« ПретходнаНастави »
BY I. YAMAGATA
EDITOR OF THE SEOUL PRESS
OREA before annexation by
tion between the three neighboring great Powers of China, Russia, and Japan, and constituted the storm center of the Far East. As has many times been observed, this peninsula, protruding itself .far into the Sea of Japan from the Asiatic Continent, is like a dagger pointed at the heart of Japan. For the safeguarding of herself, Japan could scarcely look calmly on and see Korea falling into the hands of either China or Russia, both of which, it should be remembered, were very strong Powers. That is the reason why Japan, staking all on the throw, was obliged to fight China in 1894-5 and Russia ten years later, and why she put forth strenuous efforts to enable Korea to stand on her own feet and become strong enough to protect herself against all foreign encroachment.
Korea should have seized the opportu- high officials of the Government were
NEW LIFE INTRODUCED INTO KOREA
tegrity, and all positions are open to attacked and seriously injured in one of both Japanese and Koreans without disthe streets of Seoul by another Korean crimination, they being given equal fanatic. These events made it plain, as
treatment in all respects. Five provinnothing else did, that the Japanese pro- cial governors, one administrative intectorate régime would not work well. spector, nearly all district magistrates, A great political party called the Ilchin
and many judges well-educated Hoi, comprising among its million mem
Koreans. No taxes other than those bers the most intelligent and progress
sanctioned by the law are levied, and ive men of Korea, memorialized the these so far as affecting the Koreans Korean Goveroment, advocating the are very light compared with those union of Japan and Korea. In Japan,
borne by Japanese. To be particular, too, similar opinion steadily gained the amount yearly paid by the Koreans ground and eventually the annexation is only 11.03 yen (less than $6.50) per of Korea by Japan was carried out in household, or 2.08 yen ($1) per capita; August, 1910. All this is a matter of while Japanese living in Korea, number history and is recognized by the world; ing about 300,000, pay 43.75 yen (nearly so much so that even such a severe
$22) per household, or 11.12 yen (about critic of Japanese doings in Korea as $6.50) per capita. There is no fear Mr. F. A. McKenzie says: "There was whatever of the Korean masses being much to excuse the policy of Japanese despoiled of their hard-earned money by statesmen who took action to prevent a corrupt officials, as in former days, nor continental land so close to themselves are they in danger of losing their heads from being a mere stepping-off ground simply because they fail to please the for their foes."
tyrant lording it over them. The Ko
rean people were once notorious for WHAT THE KOREAN GOVERNMENT WAS LIKE
being extremely lazy. No wonder they The Korean Court and Government were disinclined to work much, seeing were one and the same, there being no that, did they accumulate wealth by distinction between the two. The King hard work, they courted for themselves was an autocrat and his will was the the danger of being visited either by law. He had his own agents for collect. official squeezers or by brigands. If ing taxes besides those imposed by the they possessed gold silver, they Government, so that the masses never buried it in the ground. They now knew how much and when they would realize that no such danger as that menbe required to pay in taxes. All the tioned above still exists, so they are
JAPAN'S FUTILE ATTEMPTS TO HELP KOREA
Japan did everything she could to help Korea by lending her service of some of her best sons and large amounts of money. Korea, however, was too degenerate and her whole government machinery too disorganized for her to derive much benefit from Japan's good offices. There were continual and violent changes in the Korean Government, corruption and intrigue were the order of the day in the Court, disturbances prevailed throughout the peninsula, brigandage was rife in the interior, and epidemics yearly carried off thousands of people; the state treasury was always empty, bankruptcy constantly stared the Korean Government in the face. Mak. ing Korea her protectorate, Japan attempted to reform her Government, adjust her finances, reorganize her army, and introduce other features of civilization into the country, These efforts seemed to be attended by more or less success, but, after all, proved but patchwork and too ineffective to hold together the rotten system. In the end the Governments of Japan and Korea both found no other way than the union of the two countries for the safeguarding of the interests of the two peoples, and by mutual agreement the annexation was carried out. This memorable step was taken amid profound peace and was recognized by all the Powers in August, 1910.
EVENTS LEADING TO ANNEXATION To recapitulate a little more fully, to all practical intent and purpose, Korea was never independent except the ten years after the Chino-Japanese War, by gaining which Japan enabled Korea to cast off the suzerainty China had exercised over her for many centuries.
cepting one from Wiju, on the Manchurian frontier to Seoul, which was maintained chiefly for the passage of envoys coming annually from the Chinese Emperor to the Korean King, who acknowledged allegiance to Peking. In consequence traffic was maintained on foot and goods transported by means of beasts of burden or on the backs of men. Since Japan undertook the administration of Korea the Government has put forth great efforts in the construction of highways. Up to the end of 1919 a network of 3,400 ri, or 8,500 miles, of good highways has been built at the cost of 1,500,000 yen, or $750,000, so that traveling by automobile is now possible even to the remote corners of the country. As for railways, in 1910 there existed 674.6 miles of standard gauge and 25.4 miles of narrow gauge. These had increased to 1,153.2 miles and 212.6 miles, respectively, by the end of 1919. Post, telegraph, and telephone services have been equally advanced, the business dealt with by the post offices having increased 300 per cent during the past ten years, while principal ports have had their harbors improved during the past decade at the cost of 23,398,390 yen.
EXPANSION OF FOREIGN TRADE
shaking off their century-old habit of in- experimental stations, schools, and traindolence. This, coupled with the remark- ing stations have been set up in many able industrial development achieved places, improved seeds and tools have in recent years under the guidance and been distributed among the farmers, encouragement of the new Government, and irrigation and reclamation works has made the Korean masses very much have been undertaken throughout the better off than they ever were. They peninsula. Thanks to all this, the have their own banks, where they keep amount of agricultural products has their savings. Two leading Korean been increasing by leaps and bounds. banks in Seoul had between them de- For instance, the rice crop, which posits amounting to 11,274,000 yen, or amounted in 1910 to 8,142,852 koku, in$5,614,800, at the end of September, 1920. creased to 15,294,109 koku in 1918 and
12,708,208 koku in 1919. It is a remarkALL PEOPLE BENEFITED BY REFORMS
able fact that the rice crop of the latter Since 1910, when Korea was incorpo- year was so large, considering the great rated into Japan, the Government has damage wrought to the growing plant been energetically introducing and
by a severe drought (the severest in the carrying on sweeping reforms along all last half-century) that visited the northlines, and the progress attained by the western and middle parts of Korea, and country and the people is by no means that even during this lean year 2,882,586 insignificant. To begin with, the posi- koku of rice, worth 110,066,878 yen, and tion of the royal family of Korea has 1,288,733 koku of beans, worth 20,720,342 been made safe and freed from all the
yen, were exported. Afforestation has intrigues formerly surrounding it. The been carried out on mountains denuded members of the family are accorded by improvident natives, so that the treatment due to those of the Imperial physical features of the country are family of Japan, and a civil list amount- rapidly changing for the better. Forests ing to 1,800,000 yen, or $900,000, is an- are protected and millions of young nụally appropriated for their expenses trees are planted year after year. Last from the national treasury. As for the year 156,860,000 trees were planted, an people in general, since agriculture is increase of 560 per cent as compared the mainstay of eighty per cent of them, with 2,820,000 planted in 1919. great efforts have been put forth for the encouragement and development of the IMPROVEMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS industry, large amounts of money being Formerly Korea had practically no expended in doing so. Model farms, highway permitting traffic by wheel ex
It is but natural that, along with the development of agricultural and other productive industries, as well as with that of the means of communication as briefly described above, there has been a steady expansion in the foreign trade of Korea. To be particular, the total amount of foreign trade done in Korea, which was only 22,161,000 yen in 1902 and 59,696,000 yen in 1910, rose to 316,327,000 yen in 1918 and 505,024,000 yen in 1919. It may be mentioned, by the way, that the total value of trade done with the United States of America was 10,341,000 yen in 1918 and 24,201,000 yen in 1919. As for banks, in 1919 there were 26 of them with 120 branches and an aggregate capital of 144,950,000 yen, besides 398 small farmers' banks having 5,082,900 yen between them as capital. The total number of companies doing business in Korea in 1919 was 366, with an aggregate nominal capital of 200,500,100 yen, of which 107,761,577 yen was paid up. In addition, there were 59 Japanese and 10 foreign companies having branches and doing business in Korea, the latter including two big mining companies working the famous Unsan and Suan gold mines with American and British capital.
SPREAD OF MODERN EDUCATION
In Korea as late as less than two decades ago Confucianism was taught only in part to the people and there existed no modern schools worthy of the name except a few excellent ones established by foreign missionaries in big cities. Accordingly, on the Japanese Government undertaking the administration of Korea, it at once set about the establishment of various schools and
the spread of modern education. In those days, however, the Korean people at large scarcely felt the need of education and the authorities encountered much difficulty in enrolling pupils for the new schools established in their interest. It is only in recent times that the people have begun to feel the necessity of education for their children and the number of children going to school shown any tendency toward increase. Correspondingly, the number of schools established, both Government and private, has been on the increase year after year, until at the end of May, 1920, the number of schools for Koreans, Government and private, and that of pupils attending them showed as follows:
Number of Number of Kind of Schools
Schools Pupils Common schools
594 108,051 Higher common schools for boys
14 3,513 Higher common schools for girls ...
771 Industrial schools...... 25 2,137 Elementary industrial schools
55 1,077 Colleges
604 Various other schools. 702 37,911
.1,403 154,064 It is the intention of the Government to establish many more schools in the course of a few years to come. Among others, a university and an academy of music and art will be founded.
IMPROVEMENTS IN HEALTH CONDITIONS
In former times Korea was a breeding-place for epidemics. Tens of thousands were yearly carried off by cholera, smallpox, and other infectious diseases, but the Korean people, steeped in ig. norance and superstition and knowing nothing of modern medicine, did practically nothing to combat and suppress the epidemics. This was another cause of constant menace to Japan, and so no sooner had Japan taken a hand in the administration of the peninsular Kingdom than she started the general cleaning up of the country. Among other measures taken, the Government has so far established twenty-one hospitals in the principal cities and has appointed 215 doctors to local centers in the interior. Vaccination against smallpox is enforced on children in spring and autumn throughout the country, and itinerant doctors are despatched from time to time to out-of-the-way places. Treatment and medicine are mostly given free. The Government is also training many Korean young men and women as doctors and nurses.
the spring of 1919 take place? Was it not the expression of popular discontent against the Government? To answer this question it is best to quote what an impartial foreign observer, who lived long in Korea and was on the spot at the time of the disturbances, has said on their causes. Writing in the “Japan Advertiser" in the spring of 1920, this foreign critic, the Rev. Dr. Frank Herron Smith, an American missionary stationed in Seoul for the preceding six years, said:
In all articles on the Korean uprising that the writer has seen it has been taken for granted that the causes lay in the defects of the Japanese administration, and among these flaws the chief ones pointed out had to do with the gendarme system and the system of education.
It is your correspondent's opinion that the defects in administration constituted only one of the minor causes of the demonstrations and at least provided a favorable setting for them, but that the chief causes must be sought for elsewhere.
The first and greatest cause of the uprising was the love that the Koreans have for liberty, independence, and their own country, and this is the reason they are not satisfied with reforms. They say, "We do not want reforms;
want our freedom." They would not be satisfied with the administration of angels from heaven unless they were Korean angels, and probably not then.
They have hated and despised Japan for one thousand years and would express dissatisfaction no matter what she did. The foreigneducated Koreans and many others of the most enlightened, as well as those who have large business interests or are in Government employ, in all a very large number, took no part in the demonstrations, but most of them are in sympathy with the demonstrators in this point,
The direct cause of the uprising was the activities of those outside Korea who know little or nothing of present-day conditions. President Wilson, rather than the missionaries, must carry heavy responsibility as one of the inciters of this movement. His enunciation of the doctrine of self-determination for small nations aroused the hopes of the self-exiled Korean agitators who have never been reconciled to Japanese occupation. They were led to believe that he would help them at Paris, if they could show that they had grievances. Among the outside influences too must be counted the spirit of unrest that was sweeping the world and which in many ways is still affecting Korea.
Withal it is safe to say that without the instigation from outside, from America, Hawaii, Shanghai, and Vladivostok, no demonstrations would have occurred, and it is true to the facts that it took three months at least
spread the movement throughout the country. On March 1 demonstrations took place at only a score or more of the chief centers.
ALLEGED PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS
UPHEAVAL OF THE SPRING OF 1919 The above is a brief statement of some of the more important of the reforms introduced into, and of the progress achieved by, Korea since Japan annexed the country in 1910. From this all fair-minded men will concede that Japan has done fairly well in her task of rejuvenating Korea and uplifting the Korean people. Why, then, it will be naturally asked, did the upheaval of
The Japanese have something more to say concerning the causes of the uprising than that said in the above quotation, but it seems sufficient to serve the purpose of proving the groundlessness of many severe charges critics of Japan have preferred against her with regard to her doings in Korea. One point, however, which cannot be overlooked is the allegation which still seems to survive, that the Government carried out a systematic persecution of Korean Christian churches and Korean converts. Not many words are needed to prove the baselessness of this accusation. The truth is that Korean converts who were arrested and imprisoned in connection with the disturbances
and an extensive reform was introduced into the educational system, by which, among other things, all private schools, other than those for which the curriculum is fixed by law, have been given the liberty of teaching religion.
were so dealt with, not because of their faith, but because of their participation in the rioting. As a matter of fact, practically no Korean followers of the Roman Catholic Mission, the English Church Mission, the Congregational Church, the Salvation Army, and some other denominations were arrested or imprisoned, for the simple reason that they stood entirely aloof from politics and took no part whatever in the disturbances. It will be seen that the story that the Government had persecuted Christian converts is absolutely groundless.
INAUGURATION OF A LIBERAL ADMINISTRA
TION It must be admitted that, in spite of much excellent work done and many improvements effected by the Government-General under General Terauchi and his successor, General Hasegawa, during the eight years following annexation, it was not wholly free from blunders and failed to keep pace with the progress of the times. To remedy all the past blunders and defects the Government of Japan reorganized the Govenrment-General of Korea in August, 1919, and appointed Baron Saito Governor-General. Many reforms on liberal lines have since been introduced into the administration of the country. To mention some of the more important, the police system was entirely remodeled, the whole police force formerly organized by the military being replaced by civil officials; discrimination formerly existing between Japanese and Korean officials as regards treatment and salaries was entirely done away
WHAT IS THE PRESENT SITUATION? During 1920 the situation in Korea was still rather unsettled, signs of popular unrest appearing from time time in various places. They have now all but completely disappeared. In the course of an article on the situation published in the "Korea Mission Field" for March, 1920, Bishop Herbert Welch, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, North, in Korea, said: “In a word, a number of the grievances which the world has recognized as heavy have been dealt with, and, while nothing striking or spectacular has been done, a beginning has been made towards the practical recognition of fundamental human rights and the preparation of the people for self-government. The greatest hope, however, which the situation
holds is in the genial, democratic, and I KOREAN PEASANT WOMAN
sincere character of the Governor
General, Baron Saito. With the authorwith; restriction on
was ity committed to his hands in the largely removed, with the result that scheme of the Japanese Empire and the publication of three new Korean with the backing which he seems to dailies has been started in Seoul; the have from the present Cabinet and old form of punishment by flogging for others strong in political influence, his minor offenders, a relic from the old presence warrants, not merely an attiKorean Government, was abolished; and tude of watchful waiting, but an attia general amnesty was proclaimed for tude of hopeful expectation.” This sanpolitical prisoners. Provincial, munici- guine view has proved correct, for since pal, and village councils were newly this was written the situation in Korea instituted as a means for preparing the has been gradually settling down and Korean people for local self-government, now it is entirely peaceful.
KILLING THE CLASSICS
BY HUBERT V. CORYELL
TIRGIL'S Æneid! I'll read it listening, I found myself absorbing in his seed will be wasted. So he waits
for a price--in translation. The almost equal parts the scholar's attitude until the ground has been sweetened by
Iliad? The Odyssey? On the of poignant regret and the young fel- exposure to air and the growth of same conditions, if the price is high low's feeling of exasperation at the for- chance vegetation, until the stumps enough. Shakespeare? Milton? Chau, mer's assumption that in the classics have for the most part rotted out and stop! Do you want me to sell my soul? alone could be found the worth-while the rocks have been cleared away. I loathe them, one and all!"
things of literature. Why, oh, why, I Even then he plants a preparatory crop, He was an intelligent-looking young thought, have our educators so fixed like potatoes, first to help get the soil fellow, about thirty years old. The ex- things that out of every ten persons into condition for the wheat. And when pression on his face, however, only in- who might enjoy the classics nine come he does plant, he prepares every foot of tensified his avowed attitude toward the to have an unalterable aversion to them ground with plow and harrow and acknowledged masters and masterpieces before they are really capable of appre- manure and fertilizer before he venof literature. His questioner, a ruddy- ciating them? Why do the scholars tures to sow the seed. He holds up the cheeked man of sixty, still able to hold that plan our literature courses attempt final act, moreover, until the conditions his own with youngsters on the ice, in to plant the superdelicate seed of love of temperature, moisture, and so forth, the saddle, or swinging an ax, gazed at for the classics in the hearts of our are just right. him in blank, hurt amazement. For the youth before the frost of savagery is out Wise farmer! older man, boy that he was still, was a of the virgin and unplowed soil of their Foolish scholars! real scholar, a man who loved and ap- minds?
If our educators would only study the preciated all that was richest and deep- A farmer knows better than to sprin- process of preparing fresh young minds est in the world of books; and it posi- kle wheat in a newly cleared piece of for the reception of the seed of classical tively cut him to the heart to hear this woodland. Of course he knows that in appreciation, we should have such a dif. frank, emphatic explosion on the part a few isolated spots, where the soil has ferent attitude on the part of our young of his young friend.
been thrown up by accident, there will people to-day. The mind of a human They talked for nearly half an hour come a luxuriant growth of wheat. But child is literally virgin soil. We can on the subject, while I listened, And he knows still better that the bulk of mąkę of it almost anything we wish if we will only have patience and develop it through its long gamut of changes. But it is far more sensitive than earth clods, which simply refuse to produce properly until properly treated. It reacts against the persistent planting of seed for which it is not ready, just as the body of a human being reacts against the repeated onslaught of unwholesome things in its physical environment. It develops a spiritual immunity far more virile and active than the immunity of the body to the everpresent germs of disease. The immunity of the young mind against the classics developed through contact with them before the soul is ready for them is like the immunity of the armored iank as compared with the immunity of the porcupine. The porcupine causes pain to those who touch it. The tank shoots down the enemies before they can approach within hailing distance. In a like manner the youthful mind, accustomed to having the classics thrust down its throat by blind enthusiasts at every stage of school life, acquires the instinct of self-protection and learns to shoot down at sight everything that smacks of the classics to the slightest degree.
The youthful mind, by sad experiences in defending itself from foreign invasion, learns to shun all things foreign, which means all things that scholars love the best and most want the youth of this land to love.
A modern general-to use the figure already introduced-never sends his men to storm a fortress until he has prepared the ground by a long, painstaking barrage. The doting scholar of to-day, on the other hand, sends his poor loved classical masterpieces to storm the redoubt of the mind of youth without previous preparation by barrage fire of piercing quality. And as a result his cherished masterpieces are hurled back, riddled with machine-gun bullets. After that neither scholar nor classics can get within a mile of the human soul of the youth behind the ramparts. Instead of being loved by youth, the great old masters and masterpieces are hated and loathed.
What, then, is the barrage that must be used in capturing the heart of youth? What caliber guns shall we use? With what explosives shall we fill our shells? The writer only wishes he could answer with perfect definiteness. But he can't, and nobody can-exactly-because each young heart has its own type of barrier to be broken down. The best that can be done is to suggest a few possible lines of action.
Certainly, if a person is ever to love the classics, he must first learn to love to read something-good books if possible, but certainly something—if it be no better than wild Indian stories, wild pirate stories, or the exploits of Jesse James. By hook or by crook the young mind must be captured by the delights of the printed page; and until these delights have gripped the young mind
firmly it is worse than folly to attempt "Vanity Fair." Scott is simpler than any further steps in the development of Shakespeare. Let us be chary about untrue literary appreciation.
locking the treasure house of our literSuppose now that we have initiated ary masterpieces, lest we glut the appethe young mind into the joys of read- tites of our young adventurers with too ing, what is the next step? Surely it is rich food or cheapen the treasure in to gain the confidence of the youthful
their eyes. mind by frank sympathy with its crude Above all, let us stop teaching the tastes. Let us admit the thrills of Jesse classics as if we were professors of anJames, Nick Carter, or Captain Kidd. atomy dissecting the human body. StuLet us admit that these books of light- dents of anatomy may be stimulated to ning action hold our breathless atten- further research by the marvelous demtion. Let us get into rapport with the onstrations of the dissector's art, the youthful mind.
use of the microscope, and all that goes Then let us casually introduce to the with the process.
But books were youthful mind something a little more meant to be read as wholes, loved as worth while-something still full of wholes, and lived with as wholes. They good, vigorous action, but something were not meant to be chopped up into with vivid pictures too of interesting small lesson sections and studied by the things—pictures of strange places, aid of a classical dictionary, and stustrange people, strange times; places, dents of literature will not be stirred peoples, times, however, that have their deeply by any such procedure. Even part in the sum total of human experi- the enthusiastic professor of English ence, Suppose we talk about books with does not actually cut
his beloved our young friends, and in our talks masterpieces into microscopic segments quite naturally dwell on those tales when reading for his own joy. It is which have rich and worth-while back- only when he is presenting them to an grounds.
immature class, trained by long years of The next step is easier. We shall not classic imposition into a spirit of numbfind it difficult to lure our young book ness-only then, faced by a feeling that chums on to the trial of books that deal he must prove the beauties of his masalso with the growth and development terpieces-only then, that the real of human character. It will not be hard scholar smashes up his beloved art to get a boy to read eagerly the story of treasures to furnish a few worthless “Swiss Family Robinson" or to get a fragments for the unwilling inspection girl to read "Little Women.” Or, if of his suspicious, antagonistic students. these two do not appeal, something else It is only when worked up to an insane can be found that will. Boys and girls frenzy by his own helplessness against are not slow to discover the joy of read- the overwhelming odds of inbred dising books that they can go back to and taste that the real scholar offers up the visit with as one goes back to visit with classics at the altar of the college enan old friend. They may go on reading trance requirements and cuts the literthe trashy time-killers-let them; it ary gems of the ages into miserable, will furnish a basis for comparison- ugly bits of grit and sand. This is the but they will come back to the more crime of crimes,. viewed by the true solid things, and they will begin to read lover of the classics. them more and more constantly and Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, with greater and greater understanding patientia nostra!
Before we know it our boys and girls How much longer must we stand for will be eating their way out of juvenile these human sacrifices! literature, and will be wanting to read Love for the classics, at least for what grown-ups read. This is the time those classics that truly merit our love, not to offer them Shakespeare, or Mil- will come to those of us who are capable ton, or the semi-classical Bulwer and of the most elevated of literary attachThackeray and others of like ilk. It is ments all in good time if we be led natthe time for "Lorna Doone" or perhaps urally, step by step, along the way. It some of the best of our moderns. This will never come to most of us if we are does not mean that our classics must be picked up and hurled bodily into a denied to the youthful prospectors. It purely classical environment at an immeans that they must not be offered as mature age. It will never come if the the literary food of foods. It means high priests of classicism persist in that, frankly showing our own fondness offering up their fairest children for disfor them, we must equally frankly ad- section by the knife and for microscopic mit that perhaps they are still “a little examination. The boy who is forced to beyond" our boys and girls, that per- read "The Last Days of Pompeii" at ten haps they contain ideas which the will never read Bulwer after he is young people "could not fully under- twenty-one. The girl who analyzes stand." If the young people insist, let "Julius Cæsar" scene by scene at sixteen us feed out grudgingly those that have will avoid Shakespeare and all his the most continuous action, the least works at twenty. If a thing is worth long-winded description, the least elabo- loving, we come to love it of our own rate wordings, phrasings, and allusions, free will, in our own good time, proand the simplest presentation of human vided we are let alone. If it is forced character in human relationships. upon us, we hate it. “Pride and Prejudice" is easier for the Lovers of the classics, stop killing the young mind to grapple with than is classics!