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STRAIGHTENING OUT A DOMESTIC TANGLE GEORGE S. WEBER AND FRANK M. HELAN ON THE JOB
N TON-SUPPORT is a felony, under trial. Before that condition could arise, ing that the wife has made complaint
the law, in the District of Colum- however, a zealous officer of the city against him for non-support and in
bia, and is punishable by the Police Department, detailed to the Dis- viting him to appear at his office at criminal courts just as is arson, larceny, trict Attorney's office to prepare cases three o'clock on the following Thursday house-breaking. or any other misde for presentation to the Grand Jury, hit afternoon to discuss the matter. It is meanor. Until recently actions by wives upon a method that in a quite unofficial usually arranged, without the knowlagainst their husbands for failure to application has proved to be expeditious, edge of the husband, that the wife shall support them and their children came much less expensive, and altogether be there at the same time. Each Thursunder the jurisdiction of the juvenile much more human in the disposition of day is a busyo day-there is always a and probation court. A recent construc cases of matrimonial disagreements and well-filled anteroom. The husbands tion of the law, however, transferred consequent non-support. Thus it has usually appear, probably not infrethem directly to the office of the United come about that George S. Weber, the quently because they think they must States District Attorney. The strictly officer in charge, with the co-operation appear. Each one has a good "sit-down" technical execution of the law in such of his brother detective Frank M. Helan, talk with the officers, and then, if he is cases is of long duration, is expensive, has, in effect, established and set in willing, the wife is brought in and they and is generally quite lacking in the operation, almost before he knew what talk things over, with the result that application of any helpful human rela- he was really doing, a “domestic rela- the husband generally agrees to some tions. tions court."
form of support and very often family Washington, for its population, has in the procedure is a simple one. When differences are healed then and there, the course of a year a quite large per- an aggrieved wife appears at the office and the two go away together, happy centage of non-support cases-probably of the District Attorney to make com- and thankful for the agency that has not more than in other cities, but more plaint of a neglectful husband, she is brought them together. If the husband conspicuous because they are brought to referred to Mr. Weber, who, instead of does not appear, or if after the conferpublic attention. Possibly the number passing the case directly to the Grand ence he is obstinate and will not promise is due in part to its colored population Jury, first ascertains what support the to do his duty, his case goes to the and the number of small wage-earners wife thinks her husband might afford to Grand Jury the next day; generally he of the common labor type. It was ap- pay—it is amazing what small sums are is indicted, and, if unable to obtain bail, parent in October, when it became frequently agreed upon-and also what remanded at once to jail to await trial, necessary for the District Attorney to prospects there may be of a reconcilia- conviction, and sentence to a termin assume non-support cases, that the tion if the separated parties were prison. courts would soon become clogged and brought together. He then writes in an During the three months that this congested and the jail overfilled with inofficial way—that is, not by a formal unique "domestic relations court" has offenders under indictment awaiting summons process—to the husband, say been in existence the results have been
most gratifying. Out of three hundred disheartening stages of trial, conviction, trict Government the large expenses that and fifty cases Mr. Weber says that one and imprisonment. By their zeal as offi- are ordinarily involved in the grinding hundred families have been reunited, cials of the state and their distinctly of court wheels. This has worked and that in those instances where human interest in unfortunates these to the satisfaction of all concerned, and reconciliation was not effected one hun two men, through the court of their own none are happier in the results than the dred and eighty husbands have been creation, have healed many marital two officers who originated the plan and induced to, and for the most part do, wounds, maintained many wage-earners have carried it to a successful fruition Szive support to their families. Only as such rather than assisted in their and who now have the satisfaction of thirty have been indicted and compelled withdrawal from labor and unproductive being peacemakers rather than law ento go through the slow, expensive, and confinement in jails, and saved the Dis- forcers.
FISH AS GUARDIANS OF HEALTH
BY SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND
ATTLES have been won and bat You will feel a score of Jaels
A word of explanation concerning the tles have been lost because of In your temple driving nails!
relation which the mosquito bears to U insect pests. Great enterprises
You will wonder if you are shot
malaria, however, appears to be in order have failed because of the destruction
Through the liver-case or what!
before proceeding with the subject of
You will wonder if such heat wrought by disease-carrying and disease
Isn't Hades; and repeat!
fishes in relation to mosquito control. distributing insects. In our own coun
Then you'll sweat until, at length,
Malaria is caused by an organism which try vast areas of agricultural lands are
You - won't --- have - a -- kitten's grows and multiplies in the red cells of little used and practically undeveloped
the human blood,. and the only way because of the prevalence of an insect
these organisms can be carried from one borne disease, malaria! Cities and com
In about ten days from now
person to another is through the females munities have grown and prospered re
Make to health a parting bow;
of a certain group of mosquitoes belong
For you're going to have the fever, gardless of endemic yellow fever, which
ing to the genus Anopheles. So far as is also an insect-borne disease, but this
known, the malaria parasite does not cannot be said of any place where Public health officers who have had an live in any other mosquitoes. In the malaria seriously prevails. Malaria is opportunity to observe and study ma stomach of the Anopheles it, however, a disease that works slowly but surely. laria are fully aware of the seriousness not only lives, but multiplies. Some of It is not the immediate cause of death of the disease, and they are making the new organisms then migrate from as often as a number of other diseases, great efforts to enlighten the public. the mosquito's stomach to its mouth, but in many instances it certainly is an The response has not always been of the and when it again bites' a person some important contributing factor, for ma desired degree, mainly for two reasons of the parasites are injected into the laria is a disease which debilitates. It
first, the disease is not one that tends
blood as the mosquito sinks its proboscis saps the patient's strength as it makes to frighten man to action; second, to through the skin and into a blood-vessel. its savage attacks from time to time, control malaria requires funds. The In this way, and this way only, is maand thus the powers of resisting other average man will not spend a dollar un laria transmitted from one individual to diseases are broken down. Because the less he is sure that he will. receive a another. The theories that malaria is disease works slowly and by degrees,
dollar in return. Some men require a
caused by night air, bad air from ponds and because it is not the immediate dollar and a quarter or a dollar and a and swamps, from the drinking of bad cause of death frequently, there is half, and others wish to collect the in water, from the eating of chinkapins or nothing spectacular about it. Conse- terest in advance. A dollar spent in watermelons after the first of October, quently it does not frighten the public anti-malaria work is a most excellent are mere trash. like smallpox, yellow fever, and typhoid, investment, but the burden of convinc. Conquering the mosquito pest by the and it does not receive the attention ing the public of this fact falls upon the employment of top-feeding fish, while which it justly deserves. An attack of shoulders of the public health officers, comparatively new in anti-malaria work, malaria is bad while it lasts, but it is and this is not always an easy matter. nevertheless is a very old way of checksoon over and apparently forgotten until Fine examples illustrating the fact ing mosquito production, for it is na. the next brood of organisms is liberated that malaria can be controlled by pre ture's way. It has been known for many and fever again results. An attack of venting mosquito production in large years that certain fish fed on wigglethe disease is aptly described in the fol. numbers are available. We need only to tails, or young mosquitoes, when placed lowing poem by the late Mr. Gilbert, a refer to work done by the Federal Gov. in aquaria, water barrels, cisterns, etc.. Panama Canal Zone poet, who, as is
ernment on the Panama Canal Zone, and but their value in larger waters was evident, knew malaria from first-hand
to the cantonment zone work during variously overestimated or underestiexperience:
the recent war. The cost of this work, mated. There also was no definite in
however, was quite high, and therefore formation concerning the fish which You are going to have the fever,
much attention is now being devoted 10 were of most value. Within the last Yellow eyes!
finding more economical methods of se- four years much headway, however, has In about ten days from now
curing the same, or even better, results. been made in determining which species Tron bands will clamp your brow;
As these newer and cheaper methods are are the chief enemies of the immature Your tongue resemble curdled cream,
being developed the burden of the mosquito. (It of course must be underA rusty streak the center seam; Your mouth will taste of untolii
health officers and the public is becom- stood that the young or immature mosthings,
ing lighter, and anti-malaria operations quito, larvæ and pupa, live in the With claws and horns and fins and no doubt will be greatly extended. water.) Considerable information too wings;
One of the newer and cheaper methods has been gained concerning the manner Your head will weigh a ton or more,
of fighting mosquitoes and malaria con of the employment of fish and the de And forty gales within it roar!
sists in the employment of top-feeding gree of control which may be expected
fish. It is the major purpose of this from their introduction into waters of In about ten days from now
article to convey information concerning various kinds. You will feebly wonder how All your hones can break in twain
the fish used and the manner of their Most of the members of the top And so quickly knit again!
employment for anti-mosquito work. minnow family appear to be natu:
tribution, occurring in at least some of the waters in all malarious sections of the South. Thus it has from the beginning and continues to provide a measure of mosquito control. In other words, Gambusia has served as a check on malaria from the beginning of civilization in the South and the consequent introduction of malaria. It is the firm belief of the writer that several large and prosperous cities in the South never would have been built had it not been for this enemy of the mosquito.
It is not claimed that fish in any locality have furnished complete mosquito control. It is not nature's way to permit one form of animal life to exterminate another. Consequently, in many waters barriers have been placed between the fish and the immature mosquito. These barriers may consist of plant growths or of floating or anchored débris, over which the wiggletails hover out of sight and out of reach of the fish. Again, Gambusia has enemies, consisting
chiefly of larger predatory fishes, water A SECTION OF A POND SHOWING AN AREA OVERGROWN WITH "SILVER-LEAF GRASS,"
snakes, and birds, which may prevent it WHICH FORMS GOOD PROTECTION FOR MOSQU'ITO LARVÆ AGAINST FISH
from becoming abundant enough to destroy all the wiggletails which are ob
tainable in the water. There also are enemies of the mosquito, but one species serves as an intromittent organ for waters in nearly every locality which occurring in the Southern States of this the conveyance of the male element are inaccessible to the fish through country has been found to be of espe- (sperms) from the male to the female, natural channels, and consequently have cially great value. This fish is the com for, curiously enough, in Gambusia the not become populated with members of mon, insignificant-looking top minnow, eggs are fertilized and hatched within the finny tribe. It is here where man's also known in some localities as the the body of the female and the young help is needed. Plants and floatage pro“top-water minnow" or merely as "top- are born alive, in broods of a few to a viding protection for the immature moswaters," in other localities as the “pot- hundred or so at a time, each female quito against fish may be removed or, bellied minnow." To science this little producing several broods of young dur- in some instances, chemically treated in fish is known as Gambusia affinis. Since ing one summer.
such a way as to render them worthless only a single species from the waters of The young when born are about one as protectors of mosquito larvæ and the United States is recognized, it here- half inch in length. They are well- pupa. The enemies of Gambusia may after in this article will be referred to developed and fully formed fish, being either be removed from the water or deas Gambusia-a name which, etymologi- able to swim with ease and quite thor- stroyed, or sometimes places of refuge cally speaking, signifies "nothing,” of oughly able to take care of themselves. for the minnows may be provided. The no account, a joke or farce, meaning It is indeed very fortunate for the young waters which have not become populated that when you catch a Gambusia you fish that they come into the world so with top minnows through natural chancatch nothing. It, then, is evident that well prepared to lead an independent nels should be artificially stocked, and the naturalist who selected this name life, for they receive no parental care the use of Gambusia for bait must be failed to guess the importance which whatever. Even the mother at once be discouraged. these little fish some day would assume. comes an enemy. In the aquarium, at A great reduction in mosquito produc
The female Gambusia is much larger least, the brutal parent often eats up her tion and a consequent decline in the than the male and much the mightier own young as rapidly as they are born. development of new cases of malaria sex, but even the giant females rarely The young fish grow rapidly, and some will result if the suggestions offered in attain a length of 238 inches. The times they become sexually mature at the preceding paragraph are followed. males have a somewhat more slender the age of three months and themselves Gambusia, as already indicated, lives body, and rarely, if ever, exceed a length then begin producing offspring. Thus and multiplies under a wide range of of 112 inches. In the aquarium the two generations result during a single conditions. It lives in very stagnant cruel, ferocious female often pounces summer.
water and it endures more pollution upon the small male, making attack. The fact that Gambusia brings forth than most other species of fish. It may after attack, each time inflicting a its young alive is of great advantage in be used in practically all standing wound or taking a mouthful of flesh, the utilization of this fish for anti- bodies of water, sluggish ditches, ciswhich is devoured. The result of course malaria work, for the necessity for a terns, shallow wells, water barrels, etc. is that the male is killed and devoured special environment required by egg- Gambusia does not live in rivers and to the extent of the feeding capacity of laying species for depositing and hatch- creeks with strong currents, in which the female,
ing the eggs is not necessary, as the mosquitoes of course do not breed. Its The color in both sexes is a modest young are born while the adults move natural habitat is in the quiet waters. gray, but the male may be distinguished about in the water. Reproduction takes in which it frequents the very quiet. from the female by the shape of the anal place almost anywhere, even in the shallow arms and bays, and it seeks and fin. the fin on the median line of the aquarium. This enables the anti-malaria acquires its food at the surface, where body situated just behind the vent. In worker to use this fish in many kinds of the immature mosquito spends much of the female this fin is normally de. waters, the introduction of a brood stock its life and where it must come for air. veloped, consisting of rays connected by only being necessary, as the offspring The common names "top minnows" and membrane. but in the male the rays are usually soon abundantly populate the "top-waters” no doubt originated from united and prolonged, and the fin forms water.
the fact that this fish so often is seen a long spear-shaped prong. This prong Gambusia furthermore is of wide dis- swimming at the surface of the water. It is evident from the foregoing that the results are much more permanent. Oil man it will provide a great reductionhabits of Gambusia are proper ones to and larvacides must be applied once from 75 to 100 per cent–in mosquito make it a serious enemy of the young every week during warm weather, and production, depending, of course, largely mosquito.
if for any reason this is not done regu- upon the conditions which prevail in By the use of Gambusia as an agent larly and carefully one or more broods each particular body of water. This for the control of mosquito production of mosquitoes get on the wing. When method of mosquito control is now we get something for next to nothing. a body of water once is stocked with widely used in the South, and it is But, aside from the initial cost, the fish Gambusia, it usually remains stocked strongly recommended by health officers have the decided advantage over several indefinitely. Gambusia works all day for practically all permanent standing other methods of control, because the and every day, and without help from and sluggish waters.
NEVER saw my Uncle Ellis, be- ready to commit suicide out of nervous "You will find many here who will say cause he died before I was born, tension, and then open his arms with a the same. He left an indelible impres
but I heard a great deal about him smile to the baby of a parishioner. Andsion on our community." when I was a child. His step-daughter after mistreating his wife till she could They took me to his church, where a married one of our fellow-townsmen, hardly stand she would hear him hold large bronze tablet set forth his virtues and lived next door to us when I was a ing forth to a meeting of boys, exhort and his influence on the church. They little girl, and her mother, Uncle Ellis's ing them to a chivalric attitude towards showed me the Ellis Randolph Memorial widow, lived with her till her death. all women.
Library. I was shown the playground Whatever Ruth did not say about her Aunt Molly died long ago, firing up which he conceived a generation before stepfather Aunt Molly supplied. The to vindictive reminiscences to the last. anyone else thought of such a thing. two women spent the rest of their lives Ruth is dead now, too, in the fullness
uth is dead now, too, in the fullness But what made the deepest impression hating him, and for his sake hated and of time. I am a middle-aged woman, on me were the men and women who distrusted all men. especially the and probably the only one now alive came to shake my hand because I was smooth, plausible variety. I was brought who ever heard the two talk about Uncle Uncle Ellis's niece, because they wanted up on their stories of him, and he stood Ellis, and I had forgotten him. If he to tell one of his family of the greatness for me as the type of the traditional stayed at all in my memory, it was with of his value in their lives. The minister house devil and street angel.
the vague, disembodied presence of a of the town, a white-haired man, told The gruesome impressions of married character in a book.
me, with a deep note of emotion in his life which float through the air to most About a month ago I accepted an invoice, that Dr. Randolph had done more little girls came to me from their half- vitation to speak at a convention in a than save his life in his youth, had heard and half-understood stories of town in the Middle West the name of saved his soul alive. The banker told Uncle Ellis. He had killed his first two which was vaguely familiar to me. I me that he had heard many celebrated wives, they said, just as though he had thought perhaps I had noticed it on a orators, but never anyone who could taken an ax to them, and only his oppor- time-table. But when I arrived I under- go straight to the heart like Dr. Rantune death had saved Aunt Molly from stood the reason. It was the town dolph. “I often tell my wife that she the same fate. His innumerable chil- where for many years Uncle Ellis had ought to be thankful to Dr. Randolph dren-I would not venture to set down been pastor of the church. At the rail- for a lecture on chivalry to women how many he had, all in legal marriage way station, as I stepped down on the which he gave to us boys at an impres
-feared and detested him and ran away platform, one of the older women in the sionable moment of our lives.” And the from home as soon as they could walk. group who met me startled me im- old principal of the school said: “Not a He was meanness itself-secret sneak- measurably by saying: “We have been year goes by that I do not thank God ing meanness, the sort of man who especially anxious to see you because of for sending that righteous man to be an would refuse his wife money for a your connection with our wonderful Dr. example to my youth. He left behind wringer to do the family wash and Ellis Randolph. I was a young girl him many human monuments to his spend five dollars on a box of cigars; when he died, but I can truly say that glory." who would fly into a black raging fury my whole life has been influenced for over a misplaced towel and persecute good by the words and example of that What did I say to them? Oh, I didn't the child who had misplaced it with in- saintly man."
say anything to them. I couldn't think genious moral tortures till she was The elderly man beside her added: of anything to say.
BREAKING THE WORLD'S WORST TRAFFIC JAM
BY ALFRED E. SMITH
EX-GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
TT costs as much to pass a ton of
is particularly emphasized on the freight through New York City ter
lower end of Manhattan Island. Can minals as it does to haul it from
we be criticised for asking a transBuffalo, according to a statement made
portation relief which would divert a
part of our shipments through anby an officer of the Erie Railroad and
other foute which would be interborne out by the investigations of the
rupted and unhampered by the necesNew York and New Jersey Port and
· sary rehandling and breaking of bulk Harbor Development Commission.
which now attend shipments through Another investigator reports that the
Buffalo and New York City ? expense involved between the arrival of a
To relieve this congestion without car in New York City and the placing of
diverting traffic from this, the world's goods on the ship frequently amounts
greatest harbor, there has been created to as much as the cost of the haul from
a body known as the Port of New York points as far West as Chicago, and that
Authority. congestion and excessive costs at the Port of New York are not new condi
TWO STATES AT ODDS tions, but have prevailed for many years.
In order that we may have a thorough It is agreed by terminal engineers and
understanding of what the Port Autransportation experts generally that
thority means, what its functions are to standard railway freight cars cannot be
be, and why and how it was created, it brought on to the island of Manhattan. I
is necessary to go back a few years. think it can be agreed in any gathering
In 1917 Representatives of the State of people who understand the geography
of New Jersey petitioned the Inter-State of Manhattan Island that you cannot
Commerce Commission for a rate on
This festive figure represents the farmers' make a freight yard out of any part of it.
freight from the West in favor of the crops on their journey through the intricate Therefore it is to be served by an under
maze of the traffic jam of New York Harbor. State of New Jersey, on the theory that ground electric system with a break-up A moving picture of the adventures of Mr.
the nine large trunk lines terminated
Potato is being used to create public interest yard in New Jersey, where the freight is
in the port treaty
really on the New Jersey shore. New to be taken on tractors and placed in
York commercial bodies got together electric cars and delivered at inland Love, among other things, made the and went down to Washington and points along the North River, providing statement:
fought for the preservation of the status a constantly moving shuttle service be You have lost the cotton trade. of New York, because a decision in favor tween the island of Manhattan and the You have lost the tobacco trade, and of New Jersey in the Federal Rate Case New Jersey break-up yards.
you are fast losing the grain trade.
would have meant 3 cents a hundred In plain language, the underlying Arguments set forth for the St. Law. pounds preferential to the manufacturer principle of the Port Plan is to connect rence Waterway, which, if ever built in New Jersey, or 60 cents a ton. the railways from the West with the will not only interfere with the business I do not think we need spend any railways from the East by all-rail routes of the Port of New York, but will tend time figuring on what that would have and to bring standard freight cars with to destroy the effectiveness of our great meant to the commerce of New York. out floating them to the outlying bor- canal system, built at a cost of over City. The man who established his facoughs of New York along belt-line rail $150,000,000, are based largely upon the tory in New Jersey would have that adroutes intended to serve the commerce cost of doing business and the conges- vantage over the man doing his busiand the industry of these sections.
tion at the Port of New York. A group ness in New York. The Inter-State So far as exchange freight between of Mid-Western States have joined to
Commerce Commission did not, however, the New England lines and the lines gether in a federation and are urging grant the petition of the New Jersey from the Pacific coast are concerned, upon Congress that a waterway be
interests, but at the same time it did New York is to-day a way station. The opened along the St. Lawrence River
not deny it for all time. It gave New only difference is that, instead of send between the Great Lakes and the ocean.
Jersey permission to reopen its case at ing the freight along under a tunnel The Hon. A. P. Nelson, Member of Con- any time. In its opinion the Inter-State and keeping it continually with the gress, urging the St. Lawrence Water
Commerce Commission said that hiswheels moving, it is carted across the way in a speech made in the House of
torically and geographically the Port of bay on car-floats, which is the big ele. Representatives on December 5, 1921,
New York comprehended both States. ment of delay and a great big element said:
It advised that the States get together of cost and the big element of expense. Other and more drastic remedies and jointly develop the port so that
should be applied to effect a better
there might be no future rivalry as beWAR OF THE PORTS distribution of commerce through the
tween the States, and terminal costs The port problem directly affects the ports of the country, to the end that
might be reduced so as to leave the business interests of the port, and the we may be freed in part at least from
the tremendous burdens that have
great Port of New York in a position to cost of living in the metropolitan dis.
been placed upon our commerce be
compete successfully with the other tricts of Philadelphia, Baltimore, and
cause we have permitted the continu ports of entry on the Atlantic and Gulf New Orleans, which have been active
ance of conditions which have forced coasts. competitors for the business now done
the foreign business of the country at the Port of New York. They have
CENTER OF VAST SHIPMENTS largely through the archaic Port of inserted in the newspapers whole-page New York.
Following this experience, the two advertisements and used in their adver
The following day Congressman Bren
States created a Bi-State Commission, tising matter the figures gathered by nan had this to say:
known as the New York and New Jersey our own Commission to show the cost
Port and Harbor Development Commis
We cannot close our eyes to the of doing business at our own port.
almost intolerable congestion which
sion, consisting of three men from New Speaking before the Port Authority,
has existed for years past in the
Jersey and three from New York, and United States Shipping Commissioner vicinity of New York City, and which in 1918 this Commission began an ex