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UNDERGROUND RIVERS OF WASTE
constantıy occurring through wholesale
percentages of workers passing in and BY FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT
"Out of work on separate jobs. The low
production from inefficient workmanship ASTEFULNESS is an American sponsibility of labor is real, but less in in all the trades studied is also partly trait, the by-product of vast degree. Management has the greater
due to the failure of management to proNational resources and of the genius, the greater capacity. It has vide opportunities for education or sperapid exploi ation of these resources. also, therefore, the greater obligation.
cial training in the processes and operaFor the first time in our history there According to the definition of the en- tions of the particular trade. But much is an overwhelming economic pinch, fol- gineers, management is the art and ineffective workmanship arises also lowing the Great War and stretching science of preparing, organizing, and from lack of interest and lack of pride around the world. We have turned our directing the human effort which is ap- on the part of a good deal of unreattention in this country, as never be- plied to control the forces and to utilize generate human nature in the labor fore, to the problem of waste waste in the materials of nature for the benefit population. Governmental expenditures and proc- of man.
Management is the general. The survey does not spare wasteful esses, waste in industry.
The mistakes of management are of regulations of labor unions. RecogniWe happen to have in public life at vital consequence.
tion is clear of the fact that in the past this period a very great engineering Of the whole burden of waste dis- enormous losses have been produced mind, that of Herbert Hoover, Secretary closed by the engineering survey within through direct or indirect restrictions of of Commerce in President Harding's the six great branches of industry under output. Among these narrow and unCabinet and organizer of relief on an review, the findings place over fifty per wise regulations which are condemned international scale during the World cent of the responsibility at the door of
are the requiring of skilled men to do War. The function of the genuine en- management and less than twenty-five work that could be performed by the gineer, in the broad sense, is the applica- per cent at the door of labor. There are unskilled; the restricting of individual tion of organizing intelligence to human outstanding examples of good manage
incentive through making wages too affairs.
ment, but the average of management is uniform; the limiting of the number of Towards the end of 1920 the Fed- much below the standards set by certain apprentices in the interests of a labor erated American Engineering Societies individual executives who have achieved monopoly; the excessive reduction of became a reality; Herbert Hoover was notable success.
working hours; the absurd opposition to elected its first President, and he at once In shoe production, for example, there labor-saving devices; the jurisdictional suggested a study into the wastes of in
is very little system about the economiz- rules which distribute certain types of dustry in this country. Early in 1921 ing of leather, and the loss from idle- work to different trades without regard seventeen engineers were selected for ness occasioned by waiting for work and to expense. In one case in order to the work. For the purpose of arousing material amounts to more than a third move a pump and set it in a different public attention immediately they pro- of the time. In the building trades and
location in the foundation hole it was ceeded to make a swift intensive study the printing trades, while of course any- necessary to get a pair of steam-fitters of six typical branches of industry, in thing like complete standardization is to disconnect the steam-pipe, a pair of order to stimulate general action and impractical and undesirable, there is plumbers to remove the suction apparalay the foundation for further investiga- much opportunity for reasonable stand- tus and replace it, a structural-iron man tion. Within six months a report w ardization of thickness of soles and to erect the rig to lift the pump, and an made to the American Engineering brands of paper, for example, which engineer to operate the valves on the Council and to the country upon the would result in a considerable margin pump. This took eight men for the findings of the Committee. The report of saving in these particular fields. operation who had to be taken from as a whole represents the combined
The majority of the plants studied other work, whereas one man assisted effort of eighty engineers and their asso
had no adequate knowledge of costs and by a laborer could have accomplished ciates. The six typical studies included no method of judging accurately when the entire job. the building trades, men's ready-made improvements are needed and when Certain painters' unions do not perclothing, boots and shoes, printing, waste is taking place. In the men's mit their men to use a brush wider than metal trades, and textile manufacture.
clothing plants there are no research 412 inches for oil paints, although for The findings may be summed up in a methods to improve materials, processes,
certain classes of work a wider brush is single paragraph. We are a powerful equipment, or product. In the shoe in- more economical. Painters' unions reindustrial country, but we have much dustry the number of plants using mod
fuse to allow their men to work on a yet to learn. We have ingenuity and ern employment methods is very few. job where a spraying machine is used. efficiency comparable with those of any The personal relations with the em- The claim is made, with little foundaother nation. But we tolerate to an
ployees are defective, and men are dis- tion, the engineers find, that this is alarming degree wastes of labor conflict, charged or quit work without any execu- unhealthful. Plumbers and steam-fitters wastes of seasonal operation, wastes of tive knowing the reason why. Very prohibit the use of bicycles and vehicles unemployment, wastes through high la. costly separations from the working of all sorts, charging up the walking bor turnover, wastes through speculative force are thus going on constantly, and time to the customer. booms and over-production. Above all,
unnecessary expense connected with A part of this enormity of willful the industry of America, while exceed- training new workers to take the place waste is also chargeable to owners and ingly favorably situated with respect to of those who leave is a growing burden. management. In the building trades, physical resources, is as yet profoundly The cost of training an inexperienced for example, widespread collusions belacking in that high average degree of
man for cutting upper leather in a well- tween employers and labor have been the mental and moral forces of manage- managed shop is $576; for a semi- unearthed and conspiracies to maintain ment which alone make certain the per- experienced man the cost is $450. The high prices have greatly restricted promanent prosperity of the economic life high labor turnover here, as everywhere
duction. of a country.
else in industry, is a great economic The engineers go into the problem of The survey puts the burden of waste
waste, and is due to the lack of human unemployment. They find that a millsquarely upon management.
ion men are always unemployed in of great sections of American manage- America in the most prosperous time. I Waste in Industry. By the Committee the Elimination of Waste in Industry of the
ment. The building trades have given They find cyclical depressions occurring Federated American Engineering Societies. Pub
almost no consideration to the subject about a decade or less apart, with their lished by the Foderated American Enginvering Societies, Washington. ( of labor turnover, and large losses are
They wastage of productive capacity.
This engineering survey computes that the enormous present loss from illness in industry could be materially reduced by co-operative effort and leave an economic balance in the working population alone over and above the cost of prevention of at least a billion dollars a year in America. The engineers also believe that a vast saving could be made through better control of industrial acci. dents than we seem yet to be capable of.
The remedy seems chiefly to be the employment of more brains and humanity on the part of American manage. ment. Labor organizations, now somewhat in the slough of popular disrepute, have an opportunity to draft for themselves a new bill of rights and responsibilities. The owners of industry through the banking function should insist upon the better stabilization of production. The Government has a duty to perform in providing some statistical and scientific center of expert vision which shall be the protecting eyes and ears of advancing industry. A body of principles
for the adjustment of labor disputes (C) Paul Thompson
must be built up soon out of human "WE HAPPEN TO HAVE IN PUBLIC LIFE AT THIS PERIOD A VERY GREAT ENGINEERING
sympathy and human experience. There MIND, THAT OF HERBERT HOOVER, SECRETARY OF COMMERCE IN PRESIDENT HARDING'S
must be an aggressive, continuous NaCABINET"
tional public health policy and the breakfind, of course, much intermittent unem- much individualism in the American ing down of the philosophy of narrow and ployment in the seasonal trades. They philosophy about such matters to insure destructive individualism in this field. estimate the losses from unemployment practical consideration of the problem. And a final word for the engineers. due to labor disturbances as less than The medical profession is actively hos- They are in a position to render disinpopularly supposed, inasmuch as more tile to the collective working out of terested expert service for the Governthan one-half the employees thrown out plans for the reduction of illness loss in ment, for the trade unions, for the emof work thereby are in highly irregular industry, and most owners and man- ployers' associations. They have an and seasonal occupations where the loss agers still look upon all genuine meth- open and detached point of view. They can be made up easily through a some- ods of relief as an added burden upon are the party of the third part among what lengthened production during the business. And this in spite of the fact conflicting economic groups. They have working period which follows the strike. that the lessening of illness loss and the an intimate and peculiar understanding Nevertheless unemployment in the ag- strengthening of the health of the work- of intricate industrial problems. They gregate is the most disquieting phe- ers results directly in increased quality line up with the facts. They are not nomenon in our industrial life, the most and quantity of production, much more swayed by the prejudices. They can be prolific source of social unrest, the prob- than sufficient to pay the costs, and used far more than they are now used lem most needing to be grappled with bringing effects in the direction of more to mark out a path for the elimination by the wise men in industry as well as human relations between employer and of vast human and economic waste in the wise men in government.
employee which pass all computation. the industrial life of America. There should be set up a National watch-tower, either of real industrial ex
THE NEW BOOKS perts within the Government or of similar experts co-operating within private
only solid inoral reality I have ever seen industry, or both, to catch the first signs LETTERS
THOMAS incarnate;" he thought Henry Ward
WENTWORTH HIGGINSON. 1846-1906. of too great industrial extension, of fall.
Beecher “far less impressive intellectu
Edited by Mary Thatcher Higginson. Illusing demand, of approaching economic
Houghton Mifflin Company, Bog
ally than Mr. [Theodore] Parker, with disaster. The Federal Reserve Board ton. $4.
whom we naturally compare him," and has facilities for doing this in a meas- The interest in these letters and he apparently never met or much conure, but its reaction was too slow in journals is more historical and less sidered such anti-slavery leaders, not 1920, when the present great depression literary than we had anticipated. They abolitionists, as Seward and Chase. appeared upon the distant horizon. will be read chiefly by two classes. VICTOR HUGO. By Madame Duclaux. Henry
The waste of ill health in industry is Those who have lived through this Holt & Co., New York. $3. discussed in terms of loss in production. period, 1846-1906, will be glad to have A fascinating story. It contains all There is no more depressing phase of their faded memories of persons and the elements of a modern melodrama. waste than this in the mills and fac- events refreshed and vivified. Those The hero passed through the experitories of the United States. It is par- who are studying or reading that criti- ences of poverty, competence, poverty ticularly depressing because, although cal period in American history will find again, and ended a “multi-millionaire in the great extent of illness loss to work- significant incidents described which francs;" he was at first an enthusiastic ers and to production is well known, give the atmosphere of the times as the monarchist and later an enthusiastic very little has been done to check it. In greater events do not. There are some radical; he was the idol of the people, this field intelligent and co-operative admirable thumb-nail sketches of men but fled from France for his life and effort between employer and employee is whom America will not readily forget remained in self-exile until the death of absolutely essential; and there is still and vivid pictures of a class of radical Napoleon III; he was a poetical believer far too much hostility between the reformers, the stormy petrels of their in God, but in his will wrote, “I refuse worker and his employer in America to epoch. Colonel Higginson was a radical the service of all churches;" he was a insure effective collective action in ill- abolitionist; he admired William Lloyd moral reformer but could not reform ness prevention; there is still far too Garrison, whom he describes as "the himself, a humanitarian but so supreme
an egoist that he was called a Hugoist and the name, stuck; in song and story he idealized love and he loved children and children and women worshiped him: it is stated that both his wife and his mistress adored him and were not in actually hostile relations to each other. “Madame Duclaux, English by birth and French by long association," comprehends the French point of view but holds by the Anglo-Saxon standards.
ESSAYS AND CRITICISM
By Alexander Black. Harper & Brothers,
FLAME AND SHADOW. By Sara Teasdale.
The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.75.
In the cold rain;
Ploughed by pain.
Deftly and simply the poet fashions her ally, if not invariably, reaches the continy cameos of lyricism, turning out clusions of the modern liberal Christian such attractive bits of music as this: believer. There is little in the book
which is new to the scholar, but it will THE WALL
be helpful and at times illuminating to Now we two are heart to heart, 0 most dear of all,
the general reader. Who were held so long apart
TOWARD THE UNDERSTANDING OF JESUS. By the sundering wall.
By Vladimir G. Simkhovitch. The Macmil
lan Company, New York. $1.75. But so suddenly it fell,
Of the three essays in this volume the At the final touch,
first is much the most important. It We are dazed and cannot tell If we hope too much.
describes clearly the historical condi
tions in Palestine at the time of Christ's We would wait to know the sum
life, makes it clear that only by acceptOf our joy and painBut what if shadow hands should
ing the Roman rule, entering with good
will the Roman Empire, and pervading And build the wall again?
it with a new and divine spirit could
Israel be saved from the destruction to SCIENCE
which it was fanatically rushing in EVOLUTION OF MODERN MEDICINE (THE). By Sir William Osler, Bart., M.D., F.R.S.
spite of warning. It makes measurably The Yale University Press, New Haven,
clear the misunderstood passages often Conn. $3.
quoted in support of a universal prinThe large type and abundant and at- ciple of non-resistance. tractive illustration of this volume will make it a delight to the physician who
FROM PRIVATE TO FIELD-MARSHAL. By is fortunate enough to have it by him for
Sir William Robertson, Bart. Illustrated. leisurely reading. Nor will it prove less Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. $5. entertaining to the non-professional Sir William Robertson's career has reader, for Sir William Osler's literary been a striking one. His rise from poor style is notably agreeable and free from boy to field marshal through all the dry-as-dust methods. His theme carries ranks of the service makes an interesthim from the beginnings of medicine ing story. But the book's value is quite among primitive men to the latest ad- as much as an authoritative contribuvances of medical science.
tion to the definitive history of the
British operations in the war.
Campbell, D.D. D. Appleton & Co., New The George H. Doran Company, New York.
THE BROKEN FIELD
Where grass and bending flowers
For another sowing.
HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY ADMINISTRATION OF IRELAND, 1920 (THE).
By "I. 0." E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $10.
Great Sower, when you tread
My field again,
With better grain.
worth. Dorrance & Co., Philadelphia. $1.90.
Bennett. Illustrated. The Stratford Com
pany, Boston. $2.
beth Sanxay Holding The George H.
Doran Company, New York. $1.90.
Byng The John Lane Company, New York.
Strunsky. Henry Holt & Co., New York.
old Waldo. The George H. Doran Company,
LIFTED CUP (THE). By Jessie B. Ritten
house. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. $1.25. The poignant note that Miss Rittenhouse manifested in "The Door of Dreams" has hardly deepened in this second book of original verse, but it is as captivating as ever. The fact that the shadow of Sara Teasdale obtrudes across "The Lifted Cup" does not make the poems any the less pleasing to read.
By One of Her Daughters. Illustrated.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York,
Con well. Harper & Brothers, New York.
RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
Sc.D., D.D. Charles Scribner's Sons, New
By Albert Clark Wyckoff. The Fleming H.
Revell Company, New York. $1.75.
IN ANTIQUITY. By Lewis Bayles Paton,
FIRST PRIZE WHEN JOHNNY FELL IN
A PLAIN YOUNG WOMAN AND A GROUCHY
N my judgment, the best advertise
ment appearing in The Outlook during 1921 is to be found in the issue under date of February 9, page 204– "When Johnny Fell in—”. In support of my assertion I give the following reasons:
It attracts attention. The May morning urchin holds the attention of the whole family. It is out of the ordinary, and yet is not freakish. The word "Free,” which is to be found in many an advertisement, is too common. The reader seeks the hook, and will not bite. He passes it up with the thought, "It is not free; there is nothing free in advertisements."
“When Johnny Fell in—" appeals to our sense of humor. Every salesman knows the value of jollying his prospective customer. It requires much tact, but it is effective and few sales are made without it. The late H. J. Heinz knew the value of this. You never left his great plant without feeling in a good humor. Those who have had more than one Johnny in the family smile at the innocent predicament into which this young pair were brought by Johnny's accident.
This advertisement excites our curiosity. It did mine. An advertisement must not only attract attention, but it must hold it. It must hold it long enough for the reader to take the next step, or the advertisement fails of reaching its end.
This advertisement appeals to our emotions. Study the methods of those who are expert life insurance agents. See what a keen sense they have of the emotional part of the business. It brings results. It must not be overdone. This picture does not overdo it.
The other night we sat for two hours
ERE are the prize
winning letters in the fifth of The Outlook's prize contests, which closed January 23, 1922. Contestants were asked to state what they considered the best advertisement in The Outlook in 1921 and why. Public interest in this contest has been so marked that there will be a similar contest at the end of this year, based on the best advertisement appearing in The Outlook during 1922.
SITUATION WANTED! A plain young
It appeals to me because it expresses, not only a desire for work, but capability, sincerity, modesty, a sense of humor, and, above all, truthfulness.
It is deplorable, how many advertisements lack this virtue.
They clamor loudly they can do what any one with common sense knows is impossible.
The young housewife, whose every penny counts, is frequently misled. The young man is deluded into thinking he can become rich overnight. The old lady is really convinced her cheeks can be made round and rosy like the girl of sixteen. The old gentleman, likewise, takes his share of the hoodwink.
This advertiser does not make any rash promises and seems to anticipate but a fair return. Bless her heart! She is a nurse who styles herself “plain.” Does she mean plain looking, plain spoken, or plain honest? I think she is all of these. She looks plainly at the situation, knows the invalid must, at times, be ill-tempered, says so plainly and honestly, suggests to the invalid not to expect too much.
listening to Harry Lauder. When he sang "When I Was Twenty-one," many an old man sat with glistening eyes as he recalled those glorious days of young manhood in its first reaching out for a mate. They laughed through tears. It bound them to Harry because he aroused in them a thousand pleasant memories of other years. The wet duds, the helpless Johnny, the soaked floor, the distracted young mother, and the nonplused young husband all appeal to one's happiest emotions.
This advertisement excites one to action. It appeals to one's better judgment. The great steps in effective advertising are: Secure attention and hold it; appeal to one's emotions and control them; appeal to one's sense of humor and better judgment; and give information and inspiration which will ultimately bring action.
Many an advertisement fails to bring results comparable to the investment made because of its being too local. It is estimated that millions of dollars are annually wasted because of such advertising. The accident described in the advertisement may happen any place in the United States, and the remedy suggested may be secured anywhere in our country.
“When Johnny Fell in—" brings results for the reasons mentioned above. The commodity advertised is briefly, vividly, attractively, and honestly described, and the result is the next time you go to town you want to see and buy Valspar. WILLIAM HARRIS GUYER.
Guaranty Trust Company of New York
The advertisement that inspired Dr.
Guyer's winning letter
From London came a letter, based on the above ropy, and captured a
When these facts and the photographs
Close-up shoeing condition of metal flashings on
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