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UNDERGROUND RIVERS OF WASTE

constantıy occurring through wholesale

percentages of workers passing in and BY FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT

"Out of work on separate jobs. The low

production from inefficient workmanship ASTEFULNESS is an American sponsibility of labor is real, but less in in all the trades studied is also partly trait, the by-product of vast degree. Management has the greater

due to the failure of management to proNational resources and of the genius, the greater capacity. It has vide opportunities for education or sperapid exploi ation of these resources. also, therefore, the greater obligation.

cial training in the processes and operaFor the first time in our history there According to the definition of the en- tions of the particular trade. But much is an overwhelming economic pinch, fol- gineers, management is the art and ineffective workmanship arises also lowing the Great War and stretching science of preparing, organizing, and from lack of interest and lack of pride around the world. We have turned our directing the human effort which is ap- on the part of a good deal of unreattention in this country, as never be- plied to control the forces and to utilize generate human nature in the labor fore, to the problem of waste waste in the materials of nature for the benefit population. Governmental expenditures and proc- of man.

Management is the general. The survey does not spare wasteful esses, waste in industry.

The mistakes of management are of regulations of labor unions. RecogniWe happen to have in public life at vital consequence.

tion is clear of the fact that in the past this period a very great engineering Of the whole burden of waste dis- enormous losses have been produced mind, that of Herbert Hoover, Secretary closed by the engineering survey within through direct or indirect restrictions of of Commerce in President Harding's the six great branches of industry under output. Among these narrow and unCabinet and organizer of relief on an review, the findings place over fifty per wise regulations which are condemned international scale during the World cent of the responsibility at the door of

are the requiring of skilled men to do War. The function of the genuine en- management and less than twenty-five work that could be performed by the gineer, in the broad sense, is the applica- per cent at the door of labor. There are unskilled; the restricting of individual tion of organizing intelligence to human outstanding examples of good manage

incentive through making wages too affairs.

ment, but the average of management is uniform; the limiting of the number of Towards the end of 1920 the Fed- much below the standards set by certain apprentices in the interests of a labor erated American Engineering Societies individual executives who have achieved monopoly; the excessive reduction of became a reality; Herbert Hoover was notable success.

working hours; the absurd opposition to elected its first President, and he at once In shoe production, for example, there labor-saving devices; the jurisdictional suggested a study into the wastes of in

is very little system about the economiz- rules which distribute certain types of dustry in this country. Early in 1921 ing of leather, and the loss from idle- work to different trades without regard seventeen engineers were selected for ness occasioned by waiting for work and to expense. In one case in order to the work. For the purpose of arousing material amounts to more than a third move a pump and set it in a different public attention immediately they pro- of the time. In the building trades and

location in the foundation hole it was ceeded to make a swift intensive study the printing trades, while of course any- necessary to get a pair of steam-fitters of six typical branches of industry, in thing like complete standardization is to disconnect the steam-pipe, a pair of order to stimulate general action and impractical and undesirable, there is plumbers to remove the suction apparalay the foundation for further investiga- much opportunity for reasonable stand- tus and replace it, a structural-iron man tion. Within six months a report w ardization of thickness of soles and to erect the rig to lift the pump, and an made to the American Engineering brands of paper, for example, which engineer to operate the valves on the Council and to the country upon the would result in a considerable margin pump. This took eight men for the findings of the Committee. The report of saving in these particular fields. operation who had to be taken from as a whole represents the combined

The majority of the plants studied other work, whereas one man assisted effort of eighty engineers and their asso

had no adequate knowledge of costs and by a laborer could have accomplished ciates. The six typical studies included no method of judging accurately when the entire job. the building trades, men's ready-made improvements are needed and when Certain painters' unions do not perclothing, boots and shoes, printing, waste is taking place. In the men's mit their men to use a brush wider than metal trades, and textile manufacture.

clothing plants there are no research 412 inches for oil paints, although for The findings may be summed up in a methods to improve materials, processes,

certain classes of work a wider brush is single paragraph. We are a powerful equipment, or product. In the shoe in- more economical. Painters' unions reindustrial country, but we have much dustry the number of plants using mod

fuse to allow their men to work on a yet to learn. We have ingenuity and ern employment methods is very few. job where a spraying machine is used. efficiency comparable with those of any The personal relations with the em- The claim is made, with little foundaother nation. But we tolerate to an

ployees are defective, and men are dis- tion, the engineers find, that this is alarming degree wastes of labor conflict, charged or quit work without any execu- unhealthful. Plumbers and steam-fitters wastes of seasonal operation, wastes of tive knowing the reason why. Very prohibit the use of bicycles and vehicles unemployment, wastes through high la. costly separations from the working of all sorts, charging up the walking bor turnover, wastes through speculative force are thus going on constantly, and time to the customer. booms and over-production. Above all,

unnecessary expense connected with A part of this enormity of willful the industry of America, while exceed- training new workers to take the place waste is also chargeable to owners and ingly favorably situated with respect to of those who leave is a growing burden. management. In the building trades, physical resources, is as yet profoundly The cost of training an inexperienced for example, widespread collusions belacking in that high average degree of

man for cutting upper leather in a well- tween employers and labor have been the mental and moral forces of manage- managed shop is $576; for a semi- unearthed and conspiracies to maintain ment which alone make certain the per- experienced man the cost is $450. The high prices have greatly restricted promanent prosperity of the economic life high labor turnover here, as everywhere

duction. of a country.

else in industry, is a great economic The engineers go into the problem of The survey puts the burden of waste

waste, and is due to the lack of human unemployment. They find that a millsquarely upon management.

The re-
sense and of human method on the part

ion men are always unemployed in of great sections of American manage- America in the most prosperous time. I Waste in Industry. By the Committee the Elimination of Waste in Industry of the

ment. The building trades have given They find cyclical depressions occurring Federated American Engineering Societies. Pub

almost no consideration to the subject about a decade or less apart, with their lished by the Foderated American Enginvering Societies, Washington. ( of labor turnover, and large losses are

They wastage of productive capacity.

on

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This engineering survey computes that the enormous present loss from illness in industry could be materially reduced by co-operative effort and leave an economic balance in the working population alone over and above the cost of prevention of at least a billion dollars a year in America. The engineers also believe that a vast saving could be made through better control of industrial acci. dents than we seem yet to be capable of.

The remedy seems chiefly to be the employment of more brains and humanity on the part of American manage. ment. Labor organizations, now somewhat in the slough of popular disrepute, have an opportunity to draft for themselves a new bill of rights and responsibilities. The owners of industry through the banking function should insist upon the better stabilization of production. The Government has a duty to perform in providing some statistical and scientific center of expert vision which shall be the protecting eyes and ears of advancing industry. A body of principles

for the adjustment of labor disputes (C) Paul Thompson

must be built up soon out of human "WE HAPPEN TO HAVE IN PUBLIC LIFE AT THIS PERIOD A VERY GREAT ENGINEERING

sympathy and human experience. There MIND, THAT OF HERBERT HOOVER, SECRETARY OF COMMERCE IN PRESIDENT HARDING'S

must be an aggressive, continuous NaCABINET"

tional public health policy and the breakfind, of course, much intermittent unem- much individualism in the American ing down of the philosophy of narrow and ployment in the seasonal trades. They philosophy about such matters to insure destructive individualism in this field. estimate the losses from unemployment practical consideration of the problem. And a final word for the engineers. due to labor disturbances as less than The medical profession is actively hos- They are in a position to render disinpopularly supposed, inasmuch as more tile to the collective working out of terested expert service for the Governthan one-half the employees thrown out plans for the reduction of illness loss in ment, for the trade unions, for the emof work thereby are in highly irregular industry, and most owners and man- ployers' associations. They have an and seasonal occupations where the loss agers still look upon all genuine meth- open and detached point of view. They can be made up easily through a some- ods of relief as an added burden upon are the party of the third part among what lengthened production during the business. And this in spite of the fact conflicting economic groups. They have working period which follows the strike. that the lessening of illness loss and the an intimate and peculiar understanding Nevertheless unemployment in the ag- strengthening of the health of the work- of intricate industrial problems. They gregate is the most disquieting phe- ers results directly in increased quality line up with the facts. They are not nomenon in our industrial life, the most and quantity of production, much more swayed by the prejudices. They can be prolific source of social unrest, the prob- than sufficient to pay the costs, and used far more than they are now used lem most needing to be grappled with bringing effects in the direction of more to mark out a path for the elimination by the wise men in industry as well as human relations between employer and of vast human and economic waste in the wise men in government.

employee which pass all computation. the industrial life of America. There should be set up a National watch-tower, either of real industrial ex

THE NEW BOOKS perts within the Government or of similar experts co-operating within private

BIOGRAPHY

only solid inoral reality I have ever seen industry, or both, to catch the first signs LETTERS

JOURNALS

THOMAS incarnate;" he thought Henry Ward

WENTWORTH HIGGINSON. 1846-1906. of too great industrial extension, of fall.

Beecher “far less impressive intellectu

Edited by Mary Thatcher Higginson. Illusing demand, of approaching economic

Houghton Mifflin Company, Bog

ally than Mr. [Theodore] Parker, with disaster. The Federal Reserve Board ton. $4.

whom we naturally compare him," and has facilities for doing this in a meas- The interest in these letters and he apparently never met or much conure, but its reaction was too slow in journals is more historical and less sidered such anti-slavery leaders, not 1920, when the present great depression literary than we had anticipated. They abolitionists, as Seward and Chase. appeared upon the distant horizon. will be read chiefly by two classes. VICTOR HUGO. By Madame Duclaux. Henry

The waste of ill health in industry is Those who have lived through this Holt & Co., New York. $3. discussed in terms of loss in production. period, 1846-1906, will be glad to have A fascinating story. It contains all There is no more depressing phase of their faded memories of persons and the elements of a modern melodrama. waste than this in the mills and fac- events refreshed and vivified. Those The hero passed through the experitories of the United States. It is par- who are studying or reading that criti- ences of poverty, competence, poverty ticularly depressing because, although cal period in American history will find again, and ended a “multi-millionaire in the great extent of illness loss to work- significant incidents described which francs;" he was at first an enthusiastic ers and to production is well known, give the atmosphere of the times as the monarchist and later an enthusiastic very little has been done to check it. In greater events do not. There are some radical; he was the idol of the people, this field intelligent and co-operative admirable thumb-nail sketches of men but fled from France for his life and effort between employer and employee is whom America will not readily forget remained in self-exile until the death of absolutely essential; and there is still and vivid pictures of a class of radical Napoleon III; he was a poetical believer far too much hostility between the reformers, the stormy petrels of their in God, but in his will wrote, “I refuse worker and his employer in America to epoch. Colonel Higginson was a radical the service of all churches;" he was a insure effective collective action in ill- abolitionist; he admired William Lloyd moral reformer but could not reform ness prevention; there is still far too Garrison, whom he describes as "the himself, a humanitarian but so supreme

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AND

OF

trated.

an egoist that he was called a Hugoist and the name, stuck; in song and story he idealized love and he loved children and children and women worshiped him: it is stated that both his wife and his mistress adored him and were not in actually hostile relations to each other. “Madame Duclaux, English by birth and French by long association," comprehends the French point of view but holds by the Anglo-Saxon standards.

come

ESSAYS AND CRITICISM
LATEST THING (THE), AND OTHER THINGS.

By Alexander Black. Harper & Brothers,
New York. $2.
Always readable and sometimes epi-
grammatic, these essays may well be
characterized as "up to the minute."
They deal with literary, social, and artis-
tic themes, and bring in many famous
persons whom the author has met dur-
ing his career as a newspaper man.

POETRY

FLAME AND SHADOW. By Sara Teasdale.

The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.75.
The art of Sara Teasdale, running al-
ways through narrow channels, is yet
sufficiently instinct with the overtones of
beauty to give it an authentic place in
contemporary poetic achievement. There
are times when she is consciously poign-
ant, the reader senses the deliberate
attempt on her part to create a desired
effect, but at the same time realization
of her clever technique and the fact that
she does circumscribe the effect cannot
but cause admiration. She is a clearly
defined type, a leader of that class of
lyricists who write the short, nearly
always wistful, bubble-like songs. In
"Flame and Shadow" there is no deepen-
ing of impulses, but a collection of finely
wrought lyrics that exhibit no slacken-
ing of ability. How well, for instance,
the mood is held here:

THE
My soul is a dark ploughed field

In the cold rain;
My soul is a broken field

Ploughed by pain.

Deftly and simply the poet fashions her ally, if not invariably, reaches the continy cameos of lyricism, turning out clusions of the modern liberal Christian such attractive bits of music as this: believer. There is little in the book

which is new to the scholar, but it will THE WALL

be helpful and at times illuminating to Now we two are heart to heart, 0 most dear of all,

the general reader. Who were held so long apart

TOWARD THE UNDERSTANDING OF JESUS. By the sundering wall.

By Vladimir G. Simkhovitch. The Macmil

lan Company, New York. $1.75. But so suddenly it fell,

Of the three essays in this volume the At the final touch,

first is much the most important. It We are dazed and cannot tell If we hope too much.

describes clearly the historical condi

tions in Palestine at the time of Christ's We would wait to know the sum

life, makes it clear that only by acceptOf our joy and painBut what if shadow hands should

ing the Roman rule, entering with good

will the Roman Empire, and pervading And build the wall again?

it with a new and divine spirit could

Israel be saved from the destruction to SCIENCE

which it was fanatically rushing in EVOLUTION OF MODERN MEDICINE (THE). By Sir William Osler, Bart., M.D., F.R.S.

spite of warning. It makes measurably The Yale University Press, New Haven,

clear the misunderstood passages often Conn. $3.

quoted in support of a universal prinThe large type and abundant and at- ciple of non-resistance. tractive illustration of this volume will make it a delight to the physician who

MISCELLANEOUS

FROM PRIVATE TO FIELD-MARSHAL. By is fortunate enough to have it by him for

Sir William Robertson, Bart. Illustrated. leisurely reading. Nor will it prove less Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. $5. entertaining to the non-professional Sir William Robertson's career has reader, for Sir William Osler's literary been a striking one. His rise from poor style is notably agreeable and free from boy to field marshal through all the dry-as-dust methods. His theme carries ranks of the service makes an interesthim from the beginnings of medicine ing story. But the book's value is quite among primitive men to the latest ad- as much as an authoritative contribuvances of medical science.

tion to the definitive history of the

British operations in the war.
RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
LIFE OF CHRIST (THE). By the Rev. R. J. WHILE I REMEMBER. By Stephen McKenna.

Campbell, D.D. D. Appleton & Co., New The George H. Doran Company, New York.
York. $3.

$3.50.
This is not truly a life of Christ. It Mr. McKenna has the idea that a man
assumes that the reader is familiar with should write impressions of his times
that life as it is told in the Four Gos- when he is about thirty in order that
pels. In so far as it retells that story the freshness of those impressions
it does so for the purpose of discussing might not fade away. We might wish
the critical and theological problems that the book had more of the objective
which that story has awakened in mod- record of things seen and observed and
ern minds. These the author discusses less of the writer's subjective relations
in an uncontroversial spirit. He shows to theories and philosophical ideals. In
intellectual sympathy with the per- short, the book is a bit too serious and
plexed reader and treats the objections a bit too philosophical to get a strong
of the skeptic with respect, but gener- hold on most readers.

THE BROKEN FIELD

BOOKS RECEIVED

Where grass and bending flowers

Were growing,
The field lies broken now

For another sowing.

HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY ADMINISTRATION OF IRELAND, 1920 (THE).

By "I. 0." E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $10.

By

Great Sower, when you tread

My field again,
Scatter the furrows there

With better grain.
It is the sort of work that is very
bad, banal, and sentimental unless it is
superlatively done, and it is saying
much for Miss Teasdale to observe that
her successes are far more than her
failures.

FICTION
BAND WAGON (THE). By Franklin F. Ells-

worth. Dorrance & Co., Philadelphia. $1.90.
MESSER MARCO POLO.

Donn Byrne.
Illustrated. The Century Company, New

York. $1.25.
OFF-ISLANDER (AN). By Florence Mary

Bennett. Illustrated. The Stratford Com

pany, Boston. $2.
ROSALEEN AMONG THE ARTISTS. By Elisa-

beth Sanxay Holding The George H.

Doran Company, New York. $1.90.
ROUMANIAN STORIES. Translated by Lucy

Byng The John Lane Company, New York.

$1.50.
SINBAD AND HIS FRIENDS. By Simeon

Strunsky. Henry Holt & Co., New York.

$1.75.
STASH OF THE MARSH COUNTRY. By Har-

old Waldo. The George H. Doran Company,
New York.

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LIFTED CUP (THE). By Jessie B. Ritten

house. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. $1.25. The poignant note that Miss Rittenhouse manifested in "The Door of Dreams" has hardly deepened in this second book of original verse, but it is as captivating as ever. The fact that the shadow of Sara Teasdale obtrudes across "The Lifted Cup" does not make the poems any the less pleasing to read.

BIOGRAPHY
LIFE OF FLORENCE L. BARCLAY (THE).

By One of Her Daughters. Illustrated.

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York,
WHY LINCOLN LAUGHED, By Russell H.

Con well. Harper & Brothers, New York.
$1.30.

RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
BIBLE AND SPADE. By John P. Peters, Ph.D.,

Sc.D., D.D. Charles Scribner's Sons, New

York. $1.75.
NON-SENSE OF CHRISTIAN SCIENCE (THE).

By Albert Clark Wyckoff. The Fleming H.

Revell Company, New York. $1.75.
SPIRITISM AND THE CULT OF TAE DEAD

IN ANTIQUITY. By Lewis Bayles Paton,
Ph.D., ). D. The Macmillan Company, New
York. $3.50.

SECOND PRIZE

FIRST PRIZE WHEN JOHNNY FELL IN

HER

A PLAIN YOUNG WOMAN AND A GROUCHY

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TH

N my judgment, the best advertise

ment appearing in The Outlook during 1921 is to be found in the issue under date of February 9, page 204– "When Johnny Fell in—”. In support of my assertion I give the following reasons:

It attracts attention. The May morning urchin holds the attention of the whole family. It is out of the ordinary, and yet is not freakish. The word "Free,” which is to be found in many an advertisement, is too common. The reader seeks the hook, and will not bite. He passes it up with the thought, "It is not free; there is nothing free in advertisements."

“When Johnny Fell in—" appeals to our sense of humor. Every salesman knows the value of jollying his prospective customer. It requires much tact, but it is effective and few sales are made without it. The late H. J. Heinz knew the value of this. You never left his great plant without feeling in a good humor. Those who have had more than one Johnny in the family smile at the innocent predicament into which this young pair were brought by Johnny's accident.

This advertisement excites our curiosity. It did mine. An advertisement must not only attract attention, but it must hold it. It must hold it long enough for the reader to take the next step, or the advertisement fails of reaching its end.

This advertisement appeals to our emotions. Study the methods of those who are expert life insurance agents. See what a keen sense they have of the emotional part of the business. It brings results. It must not be overdone. This picture does not overdo it.

The other night we sat for two hours

ERE are the prize

winning letters in the fifth of The Outlook's prize contests, which closed January 23, 1922. Contestants were asked to state what they considered the best advertisement in The Outlook in 1921 and why. Public interest in this contest has been so marked that there will be a similar contest at the end of this year, based on the best advertisement appearing in The Outlook during 1922.

SITUATION WANTED! A plain young
woman wants to take care of a grouchy
invalid.
This is the pièce de résistance!

It appeals to me because it expresses, not only a desire for work, but capability, sincerity, modesty, a sense of humor, and, above all, truthfulness.

It is deplorable, how many advertisements lack this virtue.

They clamor loudly they can do what any one with common sense knows is impossible.

The young housewife, whose every penny counts, is frequently misled. The young man is deluded into thinking he can become rich overnight. The old lady is really convinced her cheeks can be made round and rosy like the girl of sixteen. The old gentleman, likewise, takes his share of the hoodwink.

This advertiser does not make any rash promises and seems to anticipate but a fair return. Bless her heart! She is a nurse who styles herself “plain.” Does she mean plain looking, plain spoken, or plain honest? I think she is all of these. She looks plainly at the situation, knows the invalid must, at times, be ill-tempered, says so plainly and honestly, suggests to the invalid not to expect too much.

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listening to Harry Lauder. When he sang "When I Was Twenty-one," many an old man sat with glistening eyes as he recalled those glorious days of young manhood in its first reaching out for a mate. They laughed through tears. It bound them to Harry because he aroused in them a thousand pleasant memories of other years. The wet duds, the helpless Johnny, the soaked floor, the distracted young mother, and the nonplused young husband all appeal to one's happiest emotions.

This advertisement excites one to action. It appeals to one's better judgment. The great steps in effective advertising are: Secure attention and hold it; appeal to one's emotions and control them; appeal to one's sense of humor and better judgment; and give information and inspiration which will ultimately bring action.

Many an advertisement fails to bring results comparable to the investment made because of its being too local. It is estimated that millions of dollars are annually wasted because of such advertising. The accident described in the advertisement may happen any place in the United States, and the remedy suggested may be secured anywhere in our country.

“When Johnny Fell in—" brings results for the reasons mentioned above. The commodity advertised is briefly, vividly, attractively, and honestly described, and the result is the next time you go to town you want to see and buy Valspar. WILLIAM HARRIS GUYER.

Findlay, Ohio,

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Guaranty Trust Company of New York

The advertisement that inspired Dr.

Guyer's winning letter

From London came a letter, based on the above ropy, and captured a

third prize

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When these facts and the photographs
were brought to his attention, the
Adjutant General promptly approved
a Barrett Specification Roof for the
new Armory at Newport, Vt., but
insisted that Barrett Flashings be
used instead of metal.

Close-up shoeing condition of metal flashings on

St.-Johnsbury Armory.
No wonder the "roofleaked!

Many a good roof is held respon-
sible for leaks that are caused by
faulty flashings.
An interesting case of such mis-
placed blame is that of the Barrett
Specification Roof on the State
Armory at St. Johnsbury, Vermont,
laid in 1916.
Some months ago, when the archi-
tect's plans for a new armory at
Newport, Vermont, were submitted
to the Adjutant General of the
State, he refused to approve them
because they called for a Barrett
Specification Roof. In explanation
of his refusal, he stated that the
Barrett Specification Roof on the
St. Johnsbury Armory had been
leaking badly for several months.
The architect immediately investi-
gated the trouble at St. Johnsbury.
What he found there is shown by
the illustrations. The roof itself
was in perfect condition.
But the flashings, which were the
usual metal type, were in sorry
shape. All but two joints of the
base-flashings had pulled apart and
the counter-Aashings in many places
had broken away from the wall.
The settling of the building, and
contraction and expansion due to

Barrett Specification Roofs are moderate in first cost and are guaranteed by a Surety Company Bond, against all roof repair expense,-Type "AA” for 20 years; Type “A” for 10 years.

No more flashing troubles ! The new Barrett Flashings definitely solve the problem of permanent waterproof Aashing construction. They are fully described in the Barrett Flashing Handbook and Flashing Service Sheets, copies of which will be sent to architects, engineers and contractors requesting same on business letterhead. Please address our nearest office.

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For permanent fat-roof buildings
Barrett Specification Roofs are the
choice of leading architects and en-
gineers. This popularity is due to
an enviable record for durability
and economy. There are many roofs
of this type that have been in ser-
vice forty years or more and are still
in good condition.

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Birmingham Kansas City Minneapolis Dallas

Syracuse
Peoria Atlanta

Duluth

Salt Lake City Bangor Washington Johnstown Lebanon Youngstown Milwaukee Toledo Columbus Richmond Latrobe

Bethlehem Elizabeth Buffalo Baltimore Omaha

Houston Donver

Jacksonville THE BARRETT COMPANY, Limited : Montreal Toronto Winnipeg Vancouver St. John, N. B, Halifax, N. S.

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