Слике страница


that the people should hold the Senate

fortunate for Britain that that alliance accountable for the way it exercises its

was in force at the beginning of the Constitutional power, that citizens

World War in 1914. It relieved Britain should let the Senate know their opinion

of much anxiety concerning the situation and insist that in dealing with each

in the Pacific. At this time of Britain's treaty it must not be swayed by personal

need Japan proved to be a faithful and or partisan considerations, but only by

efficient ally. She was the chief instruthe sense of responsibility to the Nation

ment in clearing the Pacific of the as a whole.

Germans. For the performance of her At present the Senate has before it

duties there she secured from her allies as important a body of treaties as it

a pledge of reward. · As a consequence, was ever called upon to consider. Those

Japan's power in the Far East rapidly treaties are the outcome of the Arma

became paramount. She had never bement Conference, which was held in

fore had so free a hand. She was able accord with the Senate's own advice. In

to dictate to China her own will in perthat Conference the Senate was repre

emptory terms. She strengthened her sented by leaders of both parties. The

hold in Manchuria and virtually OCcourse of that Conference was known to

cupied, as a conqueror would occupy, a the Senate from the beginning to the

large part of Siberia. Secure from end. During the Conference the negotia

interference by Great Britain by virtue tions were appreciably affected by the

of this Anglo-Japanese Alliance, she expressions of opinion in the Senate.

assumed an attitude much like that of The committees of the Conference made (C) Harris & Ewing

Prussia before the war. Indeed, in milpublic their proceedings to an extent


itary matters and in large measure in not always true of the committees of

the conduct of foreign affairs Japan

THE VETERAN AND the Senate itself. If the Senate is not

molded herself upon the German model. well acquainted with the details, not


Many of those in control of Japan's only of the treaties which are before it,

foreign policies were frankly admirers but also of the negotiations by means

Next week's issue of The Outlook

of Germany, and were able to direct of which they were framed, it is not will contain a plea for the bonus by Japan's course in accordance with the for lack of opportunity. Those treaties

doctrine of militarism because the al

HANFORD MACNIDER have been subjected to the scrutiny of

liance with Britain freed them from

Commander of the American Legion the Senate's Committee on Foreign Re

restraint. lations and approved, with im- It will be accompanied by letters This situation occasioned some conmaterial reservation, by that Committee. from other veterans of the World cern in Britain, no little alarm in the There is every reason, therefore, for

War whose views differ variously British Dominions, and much suspicion public opinion to expect the Senate to from that of the Legion's Com- in America. Men of foresight in Britain pass upon these treaties promptly with

mander. These letters constitute

were not altogether pleased to find theman intelligent understanding of them.

an important cross-section of vet

selves in alliance with a Power that Although these treaties have not been eran opinion. Together with these

threatened to gain domination over Asia formally “intertwined,” they constitute

Jetters will appear special corre- where Britain's interests lay. Austrain fact a single whole. They can be

spondence telling how Canada

lians and New Zealanders did not like considered separately. Some could con

has handled the problem of the

to find themselves in alliance with an ceivably be rejected and others accepted.

returned soldier.

Asiatic Power whose encroachments In substance, however, they are so re

they feared, but at the same time saw lated to one another that the omission to fear the encroachment of Imperialist no protection against that Asiatic Power of any one of them would greatly impair Russia. For generations Great Britain apart from an alliance with it. And the value of the others.

has followed a consistent policy of check- Americans, though repeatedly assured Of them all the treaty which is es- ing the rise of rival Powers which might that the alliance was not directed against sential to the success of the policy threaten the safety of her Empire. For their country, saw no good in a military which they represent is the one known this purpose she has found it convenient partnership between the greatest naval as the Four-Power Treaty concerning to associate herself now with one nation Power in the Atlantic on one side of the islands of the Pacific. If that is or group of nations, now with another, them, and the greatest Power in the approved, the others will put into opera- which for the time being have interests Pacific on the other side. tion an experiment which has a reason- in common with her. It was in pursuit When the Armament Conference met able chance of success. If that is dis- of this policy that she entered into the at Washington, this situation was the approved, the others can scarcely be alliance with Japan. At that time this greatest obstacle to a good understandmore than palliatives and can certainly alliance was not only in the interest of ing between America, Britain, and not be depended upon to make any Great Britain, but also in the interest Japan. What Japan had done to China fundamental change in the conditions of the peace of the world. It is true, it and to Siberia when her freedom of which portend conflict in the Far East. did not prevent the Russo-Japanese War, action was unlimited, except by the What makes this Four-Power Treaty but it did prevent that war from involv- remonstrances of America herself, did essential to any new and better policy ing other nations and possibly becom- not promise well for future peace in the in the Far East is the fact that if it ing a world war. With the defeat of Far East. The agreements made in that goes into effect it will put an end to the Russia the alliance between Great Conference for the limitation of naval menacing military alliance between Britain and Japan would have ceased to armaments and for respecting the integGreat Britain and Japan.

serve any good end if it had not been rity of China and the rights of all When that alliance was first made, for the growth of the aggressive spirit nations without discrimination in China both Great Britain and Japan had reason in Prussianized Germany. It was most modify the situation of themselves, but


not wish in any case of dispute even to confer with you; and we prefer that you should keep up your military partner. ship.”





do not supplant it with another. As long as the Anglo-Japanese Alliance stands, as long as the militarist party of Japan has the free hand which the alliance with Britain gives them, so long will the situation in the Far East remain essentially unchanged.

It is the Four-Power Treaty which Changes the situation. It does this by abolishing the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and substituting for it, not an alliance directed against any nation, but an understanding between four Powers to respect one another's rights, and in case of any dispute to confer. Instead of an attempt to threaten the use of force, which is the essence of an alliance, this is an attempt to remove the fear which occasions force. As Colonel Vestal in his book on "The Maintenance of Peace" says: "The actual motive for conquest has in it oftentimes an element of fear; for the nation which attempts conquest is often in fear lest it should itself be conquered, if it does not secure itself by conquering its neighbors beforehand." This Four-Power mutual pledge for the respect of one another's rights, not only thus abolishes a menacing alliance, but also removes that fear which serves as a reason, or excuse, for domination.

The United States Senate ought to be under no misapprehension as to the effect of its vote upon this treaty. A vote against the treaty is a vote for an alliance--a vote, in fact, for an alliance in which America has no part. A vote for the treaty is a vote, not only against this alliance, but against all alliances in the Far East. If the treaty is adopted, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance is at an end; if it is not adopted, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance will continue and will have added significance by the very fact of the rejection of its substitute.

We can hardly believe that the country wishes the Senate to say virtually to Creat Britain and Japan: "We decline to promise to respect your rights; we do

HE football scandal at the Univer

sities of Illinois and Notre Dame

was perhaps a deciding factor in reopening the whole question of the handling of college athletics. The present discussion has naturally centered about the game of football. Presi. dent Lowell, of Harvard, in his annual report, conservatively stated the problem in the following words:

The present policy in college football has not been the result of a deliberate plan. It has grown up by a consideration of the questions presented year by year, and is not based upon any principle recognized as imperative by faculties, alumni, and spectators. The public interest in the sport, as a spectacle, has become general over the country, and has increased markedly since the war. It has tended to give excessive importarce to college athletic contests. That intercollegiate matches have a distinct value in stimulating sports, which are the best form of physical exercise in youth, few people would be inclined to deny; but the single boat race between Oxford and Cambridge on the Thames, and

the cricket match between those universities, supplemented in each case by a series of intramural contests, has been enough to stimulate unflagging interest in those sports among the students. Judging from the effect of the race at New London, one may ask whether or not the same plan would be sufficient in football. The necessity of maintaining for this purpose a public spectacle attended by thousands of spectators every Saturday throughout the autumn is certainly not clear; and whether it ought to be maintained for any other object is a matter worth consideration. Like many other questions touching the direction of undergraduate life, this is one that affects all American col

leges, and it would be well for faculties, administrators, and governing bodies to consider afresh the proper place of public intercollegiate athletic contests in the scheme of education.

Elsewhere in this issue we publish an address by President Meiklejohn, of Amherst College, in which he discusses briefly and pertinently the main issues confronting our educational institutions in their handling of the athletic problemi.

Certainly, so far as football is concerned, the leading institutions have progressed towards better standards in the past few years-standards which, if adhered to, would do much towards settling the present controversy. It

to us that the rule which requires one year of attendance at a college before a player can represent his institution is sound and essential. To this should be added, we believe, a rule forbidding an athlete to represent more than one institution of collegiate rank in the course of his educational career. Such a rule would put a stop to the tramp athlete and the temptation to shift colleges for the sake of athletic prestige. Strict adherence to these two rules, plus the dropping from intercollegiate relationships of any institution which did not live up to strict amateur standards, would cure many of the present evils.

As President Meiklejohn points out, the overdevelopment of the coaching system cannot be controlled by the action of any one institution. It can be controlled and regulated, just as the competition in naval armaments has been regulated, by the action of a joint conference. The “Yale News" has already come forward with a suggestion for such joint action on the part of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton-a suggestion which ought to bear good fruit. Such a conference between these natural and historic rivals would have a farreaching influence upon intercollegiate relationships throughout the country.




[ocr errors]

N these brief sketches of “The Cruci. began the study of the Gospels over ments; that all three are founded, as

fiers" I have made free use of my sixty years ago, that it has been con- Luke says his is, on previous material;

“Jesus of Nazareth," published in tinued with intermissions ever since, that they were not written with a theo1882 but now out of print, and of a that in that study I have read, I hope logical or dogmatic purpose, and are course of lectures on the life of Christ with an open mind, the writings of ra- marvelously free from personal and delivered in 1887 but never published in tionalistic, Jewish, Roman Catholic, and party prejudice; and that the Fourth this country; like those publications, Protestant scholars of various schools, Gospel was written either by John or these sketches are based on the Four and that the conclusion I early reached, by some of his disciples acting as his Gospels. As the authenticity of these confirmed by subsequent studies, is that amanuenses or reporters, and gives us narratives has been called in question, the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and the fullest and best account of Christ's it is proper to advise the reader that I Luke are trustworthy historical docu- ministry in Judea. In this chapter on

Judas it is necessary to rely somewhat stoned from the Temple, foretelling his openly condemned the waste. He even upon surmise, since no one of the Evan- own cruel death and inviting his fol- succeeded in communicating his sentigelists has attempted any analysis of lowers to share his cross with him. ments to some of the other disciples. his enigmatical character.

Christ's teachings on Tuesday in the Christ sharply rebuked the rebuker.

Temple put an end to this conflict in "Let her alone,” he said. Then he Judas of Kerioth, a small village the soul of Judas. In those teachings added, with infinite pathos, “She hath about thirty miles south of Jerusalem, Jesus made it clear that the kingdom of done this to my burial.” was the only Judean among the twelve. God was not a Jewish kingdom; the The rebuke thus administered to Judas Presumably he belonged by birth and vineyard was to be taken from Judah was less severe than the one which education to the priestly party, was and given to heathen nations; her house Jesus had not long before administered often at the Temple, and was trained was to be left to her desolate. In the to Peter. But impulsive love was the from his earliest youth in reverence for revelations of that hour the dream of keynote to Peter's character; self-love its sacrificial services, certainly shared Judas vanished. He seemed to himself was the master passion of the soul of in the universal expectations of a tem- the victim of an unwarrantable delusion. Judas. Love accepts any rebuke; selfporal Messiah and in the almost univer- He rehearsed in his mind the repeated

love submits to none. Judas escaped at sal prejudice which looked with rancor promises of the Master, and forgot the

the earliest moment from the room, upon the Gentile world. The brief warnings and interpretations which ac- sought some of the chief priests and glimpses we obtain of his life indicate companied them. He was the victim of communicated to them his readiness to that he was in temperament hard, an unwarrantable delusion, but it was betray his former Master. Even in the sensuous, materialistic, and was pos- that of his own selfish and sensuous excitement of that hour did not forsessed of the too common vice of the imagination.

get his ruling passion. The priests descendants of Jacob, avarice. He be- To abandon a failing cause, to return agreed to pay him thirty shekels for his came the treasurer of the little company, to Judaism because Christianity had service. The die was cast, and Judas and, according to John, was not always nothing to offer to him, to return empty. only awaited the opportunity to fulfill honest in the management of his trust. handed and confessing failure, was more

his design. So long as Christ preached only, “The than the sensitive ambition of Judas I need not here retell the familiar kingdom of God is at hand," Judas fol- could endure. But why return empty story of the betrayal. The crime was lowed him, undoubting. His faith that handed? For over two years the Judaic committed when the bargain was made, he would soon share in the glories of party had sought in vain the charmed and here it is the crime of Judas which the expected kingdom was the common life of the Galilean rabbi. He that concerns us. faith of all. It is evident from various should destroy for Judaism this young incidents that Peter expressed the feel- Goliath who had defied it, would he not In the seventh chapter of Romans ing of the twelve by his naïve ques. receive the hosannas of victory from Paul has told the story of a similar contion: “We have forsaken all and fol. priest and from people? Judas saw him- flict in his own soul between the flesh lowed thee; what therefore shall we self crowned by the party of his youth and the spirit. "I do not understand," have?" When Christ refused the prof- and the vote of the Chief Council. This, he says, "why I act as I do. For what fered crown, Judas was perplexed; when not the paltry sum of thirty pieces of I would, that I do not; and what I hate, he told the people that it was only by silver, was the price his imagination that I do." What reader of this article death he could enter into his kingdom, offered him for the betrayal of his Lord. does not know that experience? Only Judas showed signs of disappointment He forgot that always the reward of a very perfect saint or a hopelessly that did not escape the sensitive heart of treachery is scorn-scorn heaviest from hardened sinner can be wholly ignorant John; when in distincter language Jesus those who profit by it. So did Arnold of it. Christ warned his disciples of prophesied his crucifixion, Judas, we forget. So does every traitor.

the peril of such a divided life in the may be sure, approved Peter's rebuke Gradually resentment developed into saying, “Ye cannot serve God and Mamof the Master; when Jesus uttered his revenge. His dark thoughts, gradually mon."

But the persistent endeavor to first philippic against the Pharisees, as they had grown, carefully as they do the impossible is not uncommon. Judas would be one of the first to insti. had been hidden under an almost im- Amiel pictures the spirit of allegiance gate, if not himself to utter, the caution, penetrable reserve, Jesus had divined. to the world graphically. “All the “Knowest thou that the Pharisees were More than once he had told his disci- world' is the greatest of powers; it is offended?" Such teachings of Jesus as ples, “The Son of man shall be betrayed.” sovereign and calls itself we. We dress, the parable of the rich fool, and that of The disciples on such occasions looked we dine, we walk, we go out, we come Dives and Lazarus, and his rejection of with wondering suspicion at each other; in, like this and not like that. This we the rich young ruler, Judas would have most of all perhaps at Judas, who was is always right, whatever it does. resented if he understood them.

not a Galilean. If these occasions did What we does or says is called custom, His religious prejudices must also not reveal Judas to the twelve, they re- what it thinks is called opinion, what have been often shocked-by Christ's vealed him to himself. Did the Master it believes to be beautiful or good is indifference to the Temple and its sacri- hope that such indication to Judas of called fashion." ficial system; by his disregard of the the path he was traveling would cause Whoever accepts ue as his sovereign ceremonial regulations which orthodox him to turn back? It had a contrary in business, in politics, and in SOJudaism had added to the simple moral effect. Judas writhed in angrier indig ciety during the week and endeavors code of primitive Judaism; by his re- nation, because he understood the appli- to appease his conscience by adoring peated rebukes of the priestly party; cation and the justice of the warning. Christ as his sovereign in church serand by his repeated condemnation of Such was his state of mind when a vices on Sunday; whoever, professing to race prejudice in such teachings as the very simple incident crystalized grow. accept Christ's principles as his guide, parable of the Good Samaritan and the ing design into an instant and well- compromises them in a vain endeavor Prodigal Son.

defined resolve. On the return of Jesus to make them harmonize with the cusWith the continuance of Christ's min- from the conflicts in the Temple to the tom, the opinion, and the fashion of the istry the conflict in the soul of Judas home of Martha and Mary, they made time, has entered on the path which became increasingly bitter. Jesus an entertainment for him; Judas of Judas trod to its tragic end. Paul found thronged with admirers, promising his course was among the guests. The sup- escape by his faith in a pardoning and disciples to sit on twelve thrones, riding per was Martha's homage to Jesus. life-giving God. Judas surrendered to in triumphal procession into Jerusalem, After the supper Mary offered him hers his demon, and then tried to flee from Judas was proud to follow; but he had -a box of very valuable ointment. With himself by endeavoring to flee from life. no use for a Messiah sitting at meat it she anointed the head of Jesus, the To what by his suicide did he flee? At with the despised Zaccheus, exiled from remainder she poured on Jesus' feet. death the impenetrable curtain falls. Judea, mobbed from the synagogue,

Judas forgot his careful reticence, and We do not know.

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[graphic][ocr errors]




The great interest in radio operation al over the United States iy indicated by the assembling of a convention of operators in Washington, D. C. The photograph shows members of the convention in the dynamo room at the Government wireless station

at Arlington

Wide World Photos

« ПретходнаНастави »