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so lost to the association is deducted offers John ten cents above market. Pacific coast, whose business has grown from the face of the note—in other John goes and turns his offer in to the to a volume of something like $125,000,words, the note is sold, the loss de manager of the association, who sells 000 a year, and whose agents you will ducted, and the balance turned back to the load for him to the buyer! John find in every fair-sized city from the the grower, whose stock share in the gets his price, and the buyer gets his Pacific to the Atlantic. And, going back association is also made liable for de- potatoes. And if the buyer wants more, to the Danes, it is a plan that has made sertion losses.

the manager can help him get them. Danish butter and Danish bacon the Naturally, one might think that such This supposititious case is one of en standard of quality in these products the a binding agreement would meet with tirely fair competition. But suppose the world over. opposition. In point of fact, in the in- buyer comes in for the purpose of put. The Exchange is formed, not by the stance above mentioned and in the case ting the association out of business. individual farmers, but by the local asof the Michigan Potato Exchange, this Don't you see how the same plan will sociations. The local association gathers binding contract has been one of the work? He will get potatoes at his own and grades and handles and ships out leading selling features. A guaranteed price-all the potatoes that the associa the produce of its members. But just acreage, and the control of that acreage, tion controls, if he holds out that long. as the individual agrees with it to sell means business volume and the business And with every bushel he buys he adds through it, so the local in turn agrees stability of the association, and the man to the success of the business he is try to sell only through the Exchange, and who might hesitate about going in ing to down!

pledges itself to that effect, giving as a without such assurance feels that he is Does the plan actually work that way? guaranty a $500 note to the Exchange. joining a strong organization.

Ask those who have tried it. Ask the All the business relationships between Under this plan of pledging it is pro- Michigan Potato Exchange, Cadillac, the two, including the sales privilege of vided that the note given shall be used Michigan. Or ask the farmers' elevator the local, offered a higher bid than the for no other purpose than as a protec- men who have adopted, in an informal market, are the same as for the local tion to the association against loss way and years ago, similar methods to association I have already described. through breach of contract, and for the defeat the "cutting under" policy of the And just as the local is managed from further purpose of establishing a revolv- line houses. Of course it works!

its membership, so the Exchange plan ing fund out of which to conduct the So, as the first and most important of management makes each local a memcurrent business of shipping.

part of the new co-operative programme, ber, with one vote, and provides that And since the Potato Exchange fol- we have a local association built along the directors shall come from the memlows the sound co-operative practice of correct business lines, according to well- bership of the locals. This system pronot buying outright, but merely moving established co-operative principles, and vides both a local association and a the produce forward to market on joint safeguarded against business undermin wholesale organization, directed and account for all the shippers, substan- ing by the new-to us-feature of the controlled by the farmers who compose tially as done by the live-stock shipping pledged business of the member.

the locals. In so far as possible the plan associations and the creameries, this But the big job in marketing, as we safeguards against the danger of too guaranty note is peculiarly safe, in a are coming to understand, is to get onto much centralized power. And as far as business way, from any loss through the terminal market with enough vol. it has been tried out in this country mismanagement.

ume of business to command the at such centralization has not reached a Some one, I am sure, is wondering tention of the buyers—with enough so point where the welfare of the indijust how this will work in case the that we can go out and hunt the best vidual has been lost to sight. grower is offered a price better than markets and place our products upon In conclusion, just a word about what that bid by the association. A fair them.

this plan of federated co-operation does question. It would be a one-sided bar- And on these larger markets the small to, or rather with, the "middleman," of gain that would force the grower to offerings of the local association are at whom we hear so much. It doesn't do deliver to the association at all times a disadvantage. The direct competition away with him. That, as any one who and cause him to lose sales that he of individual farmers is replaced by the has studied the actual labor performed might secure through accepting outside no less direct competition of individual in moving a car of wheat or hay or live bids.

associations. The work done by one stock or potatoes forward from the proAnd right here is where the competi- group of middlemen has been taken ducer to the consumer knows, is impostive buyer has always done his most over, only to find that we are up against sible. But it does take over his workeffective work of destruction. He has another line of the same sort of fellows, makes him, if you please, the hired man paid above the market until the co- firmly intrenched in the trade knowl- of the farmer. And this is as it should operative association has been crushed, edge and trade practices and trade ac- be. Without destroying or even disand then has taken it out of the hides quaintance acquired during a lifetime in turbing any of the machinery that soof the men he used as tools for the the business.

ciety has painfully built up through cendestruction of their own association. The answer to this situation is the turies of experimentation as to the best The new plan-I call it new merely be federation of the local co-operative asso- ways of selling and buying, under the cause we of the Middle West have just ciations and the formation by such fed federated co-operative plan the farmer begun to adopt it, though it is perhaps eration of one central selling agency steps forward and takes a place in the fifty years old in Denmark and in Hol- having a large enough volume of busi- big markets; and whether he shall go land and has had a shorter but success- ness so that it can afford to go out and still further forward toward the conful life in the fruit-growing regions here establish its own connections with the sumer, or whether he shall wait for the in America—the new plan provides in jobbing or retail markets, or, at any consumer to organize and come the the contract that the grower may have rate, come as close to the consumer as other half of the way to meet him, is the benefit of the highest price offered, it is possible for it to come, with profit still a question of the future. but that he shall turn all bids in to the to the producer, whose indirect agent But that the farmer has found a form (1xsociation! it is.

of co-operation that will bring him What happens ? John Jones comes to This is the Potato Exchange plan, safely, and with power in his arm, into town with a load of potatoes, or any. now in successful operation in Michi- the wholesale markets of the Nation is thing else pledged under this plan. Call gan, and already adopted in Minnesota, no longer a question. It is a fact, to be it potatoes. A buyer is in town, anxious New Jersey, and Colorado. It is the used by him in such fashion as he sees to get a car loaded out that day. He plan of the citrus-fruit growers of the fit.

BY ALEXANDER MEIKLEJOHN

PRESIDENT OF AMHERST COLLEGE

N intercollegiate game is, or ought

to be, a contest between the unII dergraduates of two competing colleges. It should be managed by undergraduates, coached by undergraduates, and played by undergraduates. Our National vice of over-administration has in all these respects robbed the games of their proper character. Our games are managed by outsiders, coached by outsiders, and, in a very real and lamentable sense, played by outsiders. For this the authorities of the college are largely responsible. In our games, just as in our teaching, we have said, “What the undergraduates cannot do for themselves we will do for them." And the result is in both cases rather pitiful.

Thirty or thirty-five years ago our colleges made what is for older people always a startling discovery, that boys are in danger of over-emphasizing sports. They thereupon took over the management of those sports to keep them within proper bounds. The favorite device was to set up Joint Boards of Control, on which faculty, graduates,

(C) Geo. H. Hill and undergraduates were represented.

THE HARVARD STADIUM, THE OLDEST OF THE GREAT ARENAS DEVOTED TO MODERN To that and like forms of organization

COLLEGE ATHLETICS. IT WAS THE GIFT OF A GRADU'ATE CLASS we owe most of the exaggeration of college sport. It has the authority and our games annual contests between excluded. Just so far as possible it is prestige of all the parts of the college themselves. This is what we get as the desirable that we give to the people or university. It becomes inevitably an

fruit of our attempt to keep the game about us a chance to see good, spirited

fruit of our independent body, representing all other of our students within proper bounds. sport. bodies, and therefore subject to none. As against it, surely, we must say that On the other hand, I do not think that It has done in the way of enlarging the students should coach their own teams winning teams really add to the repute scope of athletic management what no and win or lose their own games.

of a college. A winning team does not undergraduate board would ever have I should stop here to discuss for what indicate very strongly that a college is dreamed of doing or being allowed to teams coaching is or is not allowable, giving good education. And, in the last do. It has built Stadiums, Coliseums, but the time is too short. Let me say resort, the only worth while recommenBowls; it has brought the gate receipts simply that as genuine competition dation of a college is that it does give of a team for a season into the hundreds

comes in outside coaching must go out.
comes in o

good education. There is much nonof thousands of dollars. In a word, it There is a difference between teaching sense talked about other kinds of adverhas over-managed our college games, and coaching.

tising. has given them the money and the pub- And, thirdly, coaches and graduate Nor should I like to be understood as lic place from which every other type managers in greater or less degree bring attacking the games or their importance of exaggeration inevitably comes.

into the college outsiders, men who are in college life. Next to the studies, I In the second place, this over-manage in no genuine sense members of the col- should place them as the determining ment has given us over-coaching. In lege, to play on its teams. Here, again, and beneficial influences in the life of every college a staff of "outsiders”—so are the fruits of our own wisdom.

a college community. far as the game is concerned, graduates I am not saying, or intending to say, But what I do say is that we, the color non-graduates of the college—are that undergraduates have too much in lege authorities, have foozled our atbrought in to take charge of the team. terest in their athletic games. My own tempt to control and direct these games. These men build up a system. In the impression is that their active interest It is time that we began to give them hands of that system the players are is too little, rather than too great. They their freedom, demanding at the same puppets used in the conflict, with a like supplement our desire by preferring to time that they respect the rights of system elsewhere. If we have one their own the more "efficient" manage those other activities which we have in coach, Williams must have two; and ment of their elders.

control. Good sport rests upon equal then we, three. We will not allow our I do not think that, on the whole, we terms of competition, and so it is hard students to earn money by playing, be- play too many games, though in man

play too many games, though in many for any college to do much alone. But cause that would destroy the amateur cases the trips are far too long and ex- by co-operation we might work our way quality of the college sport. But these pensive. One game of football in a back out of the desert or the tempest. outsiders, demanding for ten weeks' week, two of baseball—this is not too If only Harvard or Yale or Princeton, work salaries twice those paid to our much if the distances are reasonable. or all three, would call a conference and best professors for a year—these out. And the intercollegiate visiting is, or would announce the scrapping of boards siders make the rules of the games, might be, both delightful and worth of control, and especially of armies of dominate the play, and substitute for while.

coaches, the way to peace might be

I do not think the games should be opened. If the way were found, I think 1 From an address delivered before the Alumni of Amherst in Neil York City. made private affairs, the "public" being we would all very gladly follow it.

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From H. O. Barnthouse, Toledo, Ohio
PACKED AND READY FOR A FIFTEEN-MILE HIKE HOME, WELL LOADED

WITH MOUNTAIN SHEEP
The scene is on Windy Peak, Broad Pass, Alaska. These are ex-service men who are now with
the Alaskan Engineering Commission, engaged in the construction of the new railway to Fairbanks

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Courtesy of Catifornia Academy of Sciences

THE MOUNT DOME ANTELOPE REFUGE IN SISKTYOU COUNTY, CALIFORNIA This photograph, taken January 15, 1922, shows about forty wild pronghorn antelope coming up to the feeding ground. The refuge was established in November, 1921. under the auspices of the California Academy of Sciences, California Fish and Game Commission, United States Forest Service, New York Zoological Society, and the American Bison Society. The pronghorn antelope has been threatened with extinction, and this refuge will no doubt prove a great aid in

its preservation

in

UNDERGROUND RIVERS OF WASTE constantıy occurring through wholesale

- percentages of workers passing in and BY FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT

Out of work on separate jobs. The low

production from inefficient workmanship TUTASTEFULNESS is an American sponsibility of labor is real. but less in in all the trades studied is also partly trait, the by-product of vast degree. Management has the greater

is the greater due to the failure of management to prow National resources and of the genius, the greater capacity. It has vide opportunities for education or sperapid exploitation of these resources. also, therefore, the greater obligation. cial training in the processes and operaFor the first time in our history there According to the definition of the en- tions of the particular trade. But much is an overwhelming economic pinch, fol- gineers, management is the art and ineffective workmanship arises also lowing the Great War and stretching science of preparing, organizing, and from lack of interest and lack of pride around the world. We have turned our directing the human effort which is ap- on the part of a good deal of unreattention in this country, as never be plied to control the forces and to utilize generate human nature in the labor fore, to the problem of waste-waste in the materials of nature for the benefit population. Governmental expenditures and proc. of man. Management is the general. The survey does not spare wasteful esses, waste in industry.

The mistakes of management are of regulations of labor unions. RecogniWe happen to have in public life at vital consequence.

tion is clear of the fact that in the past this period a very great engineering Of the whole burden of waste dis- enormous losses have been produced mind, that of Herbert Hoover, Secretary closed by the engineering survey within

osed by the engineering survey within through direct or indirect restrictions of of Commerce in President Harding's the six great branches of industry under output. Among these narrow and unCabinet and organizer of relief on an review, the findings place over fifty per wise regulations which are condemned international scale during the World cent of the responsibility at the door of are the requiring of skilled men to do War. The function of the genuine en management and less than twenty-five work that could be performed by the gineer, in the broad sense, is the applica- per cent at the door of labor. There are unskilled; the restricting of individual tion of organizing intelligence to human outstanding examples of good manage incentive through making wages too affairs.

ment, but the average of management is uniform; the limiting of the number of Towards the end of 1920 the Fed much below the standards set by certain apprentices in the interests of a labor erated American Engineering Societies individual executives who have achieved monopoly; the excessive reduction of became a reality; Herbert Hoover was notable success.

working hours; the absurd opposition to elected its first President, and he at once In shoe production, for example, there labor-saving devices; the jurisdictional suggested a study into the wastes of in- is very little system about the economiz- rules which distribute certain types of dustry in this country. Early in 1921 ing of leather, and the loss from idle- work to different trades without regard seventeen engineers were selected for ness occasioned by waiting for work and to expense. In one case in order to the work. For the purpose of arousing material amounts to more than a third move a pump and set it in a different public attention immediately they pro- of the time. In the building trades and location in the foundation hole it was ceeded to make a swift intensive study the printing trades, while of course any necessary to get a pair of steam-fitters of six typical branches of industry, in thing like complete standardization is to disconnect the steam-pipe, a pair of order to stimulate general action and impractical and undesirable, there is plumbers to remove the suction apparalay the foundation for further investiga much opportunity for reasonable stand- tus and replace it, a structural-iron man tion. Within six months a report was ardization of thickness of soles and to erect the rig to lift the pump, and an made to the American Engineering brands of paper, for example, which engineer to operate the valves on the Council and to the country upon the would result in a considerable margin pump. This took eight men for the findings of the Committee. The report of saving in these particular fields.

operation who had to be taken from as a whole represents the combined The majority of the plants studied other work, whereas one man assisted effort of eighty engineers and their asso- had no adequate knowledge of costs and by a laborer could have accomplished ciates. The six typical studies included no method of judging accurately when the entire job. the building trades, men's ready-made improvements are needed and when Certain painters' unions do not perclothing, boots and shoes, printing, waste is taking place. In the men's mit their men to use a brush wider than metal trades, and textile manufacture. clothing plants there are no research 412 inches for oil paints, although for

The findings may be summed up in a methods to improve materials, processes, certain classes of work a wider brush is single paragraph. We are a powerful equipment, or product. In the shoe in more economical. Painters' unions reindustrial country, but we have much dustry the number of plants using mod- fuse to allow their men to work on a yet to learn. We have ingenuity and ern employment methods is very few. job where a spraying machine is used. efficiency comparable with those of any The personal relations with the em- The claim is made, with little foundaother nation. But we tolerate to an ployees are defective, and men are dis- tion, the engineers find, that this is alarming degree wastes of labor conflict, charged or quit work without any execu- unhealthful. Plumbers and steam-fitters wastes of seasonal operation, wastes of tive knowing the reason why. Very prohibit the use of bicycles and vehicles unemployment, wastes through high la costly separations from the working of all sorts, charging up the walking bor turnover, wastes through speculative force are thus going on constantly, and time to the customer. booms and over-production. Above all, unnecessary expense connected with A part of this enormity of willful the industry of America, while exceed training new workers to take the place waste is also chargeable to owners and ingly favorably situated with respect to of those who leave is a growing burden. management. In the building trades, physical resources, is as yet profoundly The cost of training an inexperienced for example, widespread collusions belacking in that high average degree of man for cutting upper leather in a well- tween employers and labor have been the mental and moral forces of manage

managed shop is $576; for a semi- unearthed and conspiracies to maintain ment which alone make certain the per

experienced man the cost is $450. The high prices have greatly restricted promanent prosperity of the economic life high labor turnover here, as everywhere duction. of a country.

else in industry, is a great economic The engineers go into the problem of The survey puts the burden of waste

waste, and is due to the lack of human unemployment. They find that a millsquarely upon management. The re

sense and of human method on the part ion men are always unemployed in

of great sections of American manage America in the most prosperous time. I Waste in Industry. By the Committee on the Elimination of Wagte in Industry of the

ment. The building trades have given They find cyclical depressions occurring Federated American Engineering Societies. Pub

almost no consideration to the subject about a decade or less apart, with their lished by the Federated American Engineering Societies, Washington, C. of labor turnover, and large losses are

They wastage of productive capacity.

OLICI. BAARA9

This engineering survey computes that the enormous present loss from illness in industry could be materially reduced by co-operative effort and leave an economic balance in the working population alone over and above the cost of prevention of at least a billion dollars a year in America. The engineers also believe that a vast saving could be made through better control of industrial acci. dents than we seem yet to be capable of.

The remedy seems chiefly to be the employment of more brains and humanity on the part of American manage. ment. Labor organizations, now somewhat in the slough of popular disrepute, have an opportunity to draft for themselves a new bill of rights and responsibilities. The owners of industry through the banking function should insist upon the better stabilization of production. The Government has a duty to perform in providing some statistical and scientific center of expert vision which shall be the protecting eyes and ears of advancing industry. A body of principles

for the adjustment of labor disputes (C) Paul Thompson

must be built up soon out of human "WE HAPPEN TO HAVE IN PUBLIC LIFE AT THIS PERIOD A VERY GREAT ENGINEERING

sympathy and human experience. There MIND, THAT OF HERBERT HOOVER, SECRETARY OF COMMERCE IN PRESIDENT HARDING'S

must be an aggressive, continuous NaCABINET”

tional public health policy and the breakfind, of course, much intermittent unem- much individualism in the American ing down of the philosophy of narrow and ployment in the seasonal trades. They philosophy about such matters to insure destructive individualism in this field. estimate the losses from unemployment practical consideration of the problem. And a final word for the engineers. due to labor disturbances as less than the medical profession is actively hos- They are in a position to render disinpopularly supposed, inasmuch as more tile to the collective working out of terested expert service for the Governthan one-half the employees thrown out plans for the reduction of illness loss in ment, for the trade unions, for the emof work thereby are in highly irregular industry, and most owners and man- ployers' associations. They have an and seasonal occupations where the loss agers still look upon all genuine meth- open and detached point of view. They can be made up easily through a some ods of relief as an added burden upon are the party of the third part among what lengthened production during the business. And this in spite of the fact conflicting economic groups. They have working period which follows the strike. that the lessening of illness loss and the an intimate and peculiar understanding Nevertheless unemployment in the ag. strengthening of the health of the work of intricate industrial problems. They gregate is the most disquieting phe- ers results directly in increased quality line up with the facts. They are not nomenon in our industrial life, the most and quantity of production, much more swayed by the prejudices. They can be prolific source of social unrest, the prob- than sufficient to pay the costs, and used far more than they are now used lem most needing to be grappled with bringing effects in the direction of more to mark out a path for the elimination by the wise men in industry as well as human relations between employer and of vast human and economic waste in the wise men in government.

employee which pass all computation. the industrial life of America. There should be set up a National watch-tower, either of real industrial ex

THE NEW BOOKS perts within the Government or of similar experts co-operating within private

BIOGRAPHY

only solid inoral reality I have ever seen industry, or both, to catch the first signs LETTERS AND JOURNALS OF THOMAS incarnate;" he thought Henry Ward of too great industrial extension, of fall.

WENTWORTH HIGGINSON. 1846-1906.

Beecher “far less impressive intellectu

Edited by Mary Thatcher Higginson. Illusing demand, of approaching economic

trated. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bog ally than Mr. [Theodorel Parker. with disaster. The Federal Reserve Board ton. $4.

whom we naturally compare him," and has facilities for doing this in a meas The interest in these letters and he apparently never met or much conure, but its reaction was too slow in journals is more historical and less sidered such anti-slavery leaders, not 1920, when the present great depression literary than we had anticipated. They abolitionists, as Seward and Chase. appeared upon the distant horizon. will be read chiefly by two classes. VICTOR HUGO. By Madame Duclaux. Henry

The waste of ill health in industry is Those who have lived through this Holt & Co., New York. $3. discussed in terms of loss in production. period, 1846-1906, will be glad to have A fascinating story. It contains all There is no more depressing phase of their faded memories of persons and the elements of a modern melodrama. waste than this in the mills and fac- events refreshed and vivified. Those The hero passed through the experitories of the United States. It is par who are studying or reading that criti. ences of poverty, competence, poverty ticularly depressing because, although cal period in American history will find again, and ended a “multi-millionaire in the great extent of illness loss to work- significant incidents described which francs;" he was at first an enthusiastic ers and to production is well known, give the atmosphere of the times as the monarchist and later an enthusiastic very little has been done to check it. In greater events do not. There are some radical; he was the idol of the people. this field intelligent and co-operative admirable thumb-nail sketches of men but fled from France for his life and effort between employer and employee is whom America will not readily forget remained in self-exile until the death of absolutely essential; and there is still and vivid pictures of a class of radical Napoleon III; he was a poetical believer far too much hostility between the reformers, the stormy petrels of their in God, but in his will wrote, “I refuse worker and his employer in America to epoch. Colonel Higginson was a radical the service of all churches;” he was a insure effective collective action in ill- abolitionist; he admired William Lloyd moral reformer but could not reform ness prevention; there is still far too Garrison, whom he describes as “the himself, a humanitarian but so supreme

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