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THE first English wo

man to travel from India to the town of Gyantze through bleak Himalayan passes and across desolate Tibetan plains was Muriel Percy Brown, who made the mysterious trip with her husband, sent by the British Government to study the art of closed Tibet!

The Lama priest, keeping always to the left to stay on the Holy Way, the terrible solitude of the land, the huge stuffed dogs hang. ing from dimly lit passageways in the Tibetan monastery, the barbaric splendor of the costumes of the Tibetan servants, who courteously extend their tongues at full length as they serve at table, the aristocratic delicacy and pallor and charm of the hostess herself, a lady from Lhasatell in fascinating revelations that adventure and strange exploration are today more entertaining than ever before.

Read Muriel Percy Brown's Å Welcome Guest in Forbidden Tibet," in the March

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The American MAGAZINE on the Orient

More than 50 Ilustrations 'Stepping-Stones Across the Pacific, a Special

Set of Unusual Photographs The American Fish and the World Net By William Hard

The titles assumed by Edmund Roberts, one of our earliest diplomatic representatives to Annam-when he found titles were essential there-were: "Edmund Roberts, of Ports mouth, Nashua, Concord,' and all other New Hampshire towns, and also of Merrimack, Ammonoosuc, Androscoggin,' and all other New Hampshire rivers, and also of Monadnock and Winnepesaukee' and all other New Hampshire mountains and lakes."

The Annamese acclaimed him one of the most titled noblemen that had ever visited them. Edmund Roberts thought this scheme out himself. But President Tyler later officially nominated Caleb Cushing as " Count Caleb Cushing" when accrediting him to the Emperor of China.

Are we following the spirit of George Washington today by avoiding our international duties in Asia and Europe ? William Hard says we are not, but that if “ in accordance with the precepts of George Washington we follow our noses simply and only in the direction of our own interests, we shall finally arrive via the way-stations set up for us in the Orient by Roberts and Cushing and Commodore Perry, at a vital and active concern with the policies in Europe of Lloyd George and of Poincaré and of Lenin." A Fortnight on a Cargo-Boat By William L. Hall

In the good junk Wings of Peace, rechristened Becky Jane, a missionary doctor and his wife set out for Suining, their future home in the interior of China. The story of their adventures along the way begin in the March number. Dr. Hall writes with vividness and dry humor of the boat and its primitive equipment, of the crew, of the military escort, of the turbaned river pirates who plot to secure his bales and boxes, when, But finish this tale yourself and read " A Fortnight on a Cargo Boat," by William L. Hall.

Other Features in the March ASIA Conversations with a Kemalist By Demetra Vaka Travels and Hazards in Central Asia By Ikbal Ali Shah Children of Moscow

By Anna J. Haines Slow Americans

By Paul S. Reinsch King and Caliphs in Southern India Pictorial Do You Want to Go to the East?

Stay at home if you must, but travel with your eyes, mind and heart through the countries of the Eastern continent, made living and human in ASIA each month. This magazine is devoted to the joyous task of bringing the Orient to you through short stories, articles, stories of human achievement, photographs and illustrations that are unequaled.

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FEBRUARY 22, 1922

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F money is to be paid, either as a

further compensation or as a free

gift without thought of compensation, to the men who served in the American Army during the war, it cannot be snatched from the air. Even if the money is immediately secured by a bond issue or is taken from the sums which may be paid to the United States by the debtor nations of Europe, the burden upon the taxpayer will be only postponed; it will not be removed. If the money is to be raised by bonds, those who lend the money by buying the bonds will ultimately have to be repaid out of taxes; and if the money is paid from the amounts owed to the United States, it means that the tax burden which those amounts might lighten will remain unrelieved.

If the people of this country were convinced that the payment of a bonus to each of the men who served in the war was the best use that could be made of the money, there would be no complaint. The pressure upon Congress to pass a bonus bill has been met, however, by a pressure in the contrary direction. As soon as it was plain that a bonus bill meant more taxes, protests began to flood Congress.

A number of suggestions for the necessary taxes were made. Among them the following:


biles and gasoline would bear heavily seem to have found to say against it is upon the farmers, who are dependent expressed by the New York "World" more than ever before on their "fliv- when it declares that the bill would vers" and their gasoline tractors, and never have passed the House if it had are less able than ever to pay their not been that its opponents had no reapresent taxes. The tax on light wines son for voting against it because they and beer is of course opposed by the sup- knew that it was unconstitutional, porters of strict prohibition, for such a This kind of thing is easier to say tax would involve relaxing the prohibi- than to prove.

We have, on the one tory laws.

hand, a declaration by the New York Of all the taxes the most practicable "World" that the Dyer Bill is unconstiseems to be the sales tax; but because tutional. On the other hand, it is stated that is very widely distributed it would by the friends of the bill that its conarouse widespread opposition. Its very stitutionality has been recognized by the merit creates a difficulty.

Department of Justice through Judge In a long speech in the Senate Mr. Goff and by Attorney-General Daugherty, Borah, of Idaho, discussed the bonus on and that the House Committee on the Monday of last week. He estimated the Judiciary was convinced that the bill is cost of providing properly for the dis- Constitutional and so declared. abled soldiers alone ultimately The Supreme Court of the United amounting to at least seventy-five thou- States is the one and only authority on sand million dollars, and declared that this subject, and the “World,” like other any bonus to men of sound mind and people, might well await its decision bebody would cripple the Government's fore settling the matter offhand. power to provide for the disabled. More The bill provides fines or imprisonover, he argued with force that to pre- ment for persons convicted in Federal vent, or even retard, the recovery of courts of taking part in any act of agriculture and commerce in this coun- mob violence which leads to the death try by means of imposing new burdens of the person attacked; it forbids and upon agriculture and commerce would penalizes also any interference with an be to do a greater injury to the men officer protecting a prisoner from lynchasking for the bonus than any benefit ing; it penalizes the act of an official which they might derive from it.

who fails to do his duty in preventing a Perhaps men who went overseas and lynching. It goes further also in pro. came back to find that in their absence viding penalties against States, counties, some of their neighbors who escaped or towns which fail to use all reasonable military service prospered, while they effort to protect citizens against mob themselves lost their jobs, their energy, violence. and their hope, will not be quick to re- That lynching is a National, and not spond to Senator Borah's appeal that a local, offense may be argued from the "the situation which confronts this fact that the reputation of the country country at this time is more perilous at large suffers from acts of violence and requires more consideration and and barbarism. The Republican leader more sacrifice at the hands of these in the House said, "The finger of young men than the distressful days in scorn of other nations is pointed at us which they were in the camp;” but they for not taking steps to check . . . such may be led to realize that in asking for frightful and atrocious crimes as burnthe bonus they are asking for something ing at the stake." It is well also to rewhich will ultimately work to their own member that the usual emotional arguinjury by preventing or greatly post- ment in favor of lynching, namely, that poning the end of this period of unem- it is punishment for attacks upon ployment, and they may be affected by

women, loses most of its force when it the fact that what they ask for would is known that such offenses are, and inevitably lessen the power of the Gov. have been for many years, responsible ernment to do what it ought to do for for less than a third of the total lynchtheir "buddies" who were wounded.

ings and that not a few of even the

burnings alive were for quite different MOB VIOLENCE A


The ultimate way out from such a THE House of Representatives has condition of affairs as this is through

education and character building, but in ready described in The Outlook. The the meanwhile we may well ask whether strongest thing the opponents of the law the States in which lynching most often


Forni of Tax

Estimated Yield (1) A tax of 214 per cent of the

undivided profits of corporations

$20,000,000 (2) A parcel post tax of 1 cent on

each twenty-five cent value and fraction thereof

20,000,000 (3) An increase of the tobacco tax

(30 cents thousand on rigarettes, and 2 cents on smoking and

chewing tobacco)

30,000,000 (1) A two-cent stamp tax on bank checks

30,000,000 (5) A stamp check on receipts and similar documenty

10,000,000 (6) live dollarg per $1,000 on real estate transfers

30,000,000 (7) Twenty-five cents

per horsepower on automobiles..

50,000,000 (8) An increase of the present

two-Cent letter stamp to three cents

70,000,000 (9) Doubling the present 10 per

rent tax on theater tickets.... 70,000,000 (10) A tax on coffee, sugar, and tea

70,000.000 (11) One cent a gallon on gasoline 70,000,000 (12) A tax of 1/10 of 1 per cent on

stock and bond transfers... 70,000,000 (13) A doubling of the present inheritance tax

150,000,000 (14) A tax on light wines and beer,

not exceeding 2.75 per cent of alcohol

500,000,000 (15) A sales tax


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Against each of these taxes some group of taxpayers has directed its forces. For example, the tax on automo

occurs are doing their best in education.

stitutes international law, and it will apply fairly and fearlessly the principles of right and justice.



HE first sitting of the Permanent

T'International Court of Justice has


taken place. It occurred at The Hague in the Peace Palace, erected by the gift of Andrew Carnegie.

The first question to be settled was that of an election of a President. It was decided that not only the eleven judges elected last September by the Assembly and Council of the League of Nations, but also four supplementary judges should participate in this election. The eleven judges are:

Viscount Finlay, formerly Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.

André Weiss, Member of the Institute of France.

Commendatore Dionisio Anzilotti, Professor of International Law at the University of Rome.

Rafael Altamira, Senator of Spain and one of the inal draftsmen of the fundamental statute of the new tribunal.

Ruy Barbosa, Brazilian statesman and law professor.

Max Huber, jurisconsult to the Swiss Government in international affairs.

B. T. C. Loder, member of the Supreme Court of the Netherlands and an eminent authority on maritime law.

Didrik Galtrup Gjedde Nyholm, of Denmark, President of the Mixed Court of Cairo, Egypt.

Yorozu Oda, Professor of International Law at the University of Kyoto, Japan.

John Bassett Moore, former Councilor of our Department of State.

The four deputy judges are:

Demetriu Negulesku, of Rumania, delegate to the League of Nations.

C. W. Wang, President of the Chinese Supreme Court.

Nikhaile Jovanovich, of Jugoslavia.

Frederik Valdemar Nikolai Beichmann, of Norway.

These judges, chosen by the representatives of the fifty-one nations in the League, are to preside over a Court always open to settle disputes on the basis of law and justice rather than on that of diplomatic expediency. Moreover, the Court will be open not only to members of the League of Nations, but also to all states invited to join the League.


Hat is the difference between "non

violent, non-co-operation” and "civil disobedience"? Mahatma Gandhi recently changed the Arst formula to the second in his propaganda for a larger share of self-government by the native people of India. The first formula indicates non-resistance or at the most passive resistance. Does the second go further? It certainly was So interpreted by the British authorities, fpr the India Office on February 7, according to Associated Press despatches, issued an official communication indi. cating "that it was the intention of the Government to adopt stern measures to

suppress the campaign of civil disobe. Keystone

dience in India" and adding that "no MAHATMA GANDHI

Government could discuss, much less our delegates at the Conference, he accept, the demands contained in the rewould change the old so-called "Perma- cent manifesto of Mahatma K. Gandhi, nent Court of Arbitration," erected by the Indian Nationalist leader." the First Hague Conference (which was Both phrases have unquestionably really neither "permanent" nor a been used by Gandhi, although the sec"court"), into a real court of Justice, ond has been variously quoted as "civil to be always open, and to settle cases, disobedience" and "civic disobedience." not as subjects for diplomatic arbitral Whether rightly or not, this has been negotiations, but as cases to be judged interpreted by the Secretary for India, solely by the strict application of rules Mr. Montagu, as revolution, not evoluof international law. The Second Hague tion, and he laments that the people of Conference approved the project and es- India should think they could get selftablished a court in all details with the government by revolution. At the same exception of the choosing of judges. time, it is reassuring to note, the Secre. This detail has now been settled by Mr. tary for India declares that the British Root, who, in his position on the com- Government is in favor of "gwaraj" (the mittee of jurists chosen by the League term used by the agitators for selfof Nations to establish the new Court, government), but points out that to ob succeeded in providing that the judges tain the same kind of self-government should be chosen by the Assembly and that Canada has means to gain the same the Council of the League. Of course ability and restraint, and that this must Mr. Root was asked to be one of the be a gradual process. eleven judges. At his declination the The situation has changed definitely invitation went to John Bassett Moore, and hopefully since this utterance by a a foremost American authority in inter- responsible representative of the British national law.

Government. It had been generally reDr. Loder was appropriately elected ported that the arrest of Gandhi had President of the new Court. He will been ordered, on the ground that his receive an annual salary of 15,000 florins new plan of civil disobedience involved (normally a Dutch florin is worth about encouragement of violence. The fact forty cents) plus an allowance of 45,000 that now in India there is an alliance florins, while the other ten judges each between Mohammedan revolutionary draw 15,000 florins annually plus an teachers and Buddhist revolutionary allowance of 20,000 florins. These sal- teachers had caused some fear as to the aries are borne by the League of Na- outlook. Wisely and sensibly, however, tions.

Gandhi immediately announced that he The judges are to appear in black- had decided to abandon his programme velvet robes, lined with black silk, with of civil disobedience for the present at the collars trimmed with ermine. They least. As this decision was based on will wear black-velvet berettas, similar disapproval of two or three recent outto those worn by the judges of French breaks of violence, in one of which courts.

seventeen native policemen were killed, The new Court will, we do not doubt, it may be taken to indicate that do two things; it will define what con- Gandhi's real feeling is still toward a

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