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izing courts, to whom, and never to the for "Premature Petition" means peti- that Congress specify which it means by aliens themselves, the Department sends tions filed before the declarations of "white" and which it doesn't. the certificates. The clerks are in- intention upon which they were based That's the last of the tests by which structed not to accept petitions for were two years old. Such petitions the the sheep are parted from the goats. naturalization from aliens who arrived clerks of the 2,265 naturalizing courts Even this cursory examination of the after June 29, 1906, until after the neces- are strictly forbidden to accept, but fifteen of these tests shows that most sary certificates of arrival are in their when they have accepted them they are of the 18,981 turned back in 1921 were possession. Petitions filed by such permitted and required to collect four made the goats by us, and were not inaliens are not complete or valid unless dollars from each petitioner so misled, herently different from the sheep. Most at the time they are filed the certificates and the Government duly pockets half of them should have come in. of arrival are attached thereto and made of it.

What can be done about it? That of parts thereof. But in 1921 155 petitions The fifteenth cause of denial is "Sec- course is for Congress to say, but it incomplete and invalid because not so tion 2169." Section 2169 of the Revised ought to do something. supported were filed and in due course Statutes (on the books since 1875) says When an alien cannot be naturalized, denied, and $620 collected therefor. that only white persons and Africans he should be told so at once, without That was one of the things that occu- may be naturalized. The 20 who were the present drain on his time and money pied the time of the official force of denied under that head during 1921 and affection for America. There is no 2,772 and helped to swell that total of thought they were white within the sense in feeding him through the mills a million pieces of mail.

meaning of the law, and were held by of the law just to tell him at the end One hundred and forty-six petitions the courts to which they applied to be that his first paper is invalid, that he for naturalization were denied in 1921 non-white. It has been a vexatious and is already a citizen, that he hasn't lived because the people who filed them were confusing matter. The Bureau of here long enough, that he has come in “Unable to Produce Witnesses or Deposi- Naturalization has held varied and con- the wrong court, that the clerk forgot tions.” Depositions are written state flicting views about it. At one time the to get a certificate of arrival for him, ments taken to prove residence in States Bureau even ludicrously undertook to that his first paper is not two years old, other than that of filing. Sometimes limit the application of this statute to or that he is not a white man. We they can't be furnished. And some- Europeans. Some courts have been be- ought to fix it somehow so that the offitimes the original verifying witnesses guiled into holding that Japanese and cial force of 2,772 persons can tell him move away and other competent ones Hindus are white persons and have that in the beginning. It is more imcan't be found (substitution is permitted naturalized them, and so subjectedothem portant than examining 393,000 docuunder these circumstances), and that's to the annoyance and humiliation of ments a year, interviewing half a millthe end of it, and the petitions so de- having their certificates of naturaliza- ion people, and handling a million pieces fective have to be denied. It's a relief tion canceled by other courts. If there's of mail. Our naturalization machinery to chronicle a cause like that.

any doubt about you, you have to go functions not wisely but too well. Quite But “Premature Petition” is another through the mill to find out what you uselessly it is making enemies of moral matter. There were only 42 of those in are.

It would seem that common and intelligent aliens whom we need for 1921, but surely that was 42 too many, courtesy to the other nations demands friends.

HOW ITALY GOVERNS HER NEW TEUTONIC CITIZENS

BY BRUNO ROSELLI

L

EONIDA BISSOLATI, one of the greatest political figures of mod

ern Italy, died two years ago "of a broken heart because his beloved Wilson gave Italy too much in the north and too little in the east." In this paradoxical newspaper phrase is much food for thought. The situation in the Alto Adige (or upper part of the valley of the river Adige, as the Italians call the former Süd-Tirol) is avowedly one in which ethnical and geographical claims, each unusually potent, come to a clash, The Peace Conference unanimously awarded the district to Italy, in order to grant to her the completion of "God's boundary"—the stupendous amphitheater of the Alps. Thus three hundred thousand Teutons (or onetenth the number of Teutons awarded to Czechoslovakia on the same geographical grounds) became citizens of Italy, hitherto the most racially homogeneous of European countries. Signor Credaro, the Minister of Liberated Lands, is accused by the majority of educated Italians, led by the authoritative "Corriere della Sera" of Milan, of a laissez-faire verging on pro-Germanism in dealing with those populations. On the other hand, one hears in America all sorts of

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talk about the problem of Italy's “op-
pression of the proud Tyrolese." I de-
cided last summer to see with my own
eyes; and I hope that the following
notes will show the American reader
why I have come to the conclusion that
both attitudes are partly right and
partly wrong; that is, the Alto Adige
constitutes a real racial problem for
Italy, although its people are far from
"oppressed," and the Italian criticism of
the Government's moderation is based
on ignorance of the rudiments of the art
of governing alien races.

TOBLACH,
"Dobbiaco—Toblach" says the bilin.
gual sign on the unpretentious little rail. HIGHEST
way station, the last real one on the Ital-
ian side of the new boundary, although

IN THE the actual frontier formalities are carried out a few miles beyond. And a lit

THE VALLEY tle toy train comes up from the Italian

INDICATED plains to invade with its dirty smoke and its shrill whistle the majestic solitude of this mountain pass, where the

CHURCH Alps, east and west, seem to bow in rev- TOWER erence before the northernmost sentinel IS THE of the Dolomites—those granitic filibus- AMPEZZOTAL, ters which hurl their tempestuous might whiCH LEADS against the orderliness of the Alpine

SOUTH INTO necklace, defying our most approved no

ITALY. tions of what a well-behaved mountain

THE chain should be.

"Would you like to see how things look in Vienna, fourteen hours away?” IMPORTANCE says the friendly station-master. “If so, OF THIS PASS offer to my Austrian colleague, whom you will find a few miles farther on, a MEASURE two-dollar bill, and possibly a few cents more if the exchange is particularly unfavorable to you to-day, and he will sell you a ticket, the price of which is eight hundred kroner."

But no, I am not ready to go to Vienna and join the vast army of Ameri- snatched from her traditional enemy?” following Sunday, when I was at Incans who deplete appreciably her low Why not? Americans have not yet real- nichen myself, Teutonic sympathizers stores of food by staying there to in- ized to what an extent Italy is a country were distributing under the eyes of four vestigate and discuss said depleted of free opinions. They had given her up Italian carabinieri a protest, not only in stores. I prefer to look at the “Rome- as a total loss when the Italian factory the German language but in the German Vienna Express," which chestily puffs hands played with red flags a year and script, against the “tyrannical" action of into the station. It is a pathetic suc- a half ago. And they never understood the Italian authorities, who had recessor to one of the crack international how the new Kingdom could allow the quested the bandmaster not to repeat trains of Europe, which used to thrill head of the Catholic Church to inveigh the performance. Said bandmaster, in us with their fleeting vision of power and again and again from Rome against the my very presence, complied that Sunday wealth, consisting now of three cars- Italian Government; nor how the police by playing German Tyrolean songs, folone third-class, one evenly divided be could tolerate that the words “Viva lowed by the "Schwarzer Adler” of welltween first and second class, and one Lenin" should be scribbled on the walls known German flavor and fame! Pullman wherein congregates the fortu- of almost every public building, without In fact, I shall never forget that day. nate crowd of "free ride" folk whose anybody attempting to erase that harm- In the crowd which gathered around the bills are met by foreign governments or less expression of discontent. Italy is a band were several men with pictures of societies: Reparations Commission, Red country which leaves the most rabid former Emperor Charles in their hats. Cross, League of Nations.

individual free to express his or her As an ex-Italian officer who had fought Vienna, the former great capital, opinions until they conflict with the against that monarch, I felt that the shorn of her satellites, has become a rights of others, and occasionally far be- performance smacked of provocation, minor South German town.

yond that limit. And this attitude can- and spoke to one of the peasants who Yet the prestige of that great military not of course be limited to the territory wore the strange adornment. power that was, the Austro-Hungarian of the pre-war Kingdom, but also ex- “You love your former Emperor, don't Empire, will not die out for generations. tends to the newly annexed lands. Thus, you?" You only have to come to my hotel at incredible but true, the bandmaster of “Yes, I love his Majesty Emperor Innichen, about ten minutes from Dob- the Communal band of this very town

Charles.” biaco, to see in the place of honor a life- of Innichen was allowed to play in the “Don't you think, however, that it is size picture of his former Majesty Em- public square on a fine summer Sunday bad taste and poor policy to wear in peror Francis Joseph. "What?" I can the Imperial Austrian national anthem, your hat the portrait of Charles of Hapshear some of my American friends re- amid the cheers of the local population burg, a sovereign whom Austria herself mark, "a picture of the man who fought (can you imagine an Alsatian bandmas- has overthrown?" no less than five wars against the Ital- ter being allowed by the French to play Silence; then a grin; then a most ians allowed in the territory which Italy the "Wacht am Rhein”?); and on the clever answer: “How can any one ob

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change our money again, at any banker's. For every lira ten, twelve, perhaps fifteen crowns. We shall be very rich then, do you see?”

Oh, yes, I saw. I also saw that in

the room where I was led to register
DOBBIACOS
MERAN
OBLACHT

were two huge atrocious portraits of

Bismarck and Metternich, and below CORTINA

them an Austrian helmet and one of BOLZANO

those horrible maces with which our late enemy intended to “inspire awe." I also saw that the printed headings of the hotel register were entirely in Ger

man, and I made sure that it was not a (TRENTO LEVICO

left-over from pre-bellum days, but a recent acquisition fresh from Vienna.

It was a relief to go out and see a RIVAO

couple of Italian Alpine officers pass by, bound for some post far up on the

heights. I greeted them and offered my GARDA

TRIESTE company, which was readily accepted,

and unbosomed myself of my anger.

If you have ever lived any time among these superb mountain gentlemen, who differ as much from the rough moun

taineers as the country gentleman difADRIATIC

fers from the contadino, you will know what magnificent types of well-balanced, serene humanity they

It SEA

was Delta

proved to me again on that day.

“Professor, you live in cities, transi

tory like all man-made things. We live MAP OF THE “VENEZIA TRIDENTINA"

among God's own eternal mountains. This is the birthplace of many north Italian rivers annexed to Italy under the Treaty of St.

You help shape transitory policies; we Germain. The dotted line shows the fantastic pre-war boundary; the crosses mark the new

deal in men's unchangeable feelings. boundary, which coincides with the crest of the Alps. Population about half a million ; We know that while the present generathree-fifths Italian, two-fifths German. The latter inhabit the dotted territory, which is tion of embittered ex-Austrian fighters now officially styled “Alto Adige"

lives any attempt at Italianization will ject to my wearing in my hat the por- lire, at par, the Austrian kroner which seem to them to savor of tyranny. trait of a private citizen whom I used they held in the bank before the armi- Granted that Signor Gredaro went to serve?" stice."

rather far when he wrote the preface "Serve? Where?"

"But how can they expect that?" I for a pan-Germanistic book on the Alto “Here, on that mountain, where I lost retorted. “An Italian lira is worth at Adige, and reiterated the right of these these fingers," he replied, turning his least ten Austrian crowns to-day!" Tyrolese populations to be left undiseyes upon one of the superb peaks of the "I know, but that is what they want, turbed in their Teutonism. But it is no Dolomites and showing a badly shat- and they won't be loyal until they get treason to say that the general idea is tered hend.

After all, it is not their fault if correct. The Trentini were right when Human sympathy replaced the feel- their currency has depreciated.”

they sang: 'When the Adige shall flow ings born of the war which had hitherto Surely this was a new angle from into the Danube instead of the Adriatic, occupied my mind. “And how do you which to look at the situation. I smiled then we shall feel Austrian and not manage to work, now, in that condition?" to myself, wondering whether it is my Italian.' Of course the line of the Alps,

I do not work. As a mutilato of the fault that the lira itself, which used to the tremendous and obvious boundary Austrian army the Italian Government be worth twenty cents, is now worth between Italians and non-Italians, is to pays me a monthly allowance."

four, and if it is the fault of a certain be kept safe by our uniforms. But, Here was indeed food for thought, es- member of my•family in Florence that his mark my words! We are doing just the pecially for those Americans who whim- monthly pension of three hundred lire, right thing. An efficient line of Alpine per over Italy's "tyrannical” treatment which used to pay the rent of a villa for posts at the frontier, above the level of of the Alto Adige. For that matter, the whole summer, now represents just human habitations, and precious few Italy could not hold this rebellious re- the cost of a good pair of shoes.

uniforms below. No tyranny, no degion for a month if she acted tyranni- When I returned to my hotel, the nationalization, no forcible absorption: cally—no matter what the decisions of landlady reminded me, in fair English, in other words, no repetition against the the Peace Conference, which took Fiume that I had not yet registered. "I had northernmost part of the new territory from Italy and gave her Bozen, in order entirely forgotten that," I answered in- of the measures which made Austria so to obtain Italian connivance to French advertently in Italian.

bitterly hated in the southernmost part encroachments upon the Rhineland and "Please do not speak that detestable before the war." to create on the east of Italy a powerful language," she retorted in the harshest Those were truly words of wisdom. Jugoslavia which would keep her busy German.

And when we parted and I proceeded in that quarter.

"Why do you stay on the Italian side toward the station, and saw the tobaccoLater in the day I came across a of the new frontier?" I asked, in the nist parading the regulation Italian coat Triestino who was staying at my hotel. language of compromise.

of arms surrounded by a German inWhen I recounted my conversation with "Because I like my three meals a day. scription, and witnessed the scene of a the mutilato, “These people are angry," People are too poor over there. Their formal address of welcome in the Gerhe said, "extremely angry with the Ital. money is worth almost nothing. But man tongue by the mayor of the town ian Government. Of course the Govern- wait, and you will see. Very soon our to a group of distinguished American ment has not treated them rightly; they savings will be officially changed into visitors, and beheld at the station a halfhave not yet been allowed to change into lire. Then we shall go across and dozen porters still wearing the little

it.

Austrian caps with the inscription Dienst," and when the conductor of a local train, wearing the attire of all Italian conductors, refused to speak Italian to me, I felt proud and hopeful: proud that Italy has learned how to

be free from the retaliatory mania; and Apulia will ultimately, by this same genhopeful that a country which knew how erous method of non-interference, write to absorb the French of Piedmont, the —not soon perhaps, but well—another Germans of Lombardy, the Slavs of chapter in the history of assimilation of Venetia, the Spaniards of Sardinia, the foreign races in the land so markedly cirGreeks of Sicily, and the Albanians of cumscribed by the Alps and the triple sea.

TAXATION OF LABOR UNIONS

BY EVERETT P. WHEELER

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N Daniel Webster's address before

the Historical Society he tells us:

“I learned from the reports of controversies in the courts of law of the pursuits and occupations of individuals and of the objects which most earnestly engaged their attention.” This was Mr. Webster's last public address in New York City, and it finds illustrations in the current reports of decided cases.

In a recent decision of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals in the Seventh Circuit, in which that Court dealt with the controversies between the United Mine Workers of America and some of the independent coal operators in West .V ginia, we find the Court stating the following facts respecting the organization known as the United Mine Workers of America:

"The evidence shows that members of the Mine Workers Union purchased firearms and ammunition and otherwise financed the violent activities in behalf of the unionizing forces in West Virginia, and this state of war continued until the President sent troops into the State, and it is only held in abeyance because of that fact.

"The evidence shows that the revenues of the Mine Workers Union are produced from dues and assessments laid upon the members; that these fines and assessments are, by an arrangement between the miners' organization and the operators, taken from the wages of the workers in the mines by the operators and paid by them to the organization of mine workers. This is the 'check-off' system. The membership is large and the dues and assessments yield an enormous sum.

"Statements made by officers of the United Mine Workers show that the miners' organization has sent into West Virginia to carry on this struggle more than two and a half million dollars, and the secretary-treasurer of that organization, in his report to the Convention recently held in this city, stated that during the year ending August 1, 1921, the organization had sent into West Virginia more than a million dollars. This money was derived from the 'checkoff' system, and was sent to West Virginia to assist in the effort to organize the West Virginia field.”

The system of the Mine Workers Union in all the districts where it has succeeded in what it calls “unionizing" the mines is this. No man is allowed

1 Ora Gasaway v. Borderland Coal Corporation. Chicago Legal News, 1921.

to work in the mines unless he is a should be published. All this is just as
member of the union. When he becomes important for the members of the union
a member, he is required to sign a con- as it is for the public.
tract that his dues to the union shall be It is hardly possible, for example, that
deducted from his pay and sent by the the electrical workers would approve the
company to the treasurer of the union. blackmail that, according to this testi-
As long as he remains a member of the mony, has been practiced by their offi.
union this contract remains in force. cers. But, apart from this, no democ-
The only way he can get rid of it is by racy can continue to prosper which
resigning from the union, in which case tolerates the existence of a privileged
he loses his job. Another illustration class, having unlimited authority to
of the work of trade unions is to be raise money which, in the end, comes
found in the testimony taken before the out of the pockets of those who have no
Lockwood Committee of the New York voice in the management, and of asso-
Senate, which was published in the New ciations which do not contribute in any
York “Times" on December 6, 1921. way to the support of the Government.

There is a brotherhood of electrical Every loyal citizen ought to be glad to
workers in New York City. Unlike the do his part to support the Government
miners' union, it does not seek to attract that gives him protection.
members to it, but has succeeded in en.. For the purpose of removing the
forcing a regulation of its own that no anomalies to which attention has just
electrical worker should be permitted to been called, it has been proposed to re-
put in work in the city of New York un- quire the trade unions to become in-
less he pays to the union, if he be a corporated. The difficulty here is that
journeyman $130 a year, and if he be a their members are not willing to become
helper $52 a year. Additional testimony incorporated, and it would be a difficult
was given by one of the officers of the and perhaps impossible task to compel
union that there was "no bookkeeping persons to incorporate against their
system to look at," and it appears that

will. Another method much more feasithere was a large leak in the accounts ble is suggested by an examination of of the union and that some of its officers the Federal Tax Law which was aphad accumulated private property by proved by the President on November methods not disclosed but which can be 23 last. Under 6 and 2 of this act we readily surmised.

find the following clause: “The term The facts which have been thus dis- corporation includes associations, joint closed call public attention to a condi- stock companies, and insurance comtion that ought to be surprising and is panies.” Trade unions are certainly familiar. Practically the unions are not associations, and they would be taxable subject to any public authority what- under the provisions of this law and reever; they are not incorporated, they quired to account, as corporations are, are not required to keep or publish any were it not for a special exemption in accounts of their receipts and expendi- Section . 231. This provides that the tures, as corporations are. They have "following organizations shall be exempt large incomes, amounting in many cases from taxation under this article: (1) to millions of dollars annually, and have Labor, agricultural, or horticultural accumulated funds, some of them to the organizations." amount of many millions. They are ex- Whatever reason there may be for empt from taxation; in short, they are exempting from taxation agricultural or a privileged class. Beginning as pro

horticultural organizations we need not test against what was in many cases in

consider. But the facts already stated justice, they have become great and show that there is none for including powerful. Some of their leaders un- labor organizations in the exemption. doubtedly are sincere men who seek If Section 231 of the Tax Law were what they consider public good, but amended by striking out the single word others are ambitious and have been en- "labor," the desired result would be accouraged to be lawless because of the complished as far as it can be by Federal privileges extended to them.

legislation. Can there be any good reaWhat the public has a right to ask is son for continuing an exemption which that all trade unions should be required exempts wealthy associations, some of to keep accounts of their receipts and whom certainly are using their accumuexpenses, that these accounts should be lated funds for unlawful purposes, and subject to the inspection of some public compels their fellow-citizens to bear the authority, and that a summary of them whole burden?

December

22

BY PRESIDENT ANGELL, OF YALE

heresies among the savages. As the Indians commonly scalped the heretic first and examined his theology afterward, few dissenters elected this alternative.

Again, there is often much unfounded

accrediting to these glorious forebears NO:DON: 105

of ours of the establishment of demoÆTIS:S:57

cratic government. It is true that in
Connecticut there was at the outset a
form of democratic town government,
but it was hardly more than a form, and
for many a long year democracy, as we
now know it, was not only wholly lack-
ing in New England, but was generally
despised and distrusted. At Plymouth
there was originally something closely
approaching the communism apparently
practiced in certain of the earlier Chris-
tian communities, but even this quickly
'passed away, being found impracticable.
No one would deny that liberty of con-
science and the forms of democracy
both grew up in New England. But
equally no informed person can truth-
fully assert that these achievements
were characteristic of the earliest New
England communities.

What we do find in the Pilgrims is the most superb devotion to religious convictions. For them the real world was the world of the spirit, compared with which the world of material things was but ephemeral dross. They feared not death nor physical suffering. Their dread was for sin, for the weakness of their souls in the face of temptation. Their heroic venture into the unknown wilderness across a wintry sea will al

ways stand as one of the immortal landFrom a painting

marks in the onward march of the EDWARD WINSLOW, GOVERNOR OF PLYMOUTH COLONY

human soul, an enduring proof of the Such men as Winslow ... did not cast in their lot with these poor people (the unconquerable power of complete moral Pilgrims] for any worldly advantage. ... It was the sanity of their religious and religious devotion. If we have that views, and the goodness of their lives, that gained them such valuable support.

good fortune at all, we may well pride From "The Pilgrim Fathers," by Winnifred Cockshott,

ourselves less on being their blood deof St. Hilda's Hall, Oxford.

scendants than on being in some measWENTIETH-CENTURY America Pilgrims, but often it is ludicrously mis- ure the worthy heritors of their un

takes but a languid interest in conceived and misdirected, who daunted spirit and their consecration to

the golden age of antiquity. In should praise Napoleon for his modesty, their vision of truth and righteousness. the face of a torn and agitated world it or Henry VIII for his domestic virtues. They respected law and human personis complacently disposed to believe that It has been said that it is better not to ality. Rank and social position as life is to-day fuller, more interesting, know so much than to know so much known in the polite world were to them and more agreeable than at any previous which is not true, and similarly it may

an abomination, and in turn, as was not time in the history of man, and that be advisable to praise our forebears less unnatural, they

despised and to-morrow is likely to reveal still fur- or to praise them more justly.

persecuted by the leaders of that world. ther promise. And yet at these dinners, The Pilgrim is often lauded as the Liberty they valued above all, but only and similar ceremonies held elsewhere, founder of religious liberty; and it is

as a prerequisite to the fulfillment of the Pilgrim Fathers are extolled in true that by his struggle to secure op- duty, to obedience to divine law, fealty terms which would have brought the portunity to worship according to his

to the Maker of all things. Thoroughblush of shame to their tanned and sal- conscience he contributed to this great

going democracy, universal suffrage, and low cheeks; and this despite the fact cause. But the liberty he sought for the like were far from their ideals. that their descendants could by no pos- himself he was reluctant to grant to We find among them also a position sible means be induced to exchange others. A witty commentator has ob- assigned to the family which made it their present lot for that of these heroic served in regard to the Massachusetts the very foundation of the religious life ancestors. We praise, but we do not Bay Colony, that after ten years its of the individual and the community. envy.

members had so far secured religious He would be bold who should assert Not only is praise lavished upon the liberty that any one who agreed with that our contemporary status of the fam

the elders was at perfect liberty to say ily is an advance upon theirs. More 1 This paper was delivered as an Address at the One Hundred and Sixtrenth Annual Dinner

SO.

Others were irresistibly urged to over, they valued education, and from of the New England Society in the City of New York on December 22, 1921.

return to England or to cultivate their the first moment set themselves to pro

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