the doing of things on the within the power of the people of the The Government cannot speed up the ground, is the cure for red tape. Ninety- United States to create in Alaska a industrial development of Alaska in any five per cent of the National Forest busi- paper industry as enduring as that of great measure. But in three respects ness in Alaska, including all ordinary Norway or Sweden, an industry which its management can be improved. The uses of land or timber, is despatched by can furnish a million and a half tons first is to overcome Alaska's handicap men on the spot. Only large questions of paper yearly for all time to come, or of isolation, not only by Federal aid in of policy and transactions of special im- a third of the country's present conthe construction of railways and high- portance are referred to Washington. sumption. For the first time in our hisways, but also by furnishing adequate Every bureau or department should tory we have an opportunity, in Alaska. marine transportation. The second is to place its functions in Alaska under a to develop the vast forests of a new work over the laws dealing with Alas resident officer intrusted with the great region as a permanent rather than a diska's resources and bring them in line est authority possible to act on the appearing resource, because the Nation with a common sense plan of develop ground, but by the same token should it owns them. However and by whomever ment and use. Such a law is that re- retain control of basic policies and Alaskan affairs are managed, that opquiring advertisement of very small lots stand responsible for their enforcement portunity must not be lost.

STORIES AND STORY-TELLERS

BY STEPHEN LEACOCK

TT is my candid opinion that no man to the porter, "At what time do we get place, and the porter came through and 1 ought to be allowed to tell a funny to Buffalo?" The porter answered, “At said, . “Do you want an early call?-or

story or anecdote without a license. half-past three in the morning, sir." no, he went to the porter-that was itWe insist rightly enough that every “All right," the man said; "now I want and said," taxi-driver must have a license, and the to get off at Buffalo, and I want you But stop. The rest of the story be. same principle should apply to anybody to see that I get off. I sleep heavily and comes a mere painful waiting for the who proposes to act as a raconteur. I'm hard to rouse. But you just make end. Telling a story is a difficult thing-quite me wake up, don't mind what I say. Of course the higher type of funny as difficult as driving a taxi. And the don't pay attention if I kick about it, story is the one that depends for its risks of failure and accident and the un- just put me off, do you see?” “All right, amusing quality not on the final point, fortunate consequences of such to the sir," said the porter. The man got into or not solely on it, but on the wording public, if not exactly identical, are, at his berth and fell fast asleep. He never and the narration all through. This is any rate, analogous.

woke or moved till it was broad day- the way in which a story is told by a This is a point of view not generally light and the train was a hundred miles comedian or a person who is a raconappreciated. A man is apt to think that beyond Buffalo. He called angrily to teur in the real sense. When Sir Harry just because he has heard a good story the porter, “See here, you, didn't I tell Lauder narrates an incident, the telling he is able and entitled to repeat it. He you to put me off at Buffalo?" The por- of it is funny from beginning to end. might as well undertake to do a snake ter looked at him, aghast. “Well, I de- When some lesser person tries to repeat dance merely because he has seen clare to goodness, boss!” he exclaimed; it afterwards, there is nothing left but Madame Pavlowa do one. The point of “if it wasn't you, who was that man the final point. The rest is weariness. a story is apt to lie in the telling, or that I threw off this train at half-past As a consequence most story-tellers at least to depend upon it in a high three at Buffalo?

are driven to telling stories that depend degree. Certain stories, it is true, de- Now this story is as nearly fool-proof on the point or “nub” and not on the pend so much on the final point, or as can be. And yet it is amazing how narration. The story-teller gathers "nub," as we Americans call it, that badly it can be messed up by a person these up till he is equipped with a sort they are almost fool-proof. But even with a special gift for mangling a story of little repertory of fun by which he these can be made so prolix and tire. He does it something after this fashion: hopes to surround himself with social some. can be so messed up with irrele. “There was a fellow got on the train charm. In America especially (by vant detail, that the general effect is one night and he had a berth reserved which I mean here the United States utter weariness relieved by a kind of for Buffalo; at least the way I heard it, and Canada, but not Mexico) we suffer shock at the end. Let me illustrate it was Buffalo, though I guess, as a mat from the story-telling habit. As far as what I mean by a story with a "nub” ter of fact, you might tell it on any I am able to judge, English society is or point. I will take one of the best other town just as well-or no, I guess not pervaded and damaged by the story. known, so as to make no claim to origi- he didn't have his berth reserved, he got telling habit as much as is society in nality--for example, the famous anec. on the train and asked the porter for a the United States and Canada. On our dote of the man who wanted to be "put reservation for Buffalo-or, anyway, side of the Atlantic story-telling at dinoff at Buffalo." Here it is:

that part doesn't matter-say that he ners and on every other social occaA man entered a sleeping-car and said had a berth for Buffalo or any other sion has become a curse. In every phase of social and intellectual life one grateful cries of "No! no! go ahead," they are sinless in this respect. As I is haunted by the funny anecdote. Any show how great the tension has been see it, they hand round in general conone who has ever attended a Canadian Nine times out of ten the people have versation something nearly as bad in or American banquet will recall the sol- heard the story before; and ten times the form of what one may call the litemn way in which the chairman rises out of nine he damages it in the telling. eral anecdote or personal experience. and says: “Gentlemen, it is to me a But his hearers are grateful to him for By this I refer to the habit of narrating very great pleasure and a very great having saved them from the appalling some silly little event that has actually honor to preside at this annual dinner. mantle of silence and introspection happened to them or in their sight. There was an old darky once" and which had fallen upon the table. For which they designate as "screamingly so forth. When he concludes he says,

the trouble is that when once two or funny," and which was perhaps very “I will now call upon the Rev. Dr. three stories have been told it seems to funny when it happened but which is Stooge, Head of the Provincial Univer- be a point of honor not to subside into not the least funny in the telling. The sity, to propose the toast 'Our Domino mere conversation. It seems rude, when American funny story is imaginary. It ion.'" Dr. Stooge rises amid great a story-teller has at last reached the never happened. Somebody presumably applause and with great solemnity be- triumphant ending and climax of the once made it up. It is fiction. Thus: gins, “There were once two Irishmen"

WO Irishmen_" mule from Arkansas, it seems impolite, there must once have been some great and so on to the end. But in London,

to follow it up by saying, "I see that palpitating brain, some glowing imagiEngland, it is apparently not so. Not

the ex-Emperor Karl has escaped again.” nation, which invented the story of the long ago I had the pleasure of meet. It can't be done. Either the mule or man who was put off at Buffalo. But . ing at dinner a member of the Govern Karl-one can't have both.

the English "screamingly funny" story ment. I fully anticipated that as a The English, I say, have not de. is not imaginary. It really did happen. member of the Government he would veloped the American custom of the It is an actual personal experience. In be expected to tell a funny story about funny story as a form of social inter- short, it is not fiction but history.

short, it is not fictie an old darky, just as he would on our course. But I do not mean to say that

I think—if one may say it with all side of the water. In fact, I should

respect—that in English Society girls have supposed that he could hardly get

and women are especially prone to narinto the Government unless he did tell

rate these personal experiences as cona funny story of some sort. But all

tributions to general merriment rather through dinner the Cabinet Minister

than the men. The English girl has a never said a word about either a Metho

sort of traditional idea of being amusdist minister, or a commercial traveler,

ing; the English man cares less about or an old darky, or two Irishmen, or any

it. He prefers facts to fancy every time, of the stock characters of the American

and as a rule is free from that desire to repertory. On another occasion I

pose as a humorist which haunts the dined with a bishop of the Church. I

American mind. So it comes about that expected that when the soup came he

most of the "screamingly funny" stories would say, "There was an old darky--"

are told in English society by the After which I should have had to listen

women. Thus the counterpart of “put with rapt attention, and, when he had

me off at Buffalo" done into English finished, without any pause, rejoin,

would be something like this: "We "There were a couple of Irishmen

were so amused the other night in the once—” and so on. But the bishop

sleeping-car going to Buffalo. There never said a word of the sort.

was the most amusing old Negro making I can further, for the sake of my

the beds, a perfect scream, you know, fellow-men in Canada and the United

and he kept insisting that if we wanted States who may think of going to Eng.

to get up at Buffalo we must all go to land, vouchsafe the following facts. If

bed at nine o'clock. He positively you meet a director of the Bank of Eng.

wouldn't let us sit up-I mean to say it land, he does not say: "I am very glad

was killing the way he wanted to put us to meet you. Sit down. There was a

BY

to bed. We all roared!” mule in Arkansas once," etc. How they

Please note that roar at the end of do their banking without that mule I DOROTHY CANFIELD the English personal anecdote. It is the don't know. But they manage it. I can

sign that indicates that the story is

“A Great Love" will be certify also that if you meet the pro

over. When you are assured by the narprietor of a great newspaper he will not published in The Outlook rators that all the persons present begin by saying, “There was a Scotch next week.

"roared" or "simply roared," then you man once.". In fact, in England, you can

This is the second of the By

can be quite sure that the humorous inmingle freely in general society without

cident is closed and that laughter is in

ways of Human Nature series being called upon either to produce a

place. funny story or to suffer from one.

of character stories by the an

Now, as a matter of fact, the scene I don't mean to deny that the Ameri thor of "The Brimming Cup.” with the darky porter may have been, can funny story, in capable hands, is

when it really happened, most amusing.

“Old Man Warner”appeared amazingly funny and that it does

But not a trace of it gets over in the brighten up human intercourse. But

in The Outlook of January story. There is nothing but the bare the real trouble lies, not in the fun of 11. It has been read with assertion that it was “screamingly tie story, but in the painful waiting for

keen appeciation. One reader

funny” or “simply killing." But the the point to come and in the strained

praises it as an acute, search

English are such an honest people that and anxious silence that succeeds it.

when they say this sort of thing they Each person around the dinner table is

ing, yet humorous delineation

believe one another and they laugh. trying to "think of another." There is

of New England character But, after all, why should people ina dreadful pause. The hostess puts up that has few equals.

sist on telling funny stories at all? Why a prayer that some one may “think of

not be content to buy the works of some another." Then at last, to the relief of

Three other stories in this

really first-class humorist and read them everybody, some one says: “I heard a

series will follow “A Great

aloud in proper humility of mind withstory the other day—I don't know

Love."

out trying to emulate them? Either whether you've heard it,” And the

that or talk theology.

[graphic]

A GREAT LOVE

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