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THE FRIENDLY ARCTIC

W

HEN one reads of the five years summer heat is sometimes quite op-
of lonely travel, hardship, and

pressive within the Arctic Circle, its
illness encountered by Stefans. duration is comparatively short.
son in the expedition here recorded one The expedition carried on between
feels inclined to question the aptness of the years 1913 and 1918 was under
his alluring title, “The Friendly Arctic." the official auspices of the Canadian
Yet he reasons convincingly for what he Government, but our American National
really means by that phrase-that the Geographic Society and the New York
old ideas about the polar regions were American Museum of Natural History
founded on false conclusions; that the had a share in its planning and outfit-
way to live with the Eskimos is to live ting. The publishers of the book point
as the Eskimos do; that, in matter of out that, despite Mr. Stefansson's title,
fact, as he says, the Eskimos "secure the experiences make up a thrilling
their living with little labor as com- story "with a plot of human interest,
pared with the rest of us;" that they wherein scientists, whalers, Eskimos,
are happy and healthful; and that in and explorers play their dramatic parts."
reality they occupy a country desirable In short, they add: “Although he re.
in many ways.

• fuses to call it so, this was an heroic We used to hear from every adven- expedition, which carried on from 1913 turer into the "silent north" that it was to 1918. It fought against tragic odds. lonely, barren, dismal, cold, desolate, It had lost ship, men, and equipment. and cruel. But Stefansson writes with Its remnants were split by insubordinaenthusiasm of the hundreds of species tion. There were climatic conditions of Arctic flowering plants, of the ex- that even Arctic men considered severe." traordinary abundance of forms of life Despite all this, Stefansson explored in the sea, and of the tens of thousands

and mapped over 100,000 square miles of caribou in the Arctic grass lands. He of hitherto unknown polar territory. admits that to the white man the life of It would be impossible to follow the the Eskimo would be wretched, but de. narrative in detail. The object was not clares that "an Eskimo laughs as much in the least to penetrate to the North in a month as the average white man Pole. Not only has the North Pole does in a year," and that he has leisure ceased to be interesting from the mere for dancing, story-telling, and many fact that it has been discovered, but it primitive forms of enjoyment. Ex is not the most important point in the perienced Arctic explorers and travelers, Arctic. What Stefansson calls the Pole such as Peary and 'Stefansson, find that

of Inaccessibility is four hundred miles they become accustomed readily to the away from the North Pole in the direclong night of the Arctic, to the lack of tion of Alaska. It is that point which many things that they had considered

is farthest away from where the exessential, and they come to know that

plorers must leave ship to advance into much of the feeling about the Arctic

unexplored region by sledge. And that regions is because people have come to Pole of Inaccessibility was practically believe in "a north that never was," to the central point of all the Arctic area quote the title of a chapter on this gen

which remained unexplored when this eral subject.

expedition set out. The object of the Sir Robert Borden, who was Prime

expedition was to reduce this unknown Minister of Canada when the Stefansson

area and to gather knowledge about it. expedition was first planned, sums up

There is another pole which does not in his admirable Introduction to this

coincide at all with the North Pole, and volume what Stefansson really means:

that is what may be called the Cold There seems to be much truth in

Pole-that is, the point of lowest temStefansson's observation that the cold

perature. This is said to be in Asia of the Arctic deprives no

of

north of Irkutsk, and there the mercury either health or comfort if he under

sometimes falls to 90 degrees below zero. stands conditions, realizes necessary precautions, and, making good use of

Still another pole would be the Magnetic his common sense, governs himself Pole, which again is far distant from accordingly. But against the heat the North Pole. Enough has been said, of tropical regions it is practically perhaps, to show that the popular idea impossible to find any reasonable that Arctic exploration ends when the safeguard consistent with ordinary

North Pole is reached is absurd. activity. Those accustomed to tem

The problem of supporting life in such perate zones would probably find life within the Arctic Circle more endura

an expedition is now far different from ble and good health more assured

what it used to be. Peary, we believe, than in the average lowlands at or

was the first to advocate the idea of near the equator. In certain tropical living with the Eskimos and eating as or semi-tropical climates, northern they do. This means that in traveling European races last for no more than

long distances, instead of carrying great three generations. There is no rea

supplies of food, the food must be obson to believe that a like result would

tained as the party progresses. This, obtain in the far North. Although

again, means that the party must prac1 The Friendly Arctic By Vilhjalmur Stefans- tically live on seal meat, and, still fur

Illustrated. The Macmillan Company, New York. $6.

ther, means that the party must not

go where seals do not go. Now Stefansson had long had the belief that seals went much farther under the northern ice than was supposed. He was willing to risk his life and the success of his expedition on that belief. He had before him scientific and natural history data which made him sure that his reasoning was right, that the animals upon which seals subsist would be found everywhere under the ice, and that where the food is there the seals will follow. As to being able to catch or kill seals, Stefansson and others of his men knew every trick in seal-hunting. The demonstration that this theory was correct was one of the greatest achieve. ments of the expedition. Yet it was not always true at every point; the following passage is a good illustration of Stefansson's willingness to admit a mistake when he has made one:

We have outlined the two main views of ice navigation--the bold Atlantic policy of “keep away from the land, face the ice and take your chances;" the cautious Alaska one of “hug the coast, play safe, and if you don't get there this year you may have another chance next." There were divided opinions aboard, but I was in command, and the decision and responsibility had to be mine. I decided for what a friendly person would call the bolder course. But whoever prefers to be truthful rather than kind must say I chose the wrong alternative.

After lying at Cross Island for several hours, discussing theories and plans, we hove anchor and steamed deliberately north, away from land, threading our way between the ice cakes and occasionally ramming them to break a way. "It may be safe, but I don't think so," said Hadley. Every one else seemed delighted with our adoption of what they considered the bolder and more sportsmanlike policy.

Relentless events were to prove this decision my most serious error of the whole expedition.

one

The total results of the arduous five years of the expedition include an enormous amount of scientific records and reports. These are so diverse and extensive that Stefansson gave up the task of trying even to summarize them in this volume. How extensive they are may be seen from the fact that the official volumes now being published by the Canadian Department of Naval Service will be between twenty and thirty in number, and that, while about fifteen of those volumes are written, or partly written, it will take several years to get the whole ready for the press.

For the most part, therefore, the volume we have before us is devoted to a personal narrative of the progress of the expedition, and of further experiences among the Eskimos such as Stefansson had already so delightfully told in his book "My Life With the Eskimos." There is a fascination about following such a narrative of adventure that many

son.

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HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY GREAT DECEPTION (THE). By Samuel Col

cord. Boni & Liveright, New York. $1.30. The author assumes that a very large number of Americans regard the recent Presidential election as a condemnation of any attempt to secure united action with other nations for the saving of civilization and the preservation of world peace. This is "the great decep

tion.” The author gives no evidence Reproduced by permission of the Macmilian Company

that there is or has been any such wideEXCEPT FOR THE FACT THAT THE OBJECT BEING DRAGGED OVER THE SNOW IS APPAR

spread interpretation of the election, and ENTLY A SEAL, MR. STEFANSSON MIGHT HAVE LABELED THIS PHOTOGRAPH “BRINGING

we think the welcome extended throughHOME THE BACON"

out the United States to the proceedings readers find equal to the excitement of Arctic regions section by section. He

of the Washington Conference quite cona stirring romance.

has profited by experience piled upon

clusively demonstrates that such misinAs to Stefansson's personality and

experience until he knows how to terpretation does not exist. If any of

face and overcome every problem of methods of work, we cannot do better

our readers have so misinterpreted the

the North. His method of work is to election, we advise them to read this than quote at some length from the

take the white man's brains and inForeword contributed to the book by

volume, which shows quite conclusively

telligence and the white man's perDr. Gilbert Grosvenor, the President of

that a number of the most influential

sistence and will power into the the National Geographic Society:

of Republican leaders would have gladly Arctic and supplement these forces with the woodcraft, or, I should say,

voted for the Versailles League if PresiStefansson is perhaps the last of

polar-craft, of the Eskimo--the abil- dent Wilson could have been persuaded the old school, the old régime of

ity to live off the land itself, the to accept the Senate reservations. Arctic and Antarctic explorers, the

ability to use every one of the few' worker with the dog and the sledge, possibilities of those frozen regions

EDUCATIONAL among whom he easily holds a place

and concentrate on his work.

NEW WORLD (THE). Problems in Political in the first rank. Coming Polar ex

Stefansson has not only fought and

Geography By Isaiah Bowman, Ph.D. plorers, both north and south, are

Illustrated. overcome those ever-present contin

The World Book Company. quite likely to use mechanical means

Yonkers, New York. $6. gencies of the Arctic region-cold which have sprung into existence and hunger, wet and starvation, and

This is a book of facts, compactly and within the last few years. According

all that goes with them-but he has

thoroughly arranged. It would serve to my own personal impressions

fought and overcome sickness—first, admirably as a text-book. But it is also aerial flights; according to Stefans

typhoid, then pneumonia, and then a work for the general reader, so graphi. son, he would like to try his chances

pleurisy—up in those forbidding re- cally told are the problems confronting with a submarine; but whether it be

gions, and then has been obliged to the old as well as the new nations of aeroplane or submarine, it will mean

go by sled four hundred miles before the end of the old-time method, with

the world; indeed, the text-book becomes

finding the shelter of a hospital and the dog and the sledge and man

the care of a physician.

a collection of short stories dealing with trudging alongside or behind them.

the drama of existence and national What Stefansson stands for is this: “The Friendly Arctic” is certainly a

struggles. Not a line seems to have he has grasped the meaning of polar valuable addition to the literature of

been wasted in the description; not a work and has pursued his task in the Arctic exploration.

line, for that matter, could have been

spared if the vast field was to be covered THE NEW BOOKS

within the limits of a single volume.

The reader is conscious of a systematic BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS

of fiction. This oddly named book is a analysis which strips from the story GRAY WOLF STORIES. Indian Mystery Tales

collection of odds and ends in verse and everything save fundamental consideraof Coyote Animals and Men. By Bernard

prose. They may be classed as often tions. Yet care has been taken to omit Sexton. Hlustrated. The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.75.

agreeable and sometimes rather star- no factor-economic, historic, political, Mr. Sexton as “Gray Wolf" has told tling, but of no very large importance. racial, religious. Each issue is premany of these Indian myth and mystery

sented with impartial statements of

BIOGRAPHY stories to boys and girls. In this volume

arguments pro and con. The author's MOLTKE. By Lieut.-Colonel F. Whitton they admirably maintain their ability to

occasional comment is peculiarly and

Illustrated. Henry Holt & Co., New York. interest and amuse. The adventures of $3.50.

searchingly illuminative. Owl Man and Coyote (who lived with In the eighties American students at

MISCELLANEOUS Ten Grizzlies) and of Wolf, Boy, Turtle, Berlin had the privilege of seeing and the rest are surprising and exciting. Moltke at the Singakademie chamber

DEVELOPMENT OF EMBROIDERY IN AMER

ICA (THE). By Candace Wheeler. IllusThey are based on actual Indian origi. concerts; the venerable Field Marshal trated. Harper & Brothers, New York. $5. nals. Mr. Waugh's drawings and decora- was devoted to this highest class of Mrs. Wheeler is a recognized authority tions are capital.

music. So in the summers of those on decorative art. She tells here the his.

years American sojourners at Ragaz had tory of needlecraft in America from the ESSAYS AND CRITICISM

the privilege of seeing and talking with quill work of the Indians to the finest. TRIUMPH OF THE EGG (THE). A Book of

him; he loved the Swiss scenery of the designs of this day. The narrative is Impressions from American Life in Tales and Poems. By Sherwood Anderson. Illus- upper Rhine. Those Americans will be simple and enjoyable and is without

trated. B. W. Huebsch, Inc., New York. $2. disappointed in reading Colonel Whit. excess of technical language. The illusMr. Anderson has been the recipient ton's volume, now published in this tration is full and will delight feminine of a special prize for American writers country. not to find in it more of the eyes.

E.

Bishop Francis J. McConnell, of the Methodist Church, says:

I regard The Christian Century as the greatest journalistic force working for
social and international righteousness coming from any press of the Christian
church. Personally I watch for its arrival with the utmost eagerness. I never lay
down an issue without feeling a new stimulus for the wider application of the gospel.

Che

CHRISTIAN
CENTURY,

A Journal of Religion

CHARLES CLAYTON MORRISON and HERBERT L. WILLETT, Editors
Published Weekly

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OW that political diplomacy has done its best at the Washington Conference,

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sensitive problems from the Christian point of view. The ideals of democracy wait for realization upon the Christianizing of public opinion. It is dawning gradually upon our best minds that the discussion of religion must be extended beyond the present esoteric circles of specialists into the open forum of public opinion, where favors are neither asked nor given. The vital issues of the social order, of industry, of internationalism; the problems arising out of the modern view of the world, with its doctrine of evolution, its higher criticism, its pragmatic philosophy, its changed thought of God; the problems of the church institution : whether, for instance, our denominationalism is a providence or an impertinenceall these issues must be talked about in open court, where their discussion will directly mould and guide and vitalize public opinion.

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Out. 1-2-22

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THE MANAGER TAKES COUNSEL

BY NORMAN F. COLEMAN

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P

A Century of Tested Service IN

OPULAR opinion in relation to in- formed concerning local conditions.

dustry is strongly influenced by They may, against the manager's best

the military tradition. We speak judgment, demand radical changes in of our industrial leaders as captains. policy. We see the manager in popular maga- To the manager in our Northwest zines, a strong-jawed person of com- lumber industry, with its eight-hour day manding appearance, sitting erect be- and its relatively high wage standards, hind his flat-topped desk at headquar- have come stockholders from the Middle ters. At his side is the telephone for West and the South saying: "With the transmission of orders and reports. Be- selling price of your product cut in half fore him, cap in hand and with bowed and the demand for it greatly reduced, head, at industrial attention, stands an why do you not spread your overhead employee, awaiting the captain's com- expenses over a ten-hour daily producmands.

tion? Why do you not hire men at the It is true that this picture is being lowest market rate?” Some managers

falsified by the progress of the modern have, I know, been strongly advised by IN FEBRUARY, one hundred years

industrial movement, which gives the their directors to take this course, and ago, the first trust company came

employees representation in the coun- a few have yielded. Others, more mindinto being.

cils of management; but critics of the ful of the future good of the industry

new movement still hark back to the and of the Nation, have said, "If that Before that, when a man made his military tradition, and ask if any army policy is to be followed, you must choose will, he would name a relative, or a could be led by a committee. As if an some other manager.” Generally the friend, or a business associate, to carry industrial process like the making of stockholders, having asked their quesout his wishes.

steel or the weaving of cloth were a tions and expressed their opinions, have

summer's campaign, and as if getting said to the manager: “You are on the That method had serious defects.

out a car-load of lumber were a charge job and know the men you have to work The individual may die before a will

across No Man's Land.

with. We leave the responsibility here, becomes effective, or in the most The popular picture of the captain of but we think you are following a miscritical period of the settlement of an industry may have been true twenty-five taken policy." estate. The individual may become years ago, but it is not true now. In- Second have come the employees. incapacitated. He may prove untrue stead of sitting erect and issuing confi- These make up the manager's organiza. to his trust and lacking in financial dent orders by telephone or messenger, tion. Many of them have been with him responsibility.

the manager frequently sits back in his

for years.

Most have been loyal and chair with a look of worried perplexity faithful workers. They have lately The trust company came into being

in his face as he ponders questions diffi- taken reductions in wages and suffered to fill the need for a system of trustee- cult to answer. Shall he sell his prod- through periods of shutdown. The old ship that would be above these limita

uct at prices away below cost or hold it confidence in the management and pride tions-one that would have the qualifi- in the hope that the market may soon in the operation have largely gone from cations that the individual lacked. recover? Shall he run his operation at their faces, and, instead, the manager

a loss, or shut it down and let taxes, has seen fear, discontent, and suspicion. The trust company had its birth in

insurance, and salaries of permanent "Are we not to have enough wages," America, and here it has reached its

employees eat up his resources? Shall they have asked, "to maintain our famigreatest development. Today there

he try to hold together his organization lies in decency? We have played square are more than 2,300 trust companies in and maintain his trade connection by with you. How are you playing with the United States, with banking re- forcing a market, or shall he nail up us? Are you taking advantage of our sources exceeding twelve billion dollars, doors and windows and confess himself, necessity to strengthen your power and and administering estates aggregating for a time at least, beaten?

increase your profits?" These men must in value many billions of dollars.

Faced with these difficult choices, be answered. It will do no good to dis

most operators have run along from day charge them. Sooner or later their The man who is making a will

to day doing the best they could to hold places must be filled with others like today can name a trust company their losses within tolerable limits. them, only less interested in the operaas his executor and trustee, assuring Some, working in specially favorable tion and harder to deal with; for in responsible management of his estate situations, have made a profit. The best these days discontent and suspicion and protection to his beneficiaries. of them have worried by day and by among workingmen are very widespread.

night over the increasingly difficult in- One manager I. know has met his men A Free Book About Wills dustrial situation.

in frequent conference, explaining to Frequently also the manager has them the difficulties of the market and Of what importance

taken counsel with others who are in- discussing with them ways of cutting is this century-old ser

terested with him in the industry. down production costs. In his mill a vice to you? Read the

Sometimes these have pushed into his committee of employees has been at

office, and sometimes he has invited work week by week studying the situabooklet entitled “Safe

them in. They have occupied chairs tion and preparing suggestions for the guarding Your Fam

before his desk while he has leaned for- increased efficiency of the plant and of ily's Future," which

ward to meet their challenge and to the working force. you can obtain free at answer their questions.

Another manager faced a serious loss a trust company, or by

First have come the stockholders. last spring in his operation and pro

Their expected dividends have failed. posed to reduce wages. writing to the address

The men obSome of them are in real need. All of jected, on the ground that they were below.

them desire regular and sizable returns already living on a narrow margin. The

from their investments. (I talked with manager called them together and TRUST COMPANY DIVISION

one recently who had had only one opened his accounts to them, showing AMERICAN BANKERS ASSOCIATION small dividend in ten years.) When them that he could not keep the mill FIVE NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK

these returns fail, the investors are apt running unless he could reduce the cost to be inquisitive, suspicious, and even of operation. He asked them to talk the vindictive. They are only partly in. question over among themselves and

Safeguarding
Your Family's

Future

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