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M visiting America, and his talks at

tary Mellon. He says that these certifi

ate offered by Bryn Mawr is its Eurocates "amount, in effect, to paid-up en

pean fellowship; Dr. Park received this, dowment insurance policies issued by

and after a year of graduate study enthe Government, to mature at the end

joyed a year of research at the American of twenty years, or earlier upon the

School of Classical Studies at Athens, death of the veteran. The maturity

After her return to this country Miss value of these policies is calculated on

Park held important chairs of teaching the basis of the so-called adjusted ser

in several schools and colleges for vice credit (which corresponds roughly

women in this country and also took to the adjusted service pay that would

advanced degrees from Bryn Mawr and have been allowed under the cash bonus

Johns Hopkins. She has been Acting plan), plus an increase of 25 per cent,

Dean at Simmons College, and for the with interest in combined figures at the

past year Dean of Radcliffe College. Thus rate of 412 per cent per annum, com

she has had the advantages of executive pounded annually for twenty years. The

experience, as well as of classical and adjusted service certificates would be

academic training. As her middle name non-negotiable, and there is no provision

indicates, she comes of a family famous for direct policy loans by the Govern

in New England history for its theologiment until after September 30, 1925, but

cal and educational leaders. · in the meantime National and State

Every indication is that in the future, banks and trust companies are author

as in the past, Bryn Mawr will uphold ized to make loans to holders of certifi

the standards of education for women cates up to fifty per cent of the adjusted

in scholarship without minimizing the

Paul Thompson service credit, plus interest thereon at

value of social and personal accomplish

E. PHILLIPS OPPENHEIM the stated rate to the date of the loan.

ments. If veterans fail to repay such loans ing, it would, in his opinion, be far betwithin six months after maturity or be- ter for the Government to borrow di. A WEAVER OF PLOTS fore September 30, 1925, the bill provides rectly on its own securities.

R. E. PHILLIPS OPPENHEIM has been that the Government must redeem them It seems to us that the reasons urged in cash. After September 30, 1925, the by Secretary Mellon against the princi- various clubs and receptions have been bill provides for direct loans on these ples of the proposed certificate plan are read with decided interest by his large certificates from the Government; but, sound and convincing. We do not be- following of readers. Mr. Oppenheim is as the Secretary points out, “the bill lieve that Congress will earn the friend- a writer of astonishing fertility. Look. makes no provision whatever for sink- ship of the ex-service man by any such ing over our own indexes, we find that ing fund, amortization, or other reserves attempt to provide for his present needs exactly thirty of his stories have been against either the liability that would by future promises. The political jug. spoken of in our review columns. This be thrown upon the Government in 1925 gling of the Bonus Bill will do more to seems a pretty large output, but an inor against the liability on the certifi- convince the ex-service man that he has terviewer says that the full list includes cates at the end of twenty years, nor been unjustly treated than would any sixty-nine novels. Mr. Oppenheim hinidoes it make any provision for the pay. courageous, out-and-out refusal to grant self says in effect that he writes because ments which would accrue in ordinary a bonus. Most ex-service men have eyes, he has to write. He produces the some course from year to year on account of and even those who lost their sight from what original theory that "story-writing the death of veterans."

shell wounds and poison gas can see the is an original instinct;" just as a sportIt is almost impossible, the Secretary insincerity and trickery to which they ing dog sniffs - about in every bush for says, to estimate the cost to the Gov. lave been subjected by the Congress of a rabbit, “one writes stories because if I ernment of this plan, but the Govern- the United States.

one left them in the brain one would be ment actuaries have figured tentatively

subject to a sort of mental indigestion." that the total direct cost to the GovernTHE NEW HEAD OF BRYN MAWR

Asked why this instinct led him to ment "in the fiscal year 1923 would be NDER the presidency of Miss M. write so many stories, he could only re $289,954,000; in the fiscal year 1924, Carey Thomas, Bryn Mawr College ply, "The material is always there, and $216,440,000; in the fiscal year 1925, has built and maintained a high stand- the desire to use it always exists.” $128.013,000; and in the fiscal year 1926, ard and reputation for scholarship and Apparently Mr. Oppenheim dictates for the most part by October 15, 1925, culture. It has even been said that if his novels, for he has been quoted as when the adjusted service certificates a referendum as to the relative excel- saying that he has his stenographer used as security for bank loans would lence of American women's colleges keep lists of synonyms, so that when he have to be redeemed, $615,822,000. This were taken among all graduates, in a uses a particular word too frequently would mean total payments within majority of cases each graduate would she may pick out a substitute. It about three and a half years of over vote for her own Alma Mater first and ought fairly to be said that, however $1,200,000,000."

for Bryn Mawr second. However this fast Mr. Oppenheim works, his English Secretary Mellon believes that this may be, none would or could question style is unusually good for a manufacplan would create a mass of non-liquid, the great value of Dr. Thomas's service, turer of thrills and mysteries. Some non-negotiable paper which would result which has extended thirty-seven years, where he has said that there were only in frozen bank loans and a renewed the full lifetime of Bryn Mawr.

about a score of plot themes. This is a inflation of the currency. He believes The retirement of Dr. Thomas is fol. common saying, but it is true also that that, since the loans would be floated at lowed by the appointment as her suc- while there are ten digits, they may be the banks on the credit of the United cessor of Miss Marion Edwards Park, a placed in almost innumerable combinaStates, the plan involves a dangerous graduate of Bryn Mawr, who has had a tions. Mr. Oppenheim, even more than abuse of the Government's credit. If distinguished academic and educational Conan Doyle, shows dexterity and inthe bonus is to be financed by borrow- career. The highest award to a gradu- genuity in the invention of combina

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453 tions. The World War was in some THE DEBATE ON THE unless it is enforced by a world organi. ways a blow to imaginative literature,

zation. For want of a better term, we but at least it supplied ample sugges


may say that they advocate a doctrine tions for new combinations of old plot

F some one could be appointed editor

of International Imperialism. ideas, and no one took greater advan

of the “Congressional Record," with

A second group is at the other extage of this than Mr. Oppenheim.

power to exercise the editor's pre

treme. They believe that the only basis Mr. Oppenheim has been writing rogative of cutting out the trivial, the for peace is force or the threat of force stories, long and short, since he was

irrelevant, the repetitious, and the in- administered by the individual nations. fifteen years old, and now at fifty-five is advertent, and the results could be pub

To them the thought of a super-nation hard at work on a new one. This will lished as a "Congressional Digest" for

is abhorrent-so abhorrent that they have a special interest, because he is public distribution through the post

look with dread upon any grouping of expected to enlarge and explain in it offices at a nominal price, the people of

nations for even the purposes of peace the statement he has made in interviews

the country would have at once a truer through understanding. The fact that here that there would be another world measure of Congress than they now

some who belong to this group seem to war within twenty years. The Teutonic have, and would not only learn to value be ready to disarm without understandmenace, therefore, is to emerge from the those members of the Senate and the

ings with other nations does not seem maze of diplomatic conferences into the House who are devoting great ability to

to affect their conclusion that each narealms of fiction with a purpose. From the public service, but would also have a tion should stand aloof from every other long experience we will venture to pre- better basis than they now possess for

nation. They appear to believe that dict that this story with a purpose will holding both Representatives and Sena- isolation combined with feebleness will also be a story with a thrill.

tors to account for their stewardship. prevent conflict. These, for want of a

As it is, the debate in the Senate over better term, we may say, advocate a AN ANCIENT INSTRUMENT

the Four-Power Treaty has failed to edu- doctrine of International Anarchism. FOR AN ANCIENT PROBLEM

cate the public as it might have done. Between these two groups is the third. UCH good white paper has been Much of the serious and really thought. They believe that there is another

covered recently with accounts of ful argument on both sides has been method of securing peace besides either the antics of an alleged Poltergeist in buried in a mass of trivialities and the use of force or feeble isolation. Antigonish, Nova Scotia. It seems that a irrelevancies, and can only be labori. They believe that nations are not all farmer, his wife, and his daughter were ously dug out from the "Congressional alike; that some are capable of underdriven from their home by the curious Record.” In that debate there has been standing only the argument that is remanifestations of this antic spirit. perhaps rather more than the usual pro- inforced by weapons, while others are Strange fires appeared in most unex- portion of ignorance, misrepresentation, open to reason. They believe that suspected places in the farmhouse where vindictiveness, personalities, wearisome picion breeds suspicion, and confidence they dwelt. They felt slaps from in- reiteration, and political sophistry.

breeds confidence. They regard it as visible beings-in short, all the mani. When, for instance, a Senator under- folly to rely either on force or on isolafestations traditionally attributed to takes to discuss the Four-Power Treaty tion and at the same time to disarm. Poltergeister were reported as having without knowing that it explicitly termi. They consider it essential that if naoccurred. So circumstantial were the nates the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, when tions are to reduce their armaments reports of these strange happenings that Senators make statements concerning they must substitute for them confia member of the Society for Psychical the phraseology of documents before dence and understanding. They consider Research promptly set forth to investi- them which can be directly controverted it important that those nations which gate. Attended by reporters with mov- by reference to the documents them- trust one another should associate theming-picture cameras and other acces- selves, when Senators base their argu- selves with one another. They believe sories with which ghosts may or may ments on newspaper gossip, when Sena- that civilization has progressed far not be sympathetic, he took up his abode tors openly use the occasion of a public enough for certain peoples to practice in the farmhouse whence all but him had debate upon foreign affairs to vent their among themselves what enlightened infled. For a week he stayed there, and dislike of colleagues or to appeal to dividuals practice in their mutual relathen packed up his apparatus and party feeling, they are doing what is tions. They believe that there is such headed back for New York. The bash- most likely to discredit open diplomacy. a thing as moral force. These, who conful Poltergeist had apparently given up After wading through page after page of stitute the third and by far the largest his desire for poltergeisting.

inanities like those which disfigure this group, we may say, advocate a doctrine We know nothing of the circumstances debate, one is justified in doubting . of International Association. of the case save as they have been re- whether the United States Senate is It is this third group which is supported in the daily press. If we were ready for the responsibilities incurred porting the Four-Power Treaty. They to set out on such a search, however, in departing from the old practice of hold that the time has come for peace and if we believed in the old adage discussing foreign affairs behind closed in the Pacific to be maintained, not by which relates to the moral deterioration doors.

a military alliance, with its threat of of children and the injunction not to Aside from these serious blemishes, force, such as the alliance between Great leave rods in innocuous desuetude, we the debate in the Senate has been in- Britain and Japan, but by a mutual would most certainly take with us on structive. It has disclosed the existence understanding between the four Powers such an expedition a small section of a of three distinct groups of Senators, dis- whose interests are paramount in the birch tree, say some three feet long and tinguished by their attitude toward in. Pacific and who for the purpose of mainperhaps half an inch at the butt, and ternational relations.

taining their understanding agree that thence tapering sinuously and flexibly One group obviously believes that the in case of a danger of misunderstanding to more or less of a point. History has only basis for international peace is they will come together and talk the afforded considerable evidence that such force or the threat of force administered matter over. an instrument is the best ghost-detect. by a tribunal with the attributes of a To the advocates of International Iming device which has yet been discov. super-nation. Logically, those who take perialism this proposal seems foolish, ered.

this view regard peace as an idle dream because there is no implication of the

If we are not going to associate with other nations, reason seems to dictate that we shall have to depend upon aloofness or force, or both aloofness and force.


exercise of superior authority. This is the attitude of Senator Glass.

To the advocates of International Anarchism this proposal seems perilous, because the very grouping of nations suggests the possibility of the use of force and of the creation of other groups to meet force with force. This is the attitude of Senator Borah.

It is interesting to note that in this, as in so many other instances, the extremists on both sides are co-operating to defeat those who believe in a course between the two extremes.

The decision of the Senate on the Four-Power Treaty may conceivably be virtually recorded by the time this issue of The Outlook reaches its readers. One more than a third of the Senators present and voting can defeat the FourPower Treaty.. If that treaty is defeated, the whole result of the Armament Conference will be jeopardized. Secretary Hughes made that clear in a letter which he wrote in response to an inquiry from the Senate as to the authorship of the treaty. Stating that he himself, as Chairman of the American delegation, after consultation with the other Powers, made the draft of the treaty which was presented to the Conference, he reiterated a statement of the President by saying that the Treaty was "an essential part of the plan to create conditions in the Far East at once favorable to the maintenance of the policies we have long advocated and to an enduring peace." And he added, “In view of this, and in view of the relation of the Treaty to the results of the Conference, its failure would be nothing short of a National calamity.”

The reason for this is not obscure.

Three groups of treaties issued from the Conference. One group, consisting of the Four-Power Treaty and its supplements, provides for the termination of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and for conferences between the four nationsAmerica, Britain, France, and Japanwhen occasion requires. The second group abolishes spheres of influence in China and other causes of conflict there and provides for measures to secure the independence and integrity of China itself. The third group, by scrapping battleships and limiting the use of certain weapons of warfare, such as the submarine and poison gas, reduces the power of each of the five signatory nationsAmerica, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan-not only to attack but also to defend their own policies. If the Senate, by its vote, expresses such distrust of its neighbors that it is unwilling even to provide for the means of conferring with them, the question will at once arise whether the United States has any business, in view of that distrust, to put any limit upon its own armament.



OF EVOLUTION NUMBER of correspondents have written me respecting evolution

some in commendation, some in criticism, some with inquiries. I must ask them to accept this article in reply, though it will not answer all their criticism nor all their inquiries.

The issue raised by the hypothesis of evolution has been well expressed in a single sentence: "Creation is a process, not a product." The evolutionist believes that he is living in the days of creation. The rocks tell him something concerning this process of creation in the past; life tells him what it is in the present. He does not have to go back six thousand years to find God at work in his world. He is at work now, and in the same spirit and upon the same principles. I do not recall any simpler and clearer statement of the omnipresence of the Great Spirit than that of Herbert Spencer: "Amidst all the mysteries by which we are surrounded nothing is more certain than that we are ever in the presence of an Infinite and Eternal Energy from which all things proceed." The faith of my childhood in a Great First Cause which made and wound up the universe a long while ago and set it going and interferes with it occasionally as a clockmaker might with his clock has disappeared; in its place is faith in an Ever-Present Cause, the source of all energy, the fountain of all life.

To see in creation an intelligence, a purpose, a plan, the evolutionist has not to go back and examine what God has made. He is admitted into God's workshop and sees God at work. He formerly thought that creation was a finished house, and he examined it for signs of the Builder's work. Now he sees the Builder at work upon the house. The building is a perpetual process, and was not more evident in what we used to call the dawn of creation than it is to-day. This vision of creation as a continuing process is well illustrated by the following well-known passage in the writings of Huxley:

Examine the recently laid egg of some common animal, such as a salamander or a newt. It is a minute spheroid in which the best microscope will reveal nothing but a structureless sac, inclosing a glairy fluid, holding granules in suspension. But strange

possibilities lie dormant in that semifluid globule. Let a moderate supply of warmth reach its watery cradle, and the plastic matter undergoes changes so rapid, and yet so steady and purpose-like in their succession that one can only compare them to those operated by a skilled modeler upon a formless lump of clay. As with an invisible trowel, the mass is divided and subdivided into smaller and smaller portions, until it is reduced to an aggregation of granules not too large to build withal the finest fabrics of the nascent organism. And then it is as if a delicate finger traced out the line to be occupied by the spinal column, and molded the contour of the body; pinching up the head at one end, the tail at the other, and fashioning flank and limb into due salamandrine proportions in so artistic a way that, after watching the process hour by hour, one is almost involuntarily possessed by the notion that some more subtle aid to vision than an achromatic would show the hidden artist, with his plan before him, striving with skillful manipulation to perfect his work.

This is an instance of continuous creation going on as it is revealed by the microscope, but unobserved by most of us; the telescope reveals it as going on in distant stars. Evolution does not banish God from the universe. On the contrary, it enables us to see him at work by our side, whereas before we only thought we detected indications that he had been at work in ages long remote.

The evolutionist not only sees intelligence at work in the material universe and in the rocks traces the processes of God's work in past ages, so that Hugh Miller saw in the “Testimony of the Rocks" the “footprints of the Creator," but he sees the universe pervaded by a spirit of service and sacrifice which was unrecognized by the older philosophy. Love, service, and sacrifice are written in the processes of a continuous creation, and he who has discovered that creation is a process, not a product, discovers in that process a spiritual meaning he never saw before. A great deal has been said concerning the phrase, “Struggle for existence, survival of the fittest." It has been treated as though it were scientific equivalent for “Might makes right." The apologists of Germany have endeavored to find in Darwin's law a meaning it never bore and an interpretation of nature and life which he never gave to them. He recognized that struggle for others existed, but it was left for Henry Drummond to bring out the part it plays in world development. I quote here a few sentences from his "Ascent of Man:"

The Creation is a drama, and no drama was ever put upon the stage with only one actor. The Struggle for Life is the "Villain" of the piece no more; and, like the “Villain" in the play, its chief function is to reaet

a or

upon the other players for higher ends. There is, in point of fact, a second factor which we might venture to call the Struggle for the Life of Others which plays an equally prominent part.

With a wealth of scientific detail, which there is no room here even to indicate, Drummond points out how the process of creation going on all about us all the time would be impossible were it not for the law of self-sacrifice prophesied even in the fruits and flowers, illustrated by the life of the cattle in the fields and the birds in the trees, and sums up his conclusion in the following scientifically accurate and æsthetically beautiful paragraph:

To interpret the course of Evolution without this [law of sacrifice) would be to leave the richest side even of material nature without an explanation. Retrace the ground even thus hastily traveled over, and see how full creation is of meaning, of anticipation, of good for man, how far back begins the undertone of love.

Remember that nearly all the beauty 'of the world is Love-Beauty-the corolla of the flower and the plume of the grass, the lamp of the firefly, the plumage of the bird, the horn of the stag, the face of a woman; that nearly all the music of the natural world is Love-music--the

song of the nightingale, the call of

the mammal, the chorus of the insect, the serenade of the lover; that nearly all the foods of the world are Love-foods—the date and the raisin, the banana and the breadfruit, the locust and the honey, the eggs, the grains, the seeds, the cereals, and the legumes; that all the drinks of the world are Love-drinks—the juice of the sprouting grain and the withered hop, the milk from the udder of the cow, the wine from the Love-cup of the vine. Remember that the Family, the crown of all higher life, is the creation of Love; that Co-operation, which means power, which means wealth, which means leisure, which therefore means art and culture, recreation and creation, is the gift of Love. Remember not only these things, but the diffusions of feeling which accompany them, the elevations, the ideals, the happiness, the goodness, and the faith in more goodness, and ask if it is not a world of Love in which we live.

Mr. Bryan has intimated that he might be willing to admit that material nature is in a process of evolution, but could never admit that this is true of man. In fact, this continuous process of creation is nowhere seen more clearly than in the creation of man. That the race of man was developed out of a lower animal race is not a guess, it is

deduction from carefully observed phenomena written in historic and prehistoric records. But that every individual man has been physically developed out of previous animal forms.is neither guess, hypothesis, nor deduction. It is a fact taking place every day and ob

servable and observed by students of life. It is absolutely certain that every reader of this article physically passed through some animal forms in the mother's womb before birth. The creation of the body was in every one of us a process of evolution. George John Romanes in “Darwin and After Darwin" makes this perfectly clear:

Like that of all other organisms, unicellular

multicellular, his (man's] development starts from the nucleus of a single cell. . . . When his animality becomes established, ha exhibits the fundamental anatomical qualities which characterize such lowly animals as polypus and jellyfish, and even when he is marked off as the vertebrate it cannot be said whether he is to be a fish, a reptile, a bird, or a beast. Later on it becomes evident that he is to be a mammal; but not till later still can it be said to which order of mammals. he belongs.

Romanes enforces this statement by printing illustrations of the various forms which it is known man passes through before birth. Printed side by side, they show embryos of a fish, a salamander, a tortoise, a bird, a hog, a calf, a rabbit, and a man in three successive stages of development, and in them, as Romanes truly says, "there is very little difference between the eight animals at the earliest of the three stages represented, all having fishlike tails, gill-slits, and so on."

When the babe is laid in his mother's arms, his body, in being developed from a seed, has already passed through the physical forms of inferior animals. Mysteriously endowed with a spiritual nature, the development of that spiritual nature is now about to begin. As a babe he is neither the cherub his mother fondly calls him, nor a child of the devil, which some schools of theology, I believe, still call him. He is simply a seed bed with almost infinite possibilities of both good and evil. He may become a Benedict Arnold or a George Washington. Which he will become will depend partly on his inheritance, partly on the process of spiritual development, in the guidance of which the father and mother are to have so large a share. Physically he is the product of a devel. opment in which he has passed through prior animal forms; spiritually he will become the product of a battle between good and evil, a struggle which constitutes the last stage in the evolution of man as far as it is carried on in this earthly stage of existence.

It is true that no evolutionist can consistently believe in the theological doctrine of our childhood primer:

In Adam's fall
We sinned all.

foundation in the Bible. The story of Adam's sin and expulsion from Eden is told, but it is not accompanied by any philosophical deduction that the sin of his descendants is a result of Adam's sin. That may be a legitimate deduction, but the Bible does not make it. Never again, directly or indirectly, is the fall of man mentioned in the Old Testament, by poet, priest, or prophet. It is never mentioned by Christ. It is never mentioned by any of the Apostles except Paul, and by him only incidentally and, as it were, parenthetically. The one passage in which he explains dramatically the origin and nature of sin is the Seventh Chapter of Romans, and there it is portrayed as a result of the conflict between the flesh and the spirit--that is, between the appetites and passions derived from man's animal nature and the divine spirit imparted to him by God, making him spiritually the offspring of God. The Seventh Chapter of Romans is the only chapter in the Bible which makes any attempt to offer a philosophical explanation of the origin and nature of sinand it is essentially an evolutionary explanation.

This editorial already exceeds the limits which I always mean to set myself, and here I must leave the subject, only adding that the conclusions here summarized I reached more than a quarter of a century ago. I then embodied them in a volume entitled "The Theology of an Evolutionist,” and to that volume I must refer correspondents who desire some further and fuller answers to their questions.



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N his Message to Congress, which we

reported last week, advocating ship

subsidies, President Harding says that "the terms 'subsidy' and 'subvention' have been made more or less hateful to the American public."

This repulsion is due to the fact that in the past subsidies and subventions have been so administered as to be of unfair advantage, if not of corrupt advantage, to the few at the expense of the many. The President's frank recognition of this faet at the outset of his Message goes far to disarm the antagonism of those who are suspicious of all legislation which attempts to foster the interests of a particular group. Indeed, one of the most effective parts of the President's proposal for ship subsidies is that in which he advocates that the Government shall have complete supervision of the books and financial opera. tions of the shipping lines receiving a subsidy and shall cease paying the subsidy when the profits of the enterprise


But then for that doctrine there is no

exceed ten per cent, and, further, shall would use their influence to get as much we must establish an international comrequire the subsidized shipping lines from the Government as they could. merce under our own control and be making over ten per cent to pay back This would not necessarily lead to cor- able to carry our goods into every port annually into the treasury fifty per cent ruption, but it would involve a danger of the world. We cannot have both reof such excess profits until all the which ought to be foreseen and, if pos- stricted immigration and restricted inmoneys received in the form of a sub- sible, guarded against.

ternational commerce without being sidy shall have been returned. This But the World War has so changed false to our trust as a member of the seems to us to touch the very crux of industrial and economic conditions that brotherhood of nations and without imthe matter.

we do not see how it is possible to re- poverishing our National life as a conse The Outlook has always been afraid of vive American commerce on the sea quence. Government subsidies to private enter- without some form of Government aid. There is danger in both policies. But prises. They do not always lead to cor- Unaided private enterprise in America under present conditions prevailing in ruption, but they always involve that cannot compete with governmentally the world it seems to us that a re danger. There are members of The aided enterprise in England and Japan. stricted immigration and an enlarged Outlook's staff who lived through the sec- And the President is right in pointing international commerce is safer and betond Administration of President Grant. out that if we have no American ship- ter than a restricted international comThe corruption of that epoch was largelyping our foreign trade is dependent on merce and an unrestricted immigration. due to the railway subsidies which gave the pleasure of our neighbors.

We think the President is right in his rise to the Crédit Mobilier scandal and If America is to render to the world statement that we cannot have an unre lainted the reputation of men as emin- the service which her size, her wealth, stricted commerce with the world if we ent in public life as Schuyler Colfax and and her ability combine to demand of allow other nations to carry it on for us James G. Blaine. On the other hand, her, she must furnish her goods to the under their own control. the transcontinental railways could not world. There are only two ways in But in supporting any bill providing have been built at that time without which she can do this. We can open our ship subsidies emphasis ought to be laid, subsidies, and it cannot be doubted that ports to the world and allow all races as it is laid by the President in his Mesthe benefits to the American pcople from to come here and share our opportuni. sage and by Major Putnam in his article the Pacific railways more than compen- ties with us, in which case our home on another page, upon such provisions sated for all they cost in subsidies. It market would continue to grow in the as, to use the President's own language, can hardly be doubted that under a pol- future as in the past and we might thus "will make impossible the enrichment of icy of ship subsidy the ship-owners perhaps ignore international trade. Or any special interest at public expense.”




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HE kingdom of Herod, dependent

on the power of the Roman Gov.

ernment, had fallen to pieces with the death of Herod, and the southern province had passed under the rule of Pilate, a Roman appointed by the Roman Emperor. The Temple at Jerusalem was built upon a broad platform of rock overlooking the deep ravine upon the east, and was separated by another deep ravine from the palace, once of Solomon, now of Herod, upon the west. Adjoining this Temple there had been built by Pilate what was at once Roman garrison and a Roman Goyernor's palace. Its broad halls were almost as wide as the Jewish streets, and its abundant rooms furnished a resting-place for five hundred soldiers, besides the rooms for the Roman Gov. ernor.

At about six o'clock in the morning of April 7, A.D. 34, Pilate, resting in his palace in this Tower of Antonia, was aroused by turbulent sounds in the street below. He was used to the turbulence of the Jewish people. Twice he had entered into conflict with the priesthood, stirring up the people, and had been compelled, by fear of violence, to withdraw humiliated and defeated from the controversy.

He hastened down, stepped out onto the broad space that led directly into the Temple courts, and

there saw a great multitude, growing character and mission of Jesus, was
into a mob. Before him stood a few of really perplexed. It was his duty to pre-
the priesthood, whom he hated, and in vent and punish sedition. And Jesus
their midst a single figure, pale, wearied readily vouchsafed him the explanation
with the night's watching, with some of he requested in a few brief but signifi-
the signs of the ignominy and shame cant words, whose meaning a paraphrase
that had already been heaped upon him, may help to make clear.
his hands bound behind his back. But He was a king, but he was no preacher
something in the soul that looked of sedition. Who had brought this ac-
through his eyes made itself felt even cusation against him? The Jews. When
in the heart of the unemotional Roman. was it ever known that the Jewish
He asked the priesthood what they priesthood complained to their. Gentile
wanted. "We ask," they said, “ratifica- Government of one who sought the po-
tion of our sentence. We have found litical emancipation of the nation? None
this fellow guilty, have condemned him knew better than Pilate how restive were
to death, and we ask authority to the people under the Roman yoke. The
execute the death sentence. If he were voices of the mob before the judgment
not guilty, we would not have con- seat crying out for Jesus' blood were
demned him." "I'm not so sure of that,” unwitting witnesses of his innocence.
said Pilate. "What has he done?”

He was a king, but his kingdom was not
The priests had prepared themselves of this world. If it had been, then
for this possible exigency, and proceeded surely from among the hundreds who
with their new accusation. "We have only four days before had accompanied
found this fellow," they said, "pervert- him to Jerusalem, hailing him as their
ing the people. He has claimed to be a monarch, some would have been found
king and has set himself up against ready to defend his person with their

lives. Not to found a new dynasty nor Pilate rightly assumed jurisdiction of to frame a new political organization the case, summoned Jesus within the had Christ come into the world, but to fortress for a quieter examination, and bear witness to the truth. asked him for an explanation of these Pilate, half pityingly, half contemptucharges. Jesus would not defend him- ously, replied with his famous question, self before a dishonest tribunal. But the “What is truth?” To this Roman realist, Roman Governor, ignorant alike of the knowing only kingdoms that are built by

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