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land has gone through in the past fifty years, during which time the fiercest political passions have been aroused in the Irish minds.

That Sir Horace is not pro-British in his view was indicated by two or three of his replies to questions on this occasion. One auditor asked him to tell "the difference between Casement and Carson."

He instantly replied, “One they hanged and one they made a judge.” He also declared that Carson represented a policy antagonistic to fourfifths of the Irish people. His belief in the ultimate unity of Ireland was vividly put in the sentence: “God made one Ireland, and Lloyd George proposed to make it two. We cannot have peace, progress, and prosperity in Ireland with

out unity." International THE DAIL EIREANN OF THE "IRISH REPUBLIC" (SINN FEIN) IN SESSION IN THE MAN

THE ITALIAN CABINET AND SION HOUSE IN DUBLIN, SIGNING THE RATIFICATION OF THE PEACE TREATY THAT MADE THE ROMAN CHURCH IRELAND A FREE STATE. ARTHUR GRIFFITH MAY BE SEEN SEATED AT THE LEFT CENTER

t the moment of the Pope's election (INSIDE THE INCLOSED SECTION)

the Italian Cabinet falls. During non-resisting, peaceful remonstrance Sinn Feiners who attended a football recent months the tendency of Church rather than for violence or active dis- game in Belfast with revolvers in their and State in Italy to come together has obedience of the Government. pockets. They were arrested for carry

increased. Thus the King decorated An excellent statement about the ing concealed weapons, and their excited Cardinal Maffi with a high order-and Indian situation was made lately by Dr. fellow-patriots in the south demanded he is the only prelate ever so honored. Shaßtri, of the University of Calcutta. their immediate release and, without Certain mutual privileges have been In a lecture at Princeton, he said: waiting to see what would happen, be- recognized by the Vatican and the Ital

I favor a continuation of associa- gan sporadic guerrilla warfare. The in- ian Government. When Sigor Bonomi tion with England. India must learn cident is nothing; the real cause of this succeeded to power, he stated that the the art of government and adminis- trouble is that sectional hatred which relations between Church and State tration. To separate suddenly from

seems stronger now than even before. were more promising. Although the the Empire would be suicide. India needs an evolution of national char

The prospect for a harmonious, united, Giolitti Cabinet contained three memacter. Before I went to Canada I did single Ireland is not promising.

bers from the Catholic (or Popular) not understand what was meant by a Add to the other troubles of Ireland party, the three of that party who endominion within the Empire. Why,

the strong support that De Valera seems tered the Bonomi Cabinet were more Canada has the highest kind of selfgovernment. She is a free country in

to be gaining in his reasonless agitation eminent and they occupied the imporevery sense of the word. Such a free for a republic and nothing but a repub- tant positions of Ministers of Justice, country would I see India.

lic, and the situation seems to have Agriculture, and Public Works. I have a strong faith in British

portentous indications of possible civil The official visit of condolence of one statesmanship. In my opinion, India cannot entirely exercise self-govern

war in the south, as well as sectional of these Ministers, Signor Mauri, to the ment under present conditions, as war in the northeast. It has been Vatican the day after Benedict XV's there would be mob rule.

pointed out that De Valera's own substi- death aroused strong feeling among non

tute treaty (the one that he tried to get Catholics and anti-Catholics, which was TURMOIL IN IRELAND

his own southern Parliament to demand strengthened by the announcement that HE present state of things in Ireland in place of the agreement at London) in both the Chamber of Deputies and

did not contain even the word republic, the Senate eulogies of the late Pope lieve what one pessimist has said: that nor anything that meant republic. His would be delivered by the Presidents of the Irish, Protestant and Catholic, those followers are emotionalists and lovers of those bodies. The Opposition caused who favor a republic and those who be- strife rather than of concord and pros- hesitation concerning the eulogies, and lieve in the Irish Free State, all are perity.

the Catholic party remonstrated as to too prone to use their passions rather We have in this country just now a any delay. The Cabinet was thus beset than their brains. As we write Great veteran in the struggle for true self- behind and before. Britain is retarding the withdrawal of government in Ireland, Sir Horace After reviewing the situation, Signor troops from Southern Ireland and is Plunkett. We are extremely glad to see Bonomi decided to act as M. Briand had strengthening her forces in Ulster to remarks in a recent address of his in done in a similar exigency, and, without protect the border from forays by her New York which represented the view, waiting for an adverse vote in the Chamunneighborly neighbors to the south; not of an unreasoning optimist, but ofber, resigned. The King has had much forces of the Irish Free State are drawn a quiet and sensible lover of Ireland. difficulty in inducing some one to take up on their side of the division line; Sir Horace said:

his place. men of Ulster have been captured and There is nothing in any of these

The fall of the Bonomi Cabinet may carried south over the border.

happenings to make us fear for the have been hastened also by the fear that All this turmoil and danger is said

future of Ireland or to lead us to be

the new Pope (who, like Cardinal Maffi,

lieve they will mar the course which to have begun with what should have

is accounted as very favorable to

the treaty has laid down. They are. been a trifle—the arrest of some ardent

just the inevitable result of what Ire- rapprochement between Church and

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Tine presentaktateven train optimiselabel

a

I

State) might over-emphasize the influ- naval sanction Turks anywhere in the paid the bill. It is true that if she had ence of the Church,

background or under cover of their

refused to do so the United States might Before the Papal election the Italian

plain and distinct clauses.

have declared war against her; but it is Government announced that it would If any are inclined to regard such an also true that she would never have been bring no influence to bear upon it. As

agreement as futile because no provision guilty of so great an act of folly. Trustto possible outside interference, Cardi- is made for its enforcement by an inter- ing to national honor to enforce internals are forbidden, under pain of ex- national force corresponding to the con- national law is not wholly new; but the communication, to express a veto of any stables, sheriffs, and police maintained Washington Conference has carried that civil power (or even preference) either by all civil governments to enforce trust so much further than it has ever directly or indirectly, before or during obedience to national law, they do not,

been carried before that it may fairly the Conclave. This prohibition was one we think, sufficiently consider the fact be said to have made a fundamental of Pius X's reforms. Before that a veto that there are in the modern state agree

change in international relations and to might under certain conditions be exer- ments which the law will not enforce, have provided the basis of an unarmed cised by Austria, France, or Spain. probably a great many more than those peace. This state of affairs had become an which it will enforce.

Are we

sure that civilization has anachronism, just as is any insistence All promises by parents to children, made such progress that it is safe to on the Pope's temporal power.

most promises by wives to husbands and trust national honor to enforce internahusbands to wives, nearly all social en- tional law? No. We are not sure. Ger

gagements of every description, all com- many threw away her national honor AN UNARMED PEACE mercial promises for the delivery of for the doubtful tactical advantage of

property on the payment of money un- invading Belgium in order to attack F the agreements negotiated at

less reduced to writing or accompanied France. Soviet Russia has openly Washington between

the great

by some transfer of money 'or goods, avowed that faith is not to be kept with world Powers are confirmed by the

called in law a “consideration,” are of capitalistic nations. Turkey's history Governments concerned, they will make

this description. Probably public sub- gives us no ground for faith in her a fundamental change in international

scriptions to public charity could be promises. We ought not to trust Powrelations. No provision whatever is

collected by law, but they never are; ers which have proved themselves unmade for the enforcement of these

possibly a public speaker who had trustworthy. We ought to be cautious in agreements by military arms. On the

promised to speak at a dinner or public trusting those Powers which have not contrary, simultaneously with these

meeting and failed to fulfill his promise proved themselves worthy of trust. But agreements is a pledge to reduce the

could be sued for damages; but such the past history of the Powers which navies on which nations have been wont

suits are never heard of, though such have joined in the Washington Conferto rely for the protection of their over

failures are not uncommon. Amiel in a ence justifies a policy of mutual confiseas possessions.

pregnant paragraph has made it very dence. Certainly such a policy affords A recent issue of the “National Geo

clear that modern society depends very a far safer basis for international fel. graphic Magazine" contains a map of

largely on unenforceable promises: lowship than the creation or any plan the Pacific Ocean. It is dotted with islands as the heavens with stars. The

In every union there is a mystery

for the possible creation of an interna

a certain invisible bond which must tional military and naval force, whether whole ocean might be called an archi

not be disturbed. This vital bond in

permanent or temporary. Such a force pelago. These islands are owned by dif- the filial relation is respect; in friend

large enough to compel one of the naferent Powers and inhabited by different ship, esteem; in marriage, confidence;

in the collective life, patriotism; in

tions to submit to the will of the others races. The boundary-lines separating

the religious life, faith.

would itself be provocative of suspicion them run through the intervening ocean

and jealousy, whereas it is evident that and are, of course, invisible. The repre

The bonds which unite society are in

the expression of international trust fursentatives of the different Governments visible. We are not galley slaves tied

nished by the action of the Conference are not all wise, cautious, or considerate together by chains; we are freemen,

has already done much to promote interstatesmen. The opportunities for conunited by moral bonds, by forces within,

national peace and good will. troversies

by regard for one another's interests and numerous. The four Powers, America, Great Britain, Japan, respect for one another's opinions. Can and France, have agreed to respect one we trust to similar moral forces for the

AN ATHLETIC another's rights in this entire region,

establishment and maintenance of interand if any controversies should arise be- national relations? The Washington

TRAGEDY tween them or if their rights should be Conference thinks the experiment well threatened by any other Power they will worth trying. We think the Washington

re

WO misguided communities "communicate with one another fully Conference is right. We hope that the

cently entered into a contest for and openly in order to arrive at an unSenate will be of the same opinion.

supremacy at professional football derstanding as to the most efficient

It is true that the action of the Wash- which has had a far-reaching and disas. means to be taken, either jointly or

ington Conference in trusting to the trous consequence. In their endeavors separately, to meet the exigencies of the

national honor for the enforcement of to win a game upon which a great numparticular situation.” That this was not

international obligations is not unprece- ber of bets had been placed the two thought by any of the representatives at

dented. At the close of the Civil War communities bought the respective, and Washington to imply any use of force,

the United States demanded damages of no longer respected, services of a majointly or separately, is perfectly clear

Great Britain for her disregard of inter- jority of the football players upon the from the following statement made by

national law. The question was by mu- teams of the University of Illinois and Senator Lodge to the Conference and

tual consent referred to arbitration. of Notre Dame. accepted without objection:

The Arbitral Court awarded damages. One or two players on a university

No international police force existed to team can sell their services without indiThere is no provision for the use of force to carry out any of the terms of

collect them. None

necessary. cating that there is anything fundathe agreement, and no military or Great Britain fulfilled her promise and mentally wrong with the athletic spirit

are

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of the institution with which they have imbibes the impression that the Bible been affiliated. But when a group of is an infallible authority upon all subplayers "go over to the enemy" in a jects. His religious teaching in the body, surely those who have the good Church and the Sunday school is fragname of their institution at heart should

mentary; no attempt is made to give go to the bottom of the matter at any him any systematic religious instruccost. The guilty players have in the tion. He therefore systematizes it for present instance been debarred from the himself. The result is something like honor of representing the universities this: they have disgraced, but until it has Six thousand years ago God made the been made clear that the conditions world. He made it in six days and which made their defection possible launched it on its voyage. Since that have been eradicated the names of the time he has done nothing more to it University of Illinois and of Notre except occasionally to interfere with its Dame will not have been cleared.

natural operation, as in the Deluge, the Some of those who have attacked

destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, players of the type under discussion

and the crossing of the Red Sea. But have made the mistake of inferring that that sort of thing he does not do any there is something disgraceful in being more. He made man perfect, as he a professional athlete. Of course such

made everything else perfect. But the an inference is absurd. It is just as first man disobeyed God, and all the honorable to earn a living by one's disease and sin and misery in the physical prowess as it is to earn it in a world has resulted from that disobe. broker's office or by one's pen. Nor is dience. there anything inherently virtuous in This child goes to school carrying the status of the amateur. It is charac

some such idea as this with him. And ter that counts and not the label when before gets through the high school the question of honor is involved.

he finds all secular teaching set on a The element of dishonor enters the different key. Life is progressive. Creafield when a player who is a professional tion is continuous. As the tree grows masquerades as an amateur, an act by a progressive process from a seed, so which cannot be accomplished without the world has grown by a progressive lying, deception, and trickery. That

process from chaos. As the man grows this fact should not be recognized and by a progressive process from the babe, understood by the athletic representa- so the race has grown by a progressive tives of two such universities as Notre process from a prehistoric cradle. The Dame and Illinois constitutes a tragic child's religious impression has been comment upon the effectiveness of our that life is static, with occasional divine system of education. If ideals and interventions. His entire system of morals are to be found anywhere, they school education is founded on the asought to be found in our universities. sumption that life is a continuous progLet us hope that the conditions dis

ress. There is no one to tell him that closed at Illinois and Notre Dame repre- "evolution is God's way of doing things." sent isolated outbreaks rather* than any And it will not be strange if he rejects general lowering of college morale. the Bible which has never been inter

preted to him, the Church which has

never interpreted itself to him, and reTHE USE AND MISUSE

ligion which he has come to regard as OF THE BIBLE

a bar, not an inspiration, to progress.

Paul says, “The law is good, if a man T almost the same time that I re

use it lawfully." By the law he means ceived a request for my opinion

the Old Testament law. The Bible is on the bill introduced into the

good if it is used for the purpose for Kentucky Legislature forbidding the

which it was given. But it was not teaching of evolution in schools sup

given to teach geology or zoölogy or ported by the State, treated in last

anthropology or any other of the modweek's Outlook, I received two letters,

ern sciences. What is its legitimate use apparently from parents, dealing with

is very clearly defined in the Bible itthe same subject, one of which reads as

self. It “is profitable ... for reproof, follows:

for correction, for instruction in rightCould Dr. Abbott give an article

eousness." explaining how the theory of evolution can be reconciled to the Biblical

For reproof: Its stories furnish account of creation in teaching young standards by which we can judge ourchildren?

E. J. F.

selves and see wherein we are wrong. I answer, By teaching them the na. For correction: Its counsels furnish ture and uses of the Bible.

directions by which we can guide our: A child grows up in the home and selves into right paths.

For instruction in righteousness: Its maxims are nuggets of spiritual wisdom; its biographies are dramatic illustrations of vices to be avoided and virtues to be emulated.

You can find better information as to the scientific processes of creation in Lyell's "Geology” or Darwin's “Descent of Man" than in the first chapter of Genesis; but nowhere a more illumi. nating illustration of the tragedy to which the spirit of lawless disobedience always leads than in the Garden of Eden story. Nowhere more concise and comprehensive interpretation of social morality than in the Ten Commandments, or more inspiring instruction in the nature and sources of personal righteousness than in the Sermon on the Mount. Probably nowhere in so short a compass the sorrowful end of the disappointed life of the profiteer in all ages as in the life of Jacob; certainly nowhere the story of a life so worthy of our reverent imitation as that of Jesus Christ, the model and the inspiration of Christendom for nineteen centuries.

The mother can render an invaluable service to her child if she can make herself acquainted with the spirit of modern education and can pursue the studies of her children with them as their intellectual companion. This is a far greater service to the world than any she can render by taking part in political reform® or popular philanthropies. But if she cannot find or make the time, or has not the training, or cannot procure the books, she can at least study the Bible with her children and make it clear to them that it is not a book of science but a book of religious experience. If she is studying with them the first chapter of Genesis, when they have read together the eleventh verse, “And

od said, let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind,” they can go out and see in their garden God repeating this creative proc

When they come to the second chapter and read that "God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul," she can explain to her children that this makes the difference between man and the cattle. The cattle are God's creatures, we are his offspring; and she can impart to them her own ambition to live as becomes the offspring of God.

If we use the Bible as a scientific authority, we misuse the Bible.

We use it aright when we use its stories of spiritual disaster and spiritual achieve. ment as warning, instruction, and in. spiration for our own lives.

LYMAN ABBOTT.

ess.

A

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE FROM WASHINGTON BY WILLIAM P. HELM, JR.

JAR back in the minds of the men

who have led American labor to rits present complex and effective form of organization for many years there has been this thought:

"Some day we shall unite the mine workers and the railway workers of the country into a great offensive and defensive alliance.”

In England the workers formed not a dual, but a triple, alliance. The transport workers and the railway men's union joined fortunes with the miners. They pledged themselves to stand or fall together. The mightiest coalition of labor the world has ever seen resulted from this binding alliance; but it snapped when the test came. The three-way strike which was to have paralyzed industrial Britain and brought Lloyd George and his Cabinet to their knees broke on the rocks of dissension at the very hour it was to have become effective. The strike became a oneunion strike-of coal miners. So fe'l, twenty months ago, the triple alliance in England, and in falling shattered hopes of a dual alliance in America.

But now these shattered hopes of labor are being rebuilt. On February 1 John L. Lewis, President of the United Mine Workers, officially addressed identical letters to the presidents of the sixteen major unions of railway employees asking them to meet with him for the purpose of forming such an alliance. His reasons for issuing the call are thus set forth in a telegram which he sent, several days afterward, to the writer of this article:

men employed in the mining and rail- the economic law that is working its road industries should recognize their downward way of revision in the pay mutuality of interest.

envelope. Regardless of intent, an offensive and

A call for a conference with minedefensive alliance of these workers, if

owners to work out a new wage scale achieved, would hold the power to still

has been answered with peremptory re. within less days than there are fingers

fusal to meet. The owners are posting on one hand the wheels of every railway

their own wage scales, marking up on train, mill, and factory in the United

their bulletin boards the wages they will States.

pay for this and that kind of work, Lewis's call for a meeting to construct

without even so much as a hint of conthe super-union brings vividly to mind

sultation with union leaders. There are the contrast between conditions of thirty

two men for every job. months ago, when the first actual step

Will spring see a militant super-union was taken toward coalition, and the

at work to close the country's industries present. One pictures the setting of

in the name of labor? Or a singlethat first move toward coalition:

handed fight by the coal miners, itself It is a day in early September. The

terrible in its effect upon reviving incountry is reeking with prosperity. Men

dustry? Or a clenched fist instead of talk superlatives, think in billions. La

the open hand? Or a half-hearted, bor is in the saddle. The dollar is

withering strike of union miners, peterdebased to half its normal worth. Any

ing out in collapse of their magnificent laborer can get his price, and his price

organization? is high.

One of these situations almost in cerThe United Mine Workers of America

tainty will come to pass.

Which one? are met in biennial convention in the Hardly the coalition, we think; but the city of Cleveland, home of the aristoc- answer lies in the laps of the gods. racy of unionism, the railway brother

When Warren Stone spoke for harhoods. Packed in the big stone armory

mony and close communion between the are more than two thousand delegates,

two great classes of workers, he prohailing from every union coal field in posed no new thing; but his proposal the country.

found quick response. Three days afterThe first of these comes forward,

ward, or September 12, 1919, the United formally to welcome the delegates. In Mine Workers adopted the following the impressive graying-haired figure the

resolution: Convention recognizes the "Grand Old Resolved, That this Convention inMan of the Brotherhoods," Warren L.

structs the resident officers and the InStone, Grand Chief of the Locomotive ternational Executive Board to bring Engineers. They rise and cheer. He about such a conference with the railwaves them to silence and the meeting

way workers' organizations for the puris on.

pose of formulating an alliance whereby He speaks for the brotherhoods. “We the organized workers in these two want," he says, “to be closer to you. great basic industries may act jointly on We want to work in closer harmony

all matters of mutual interest ... and with you than ever before, The time on all matters where the interests of the has come when, in solving these great workers in these industries may be adeconomic questions, there is no class in vanced by joint action." labor. There is only one interest, and

Meetings were held almost at once, as that is the man who toils for his bread." directed, but no effective plan of coali

Applause that mounts swiftly to tu- tion was ever worked out. The idea lay mult tells the temper of his audience. dormant till the other day, when Lewis

So were conditions then. But now- revived it.

The country is faltering back from Meantime the miners have been the slough of depression. Men thank through a great strike to success, have God for their jobs—those who have tasted the bitter of a subsequent industhem-and work to keep them. Labor trial depression, and have come to what with shriveled price-mark drugs the looms as a fight for their existence as market. The dollar is a precious thing an organization; and the rail workers again. The unions are reeling from have gone from victory to victory down blows hammered with cruel frequency to wage cut after wage cut, with more and effectiveness upon their inflated cuts still in prospect. Both classes of wage scales.

workers have had almost parallel er. The miners of America are in des- perience. perate straits. Two hundred thousand The time to the strike is short, howare entirely out of work. As many more ever, and as this is written an effective are working half-time or less. A wage coalition seems unlikely. Lewis probcontract is about to expire and slashing ably spoke too late. Had he spoken two cuts confront them. Already the outer months ago, before the Government edges of the union have crumbled, now brought the railway labor leaders and in Kentucky, now in West Virginia, now the railway

to

executives together in the Southwest, under the pressure of thresh out their differences, the pros

The invitation issued by the mine workers to the officers of the sixteen major railroad organizations is intended solely for the purpose of organizing the ranks of labor to offset the gigantic attempt to reduce their earning capacity and, in consequence, lower their standard of living.

The interests now combined in an assault on labor are not guided by the rule of fairness and give no consideration to the principles of equity and fair dealing to the workers. If they are determined, as they seem to be, to go on with their programme, then it is idle to bandy words. These interests are arbitrarily applying the elements of coercion and force, and the workers cannot permit themselves to be submissively slaughtered.

There is no intent on the part of the sponsors of the economic alliance to dislocate industry or disturb the public tranquillity, but self-preservation is the first law of nature. The

I Since this article was written a meeting of delegates of the United Mine Workers and of delegates from the railway brotherhoods has been called to assemble at Chicago on February 21. It is announced that the aim is to secure some sort of an understanding or alliance be tween the coal and railway workers. Delegates from the miners' unions will also take part in the conference between railway delegates and delegates from farmers' and Socialists' bodies also going on at that time in Chicago. -THE EDITORS

pect for such a coalition as he proposed would be much brighter.

That is the way it looks now, but scenes shift swiftly in industrial Amer. ,ica, and to-day's prospect is often

changed to-morrow. Such a union as would approach the two and one-half
Lewis proposes would outrank anything million mark.
else of its kind in size and power A super-union such as that would have
throughout the world.

power to put even the American GovernThe membership of such a union

ment to the supreme test.

A CONFERENCE OF RENUNCIATION

BY ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT

EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK AT THE

ARMAMENT CONFERENCE AT WASHINGTON

B.

a

ETWEEN the first and last ses- "get done." They want others to work have gained on the one side or what he sions of the Armament Confer- with them, share their power, and feel may have lost on the other. No one of

ence the man whose invitation corresponding responsibility. And us will want to measure his advantages brought it to Washington, and whose when their common task is finished they by those that may have been gained by spirit and purpose it was designed to are ready to acknowledge the common his neighbor, and the same may be said embody, remained in the background. share in the common credit. As editor of the sacrifices which have been made Not once did President Harding appear of a newspaper, as Senator, and as by us all." And possibly the tersest at its deliberations; not once did he President Mr. Harding has never sought and most discerning expression of this attempt to direct its proceedings. As it to dominate his associates. He has common interpretation of the Conferopened he expressed in two speeches the made his way by renunciation.

ence was made at the same session by hope of the Nation for what it might This, it seems, is not merely with him Count d'Alte, of Portugal, when he said: serve to accomplish; but he specified no a matter of temperament. It has been "Gentlemen, we owe to America much task for it, he made no effort to control his philosophy of life. It is the theory besides the generous hospitality that she it, he did not even undertake to expound on which he has deliberately and con- has extended to our Conference. We before it his own will. As it closed, he sciously acted. He has shared the owe to her the inspiration that has came before it, as he said, "to make ownership of his newspaper with his made it what it is. The Conference has acknowledgment" for what it had done, associates, and with the ownership its been to a far greater extent than any to outline its achievements, and to ex- responsibility and its authority. Simi- other that I can recall a conference of press gratitude to the participants; but larly, as a politician he has made a renunciation. We have here seen great neither expressly nor by inference did practice, not of giving orders, but of nations abandon long-established and he take any credit to himself.

taking counsel. And now as President deeply cherished national policies and Now he has brought the treaties he has followed his theory not only in renounce advantages once thought eswhich the Conference has framed to the the conduct of his Administration as it sential to the welfare of their people, Senate. He has appraised their value, affects domestic policy but also in for- and this not for value received, but he has indicated the effect that they will eign affairs.

simply out of a decent respect to the have if adopted, he has described the It is the Harding philosophy, the Har- opinions of mankind." spirit which they will promote among ding attitude toward all problems of To ascribe motives for these acts of nations, he has set forth the ill conse- conduct, that has led to the attempt to renunciation is as easy and as idle as to quences that would follow the failure to

solve the vexatious and controversial ascribe motives for any act. Those who put that spirit into practice; but here international problems of this post bel- believe that the motives were purely again he has left himself out as even a lum period by means, not of organizing selfish and sordid cannot be persuaded factor in originating the plan or the

power, but of summoning nations to by any argument or refuted by any idea of which the treaties are the prod- conference. It is this philosophy that facts. There never was any act, howuct. On the contrary, ignoring himself, explains the President's willingness to ever good or useful, for which an evil he stated as the distinction of this con- leave the interests of the Nation at this motive might not be found. On the ference that “the Senate-indeed, the Conference in the hands of the appointed other hand, a good motive never made Congress—has already advised in favor delegates, and to reposé such confidence an unwise act wise, or a harmful act of one-and inferentially of two-of the

in his Secretary of State as virtually to beneficent. Whatever the motives may treaties” and that “the naval pact ne- ,make him, and not the President, the have been, the fact remains that at this gotiated and signed" is in accordance chief figure of the Conference as well as Conference the nations did renounce with the “expressed wish" of the Senate. its guiding officer. And it is this phil. claims, advantages, ambitions, which

From not one word, from not a single osophy that has made of the Conference they might have chosen to retain and act, of President Harding's is there any itself an unprecedented example of re- did not. hint of the indisputable fact that the nunciation of power by the nations America had the opportunity, and Conference stands apart from other Con- themselves.

used it, to set the example. At the outferences because the philosophy which it This is not the imaginative interpreta- set she renounced her power to win the has undertaken to apply to international tion of an American, naturally partial to race in naval armaments. Great Britain affairs is what may properly be called the influence of his own country. It is renounced her mastery of the sea. the Harding philosophy—the philosophy the interpretation of the Nation's guests France renounced her right and her which Warren Harding has put into from other lands. In particular, it is natural desire to remain a first-class practice through all his life. Some men the interpretation given by the author- naval Power. Italy renounced all possiseek for achievement by dominating ized spokesman of the country which bility of attaining the place as a naval others. They believe in putting things has, most unjustly, been widely accused Power to which her maritime skill through. They believe in concentrating of lacking in appreciation of the spirit might well entitle her. Japan renounced power and responsibility, and they are of the Conference. “Gentlemen, when a naval position in the Pacific correwilling to accept the responsibility if the list is drawn up," said M. Sarraut, sponding to the importance of her mer. they can have the power. There are the head of the French delegation, as he chant marine. America and Japan other men, and they are rarer, who seek addressed the sixth plenary session, renounced the right to fortify certain for achievement by securing the co- "when the inventory is being taken of portions of their own territory. The operation of others. They believe in what we have done here, I am sure that four chief naval Powers of the Pacific getting things done; that things which no sordid thought will enter the mind renounced all right to make, without are "put through" often really never of any of us to estimate what he may consultation with all the others, an at.

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