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Was this the flood of the Biblical story?
The most terrific catastrophe of ancient times occurred twelve thousand years ago. There was no Mediterranean Sea then; only a rich and fertile valley filled with men and women whose life seemed easy and secure.
One day, without warning, the water came. The Atlantic Ocean burst its walls and swept into the valley, engulfing the tribes. Torrents of rain from the melting ice of the North swelled the inundation. Terror stricken men and women fled to higher ground, but the water followed faster, and where the peaceful valley had been there was a blank, silent sea, and nothing more.
Did any fugitives escape this wholesale destruction? Were their memories of those
The interesting thing about H. G. Wells' Outline of History is that it makes everything you have ever read before more interesting and valuable to you. Into that master story he has woven all the fragments of knowledge which we busy modern folks have picked up here and there in our education and reading. All that we read in school; all that we read in fugitive books; all the events of the day's news-these find their place and relationship in the great story of humanity's progress, told by the greatest modern story teller.
Perhaps you think the Roman Empire existed long ago-perhaps you think of the old Greek and Roman civilization as Ancient History."
Not a bit of it. Compared with the many centuries of life that Wells tells about, these empires flourished only yesterday. Wells begins at the real beginning and down through the centuries he carries you, upsetting fairy stories that you have heard all your life-amazing you often; startling you in almost every chapter; but entertaining you on every page as you have never imagined that you could be entertained by history. This is Wells; and we offer him to you now at
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JANUARY 11, 1922
A NEW DEAL IN CHINA YHINA is in a chaotic condition. Roughly speaking, the country is at present under the control of several governments and dictatorshipsthe main Federal Government, controlling most of the provinces, with its historic capital at Peking; the Southern Government, controlling one, two, or three provinces, with its capital at Canton; and at least one Middle China military dictatorship.
Under these conditions, the establishment of a coalition Cabinet at Peking would seem to be wise. The President of China has asked Liang Shi-yi to be come Prime Minister, in succession to Chin Yun-peng. Even if Chinese liberals believe that Chin has been guilty of peculations and the sale of offices, they may not altogether welcome the new Premier. He is supposed to have inspired Yuan Shi-kai's attempt to create himself Emperor some years ago. But probably conservatives rather than liberals are in the majority in Parliament (all appointments requiring the sanction of both houses of the Legislature). The new Premier has been called a master of political manipulation; that quality would appear to be rather necessary in China just now. Doubtless also his experience as Direc tor of Railways, Minister of Finance, and Director of Maritime Customs will stand him in good stead in forming Government policies with regard to railway, banking, and tariff matters.
In forming the coalition Cabinet Liang has secured the adhesion of some powerful reactionary military chieftains, governors and ex-governors of provinces and masters of provincial bodies of troops, which have been moved about with surprising independence of the Federal Government. It remains to be seen whether he can secure the services, as Ministers, of well-known liberals (he is making a strenuous endeavor in that direction), so that the Cabinet will be as far as possible centralized and truly representative.
More or less independent and irresponsible fiscal and military provincial government in China has always been a crying evil. At the same time the lack of law and order in isolated regions has doubtless been accentuated in the recent despatches from China to the detriment of the regions where law and order prevail. Competent Chinese authorities even maintain that a comparison of the amount of crime and violence to per
sons and property in China with that in other countries would not be to China's disadvantage. Could China, they add, be relieved, first, of existing limitations upon her powers; second, of violations of her sovereign rights by other nations; and, third, permitted through her maritime customs to obtain needed revenue, she might be able to correct existing conditions.
IRELAND'S DECISIVE HOUR
ITH the beginning of the year the Dail Eireann took up for action the decision as to whether the Irish Free State shall exist or the dream of an absolute Irish Republic be continued with all the wretched irregular slaying and burning involved. The reports from the Dail are that the vote will be close; the reports from the people of Ireland are that they wish to ratify the treaty; one despatch of January 2 says that "ratification is supported by pronouncements of the Irish bishops and by resolutions not only of public representative bodies but of important units in the Sinn Fein organization."
One Irishman who has stood for many
years for a common-sense view of the Irish question has just reached America. Sir Horace Plunkett believes in a united Ireland and an independent government within the Empire. More than any other one man he has worked for agricultural co-operation. His moderate and hopeful ideas as to the present situation, as given to the press here on his arrival, are well worth heeding. Sir Horace said:
So far as the Irish question relates to the old conflict between England and Ireland I believe it is to be buried. When Ulster is no longer an issue in British party politics, there will be a wholly new spirit in Ireland in regard to this difficulty. The bigger issue settled because overwhelming public opinion demanded its settlement. The lesser issue will be settled for the additional reason that it is every Irishman's wish that it should be.
The treaty itself will be ratified. Even if Dail Eireann cannot on account of the pledges of its members to an Irish republic agree to another form of government it will have to consult the people, and they will be for the treaty. The terms of the treaty are substantially those that I
have advocated for the last two and a half years.
The immediate future of Ireland hangs in the balance as the new year begins. Its security rests largely on the willingness of the Irish people to agree with the view above expressed.
THE ISLAND OF HAITI
HE island of Haiti is an increasingly important outpost of this country. It is a large island about the size of Maine. The eastern part we know as Santo Domingo; the western part retains the name Haiti. The eastern part is ruled by Spanish Negroes; the western part by French Negroes.
There has always been political chaos in the island. But about sixteen years ago there was such financial chaos in Santo Domingo and the foreign creditors were so menacing that the Dominican Government asked ours to establish a financial protectorate. Under the ensuing treaty the United States now collects Dominican customs, pays out the money so received towards canceling the debts of Santo Domingo, and turns the remainder over to the Dominican Government.
The financial relations between the Haitian Republic and its chief creditors -France, Germany, England-have been menacing. In the interests both of the Haitian Republic and its foreign creditors, it became necessary for us to attempt to repeat in the western part of the island what had been a success in the eastern part. American officers, therefore, took charge of the Haitian custom houses.
There has been friction in Haiti both with Spanish and with French Negroes. Stories became current of blunders, and even of outrages, committed in the course of American administration. Accordingly the United States Senate recently sent a commission to the island consisting of Senators McCormick, Jones, Oddie, and Pomerene, the first being chairman. The Commission has now returned, and its chairman has made a preliminary report.
As regards Haiti, while he recommends that there should be no withdrawal of the Marines now policing that country, he properly insists that not only the Marines but also our civilian representatives should be in sympathy with the Haitian people. Coupled with this is a reminder to the Haitians that they should show like co-operation in maintaining cordial relations.
As to the charges of brutality against our marines, the Commission declines to make any statement before further sifting the charges. It recommends the appointment of a High Commissioner, to whom both civil and military authori
SIR HORACE PLUNKETT
ties should report; it declares for the continuance of our treaty with Haiti and for the maintenance of the American civil staff there. A loan is urged so that Haiti may pay her debts to European countries on more advantageous terms and so that the just claims of Haitian citizens against their own Government may be promptly met. The report adds that peace and order have now been re-established, that sanitary work has cleaned the once filthy coast towns, and that road-building has been begun.
As regards Santo Domingo, the primary need also is good roads. Not only will they be means of necessary communication, but they will reduce the danger of revolution. Mr. McCormick deprecates any removal of American troops from Santo Domingo for the special reason that the population has not yet taken steps to hold elections to set up a proper government. With the exception of the activities of some small scattered bands, the country is in comparative order.
As to both Haiti and Santo Domingo, the Commission recommends a new loan, the purposes of the Dominican loan being to fund two preceding loans and to secure funds necessary for highway building.
THE CLEVELAND PLAN WORKS
ATELY we spoke of the crisis in the
industry in Cleveland to the excellent "Cleveland plan." This plan has been in operation for two years and has been called "a miracle in modern industry."
We are extremely glad now to report that harmony has been obtained in the
industry and that the industrial plan is going on successfully.
A thoroughly well informed Cleveland correspondent informs us that both sides have again shown the spirit of mutual confidence and the readiness to compromise that have developed through the consideration of their joint problems and the daily adjustment of disputes. They will retain the impartial machinery which is the first essential of both peace and progress, and under the general supervision of the referees and their representative, the Impartial Chairman, the forward-looking experiments of standards of production, on the one hand, and a guaranty of employment on the other hand, will be continued. He adds:
The principle of week work is reaffirmed in the new agreement. By July 1, 1922, all departments must either be on the basis of production standards or be put on straight week work. Another forward step has been taken toward the solution of one more important and complicated problem-the so-called "outside shop," the contractor or submanufacturer who makes certain garments for the large manufacturers. A joint committee of the union and the Manufacturers' Association is to study the whole question of the development and proper functioning of the outside shops in Cleveland. Meanwhile the same scale of wages and hours will be maintained as is required in the large factories. In these smaller shops, too, the strike and lockout will be forbidden, and all disputes will hereafter be determined by the Impartial Chairman.
Coming when industrial relations throughout the country are strained or actually broken, all parties connected with the women's garment industry in Cleveland are to be commended for their vision and courage in continuing to cooperate in one of the most vital and farreaching industrial experiments of the day.
BILL now under consideration in Congress will, if passed and then upheld by the United States Supreme Court, provide serious penalties for persons convicted in Federal courts of participating in any mob or riotous assemblage by which a person is put to death, or who interfere with an officer protecting a prisoner from lynching, or for an official who refuses to do his full duty within reason to prevent a lynching or arrest persons taking part in a lynching. But prosecutions and penalties apply only in States or governmental divisions of States which have denied the equal protection of life guaranteed by the United States Constitution-that is, a State or subdivision which fails or
refuses to protect its citizens against mob violence.
A question at once arises as to how it is to be determined whether a State has or has not been guilty of neglect of duty. The text of the bill as it is now before the lower house throws no light on this point; apparently, therefore, the Federal court before which such an action is brought must determine the guilt of the State before it takes up the evidence in an individual case. Here may be one Constitutional question; another sure to be raised is that of the limits of State rights and Federal rights.
The proposed law goes further than to make the acts above described felonies; it prescribes a fine of $10,000 on a county in which a person is lynched, the sum to go to his family, his parents, or, if there is neither, to the United States. The present bill goes further by making a county co-responsible which allows a mob to take a person through its territory into another county where he is lynched.
A clause has been stricken out from the original bill which would make an offense against an alien committed against his country's treaty rights a crime against the United States as well as against the State where it took place. This would meet a difficult situation that has sometimes arisen, memorably once in Louisiana. Probably it was thrown out as not germane to the main object of the bill.
In urging the passage of this bill Mr. Mondell, the Republican leader in the House, said:
The real question before the American people is: Shall we as a people permit the world, claiming, as we do, to be the most enlightened and most advanced nation, continue to allow other peoples to point to us as the scene of more mob violence than that which takes place in any other part of the world? Undoubtedly the finger of scorn of other nations is now pointed at us for not taking any steps to check the mob outrages which shock the sensibilities of all civilized peoples.
Shall we continue to permit such frightful and atrocious crimes as burning at the stake without taking any steps to check their occurrence and punish the participants? We are convinced that a vast majority of the American people will look with favor upon any legislation which tends to remove this blot from our National record.
The number of lynchings is not diminishing; 63 took place last year, about two-thirds of which were for of fenses other than assaults upon women; five persons were burned alive, in five cases bodies were burned after death; since 1889, 3,307 persons have been killed by mob violence.
ENATOR PENROSE, whose sudden death at the age of sixty-one took place in Washington on the last day of the old year, had been a leader and a forceful influence in the Republican party during almost or quite a quarter of a century. His position as head of the Senate's Finance Committee was of the highest importance; especially at the present moment it entailed upon its chairman wearing and strenuous labor in connection with the shaping of the new Tariff and Tax Bills, and this effort undoubtedly affected Senator Penrose's physical condition.
Mr. Penrose succeeded Senator Don Cameron in the Senate in 1897, and had been a member of his party's National Committee for the last seventeen years with the exception of the four years preceding 1916.
There has never been any question as to Mr. Penrose's intellectual ability and force as a manager of men. He is classed by most people as an extreme reactionary. Conservative he undoubtedly was, and his view of public life was that of the old-time politician rather than that of a progressive statesHe had, however, definite convictions as to political and industrial questions, and he was not of that type of reactionary who would without conscience throw aside those convictions to play politics, as the phrase goes. Thus it may surprise some readers to know that in his early political career he helped secure a reform charter for Philadelphia; on the other hand, he was charged with the expenditure of large sums and the merciless exercise of political threats in his first election as United States Senator. It may surprise readers also to know that in the period immediately preceding the Republican Convention of 1916 Mr. Penrose was in favor of the nomination of Theodore Roosevelt as President by the Republican party. This was not because he had forgotten that Mr. Roosevelt had often charged him with being an unscrupulous representative of capitalistic interests, nor was it altogether inconsistent with his former bitter antagonism to Mr. Roosevelt; it was because he wanted harmony and peace within the party. Mr. Roosevelt, though in frequent opposition to the Pennsylvania Senator, had great respect for his mental power.
In his legislative views Senator Penrose was naturally, from his State connection and economic associations, a leading advocate of a strong protective tariff. He was a member of several important Senate committees. He opposed the Wilson Peace Treaty, fought the Prohibition Amendment, and was influ
ential in the nomination of President Harding.
A HEROIC ADVENTURE
HYSICAL heroism for the public benefit is not confined to the battlefields of great wars. We have just learned of an extraordinary adventure of a scientist connected with the American Museum of Natural History, of New York City, which deserves to be recorded with some of the feats of the European War.
George K. Cherrie has been conducting natural history explorations in tropical America since 1884. It was his wide experience, his success in handling problems of transportation and in establishing desirable relations with the natives, that led the authorities of the Natural History Museum to send him as the Museum's representative with Colonel Roosevelt on the famous trip down the River of Doubt in 1913. Cherrie was in command in 1921 of a Museum expedition collecting birds and mammals in southwestern Ecuador near the Peruvian line. At seven o'clock on a September morning the accidental discharge of his shotgun, held in his left hand while he was retrieving a bird with his right, sent a charge of number eight shot through his right forearm, severing the ulna. Such ineffective firstaid treatment as could be given so serious a wound was at once applied, and as soon as animals could be secured Cherrie started for the port of Santa Rosa, distant eighty-five miles, where he aimed to catch the weekly steamer for Guayaquil. The pain occasioned by his wound was so excruciating that he was unable to ride on the level or down hill, and consequently walked all the way except up grade. The trip included the ascent and descent of a mountain eight thousand feet in height. He was able to get very little to eat, and was assured by the sympathetic natives he encountered that, as he was mortally wounded, why eat at all! He finally reached Santa Rosa three hours after the boat had left, but his party started after it in a canoe and caught it farther down the river. Until he reached the steamer he was unable to sleep.
When he arrived at Guayaquil, four days after the accident, his arm was as large as his leg and so gangrenous that his life was despaired of. But an operation was performed, and he improved enough so that he could come back to the United States. He is here now, and the physicians hold out hope that he will ultimately recover the use of his
The pluck and determination shown by a man who could walk in such a condition to a dressing station for four days is eloquent testimony of the stock