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NOREIGN newspaper despatches
K have been reporting serious riot-

ing, looting, and other disorders of a revolutionary character in Cairo, Egypt. These indicate that the British endeavors to carry on an Egyptian protectorate in the spirit in which it has approached Ireland and has successfully created a new nation out of South Africa are neither understood nor appreciated by certain elements among the Egyptians.

The story of Egypt is a dramatic one. With the possible exception of China it has had a longer unbroken national history than any other country known to man, most of which time it has suffered the pangs and perils of an outrageous despotism. Those who still continue to read the Old Testament will recall the despotism of the early dynasties. In modern times the Turks have taken over the autocratic scepter of the Pharaohs. When the Suez Canal was built, in the middle of the last century, the Turks were in control of southern Egypt and savage Sudanese dominated the Province of Sudan. For the welfare of the entire civilized world it was essential that civilized agents should administer and protect the Suez Canal as a great international highway of travel. Therefore a joint British and French protectorate was established over Egypt. But joint-stock companies are never successful in government ad

ministration. The partnership between PORTRAIT OF A MAN, BY MORONI. LENT TO THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

England, Germany, and the United BY CHARLES (HAUNCEY STILLMAN

States failed in Samoa; the partnership

between England and France failed in of which our American scientific ex- to their subject. The dozen paintings Egypt. France therefore withdrew on plorers are made. All honor to them! (one of which is reproduced above) terms which were mutually satisfactory

represent old masters of the Dutch, to her and to Great Britain, and for a A NOTABLE COLLECTION OF

Spanish, French, and Italian schools. generation Egypt has been a British proOLD MASTERS

The richly colored portrait by Rem- tectorate. The increasing worth from an art brandt of his son Titus is a notable ex- The value of this protectorate to the

1 standpoint of the collections of the ample of the great Dutch master, warm Egyptians themselves and to the world Metropolitan Museum of Art in New in tone and characteristically virile and at large is incalculable. The fellalin, York City, as well as their magnitude, spontaneous in style. Francia's “St, or peasant farmers, of Egypt have never is indicated by the inconspicuousness of Barbara" presents a more feminine as- been so prosperous or so familiar with a collection of excellent pictures now on pect of the patron saint of the soldier justice and order as they have been unexhibition there, which are lent by Mr. than the masterpiece by Palma Vecchio der British rule. Schools and hospitals C. C. Stillman in memory of his father, in Venice, but one well worth studying. have been established; the characterisJames Stillman. Amid the vast galler- Pontormo's "Halberdier” makes an in- tic and terrible eye disease has been ies of the Museum one must search and teresting companion piece to the St. restricted and controlled; the river Nile inquire to find these gems gathered by Barbara. Two full-length portraits by has been dammed and its flood waters, the well-known banker and art patron. Moroni will attract special attention on which used to destroy innumerable The connoisseur, the critic, and the or- account of the skill with which their crops, have been regulated and made a dinary lover of good pictures will be neutral color scheme is handled by this blessing instead of a menace; the Sudan well rewarded, however, for the trouble master of portraiture. Religious paint has been civilized. But there are misinvolved in finding them, scattered as ings by Murillo, Tiepolo, and Boccaccio guided Egyptiants, as there are misthey are in several rooms according Boccaccino form notable examples of the guided Americans, who think that what

A NEW YEAR'S CARD
TO THE OUTLOOK

FORESTS

is called self-determination is more im

always the aim of the advertising headportant than health, education, justice,

line writer to prepare copy which will and family life.

have selling punch. In the present inThese self-determinationists, there.

stance he has obviously violated those fore, began to fight the British ·govern

standards of good taste for which the mental administration by assassination.

HIGH executive of a large Pitts "Times" has been notable. We hope They murdered in 1910 Boutros Pasha, A burgh coal company in pre that Mr. Baker's articles will prove that the Prime Minister of Egypt, who was senting his brother with a year's good taste alone has been violated and himself a native Egyptian. Fortunately,

subscription to The Outlook wrote

not those requirements of trust and Great Britain suppressed this Bolshevik

him as follows:

honor which make confidential relationuprising with a firm hand. We say for

I hope you will like The

ships possible.

Outlook. I do not always like it, tunately, because if the revolutionists

If the documents to be published are

or rather I might better say had got control Egypt would have been that I do not always agree with

correctly described in the "Times" adsuccessfully invaded by the Turks under it. In fact, I disagreed with it so vertisements, although they may be in German leadership during the World strongly a few months ago that

the physical possession of Mr. Wilson,

I shopped around in earnest to War, the Suez Canal would have been

they are not his personal property.

try to get something to take its cut, the East would thus have been

place. However, I could not get

They belong in the archives of the State separated from the Western theater of anything that presented the Department. war, and the war might have been won

news in better form. I feel that

by reading all the news items, I by Germany.

can keep well informed without Recently, with most commendable mo

PRESERVE THE

wading through a lot of rubbish. tives, English Liberals have been urging Generally the editorials are well a greater degree of self-government for

worth reading. The contributed Egypt, although it has now a very large

articles are sometimes fine; usu

THE Creator provided the United

ally they are interesting; occadegree of self-government. Viscount

States of America with some of

sionally they are downright poor. Milner, who has been exceedingly suc On the whole, though, The

the most magnificent forests and cessful as a colonial administrator of

Outlook is the best weekly pub woodlands in the world, but failed to

lished, I think. South Africa, was therefore sent to

provide the Americans with sufficient in. Egypt and reported a plan to the British

telligence to take proper care of them. Foreign Office for a very large with

The result has been that until about

THE EXPLOITATION drawal from Egypt of the English Gov

fifteen years ago we treated our forests ernment administration. Because this OF “CONFIDENTIAL”

with prodigal wastefulness. Even so plan was not radical enough to suit the

late as March, 1919, Mr. Arthur D. Lit.

RECORDS ideas of Egyptian visionaries and Egyp

tle, a well-known chemical engineer of tian revolutionaries a protest has been THE New York "Times" has an

Boston, wrote a paper in which he said: made against it in the form of the riots

nounced a series of articles by The wastes in lumbering are proand uprising which have recently been 1 Ray Stannard Baker dealing with verbial, and, as Mark Twain said

about the weather, we all talk about taking place. The rioters, like the ex- the inside history of the Paris Peace

it but nothing is done. With a total treme Sinn Feiners in Ireland, want a Conference. It is stated that this story

annual cut of forty billion feet, board republic or nothing, ignorant or forget will be based upon the private records measure, of merchantable lumber, anful of the fact that republics are not of the Conference which are in ex other seventy billion feet are wasted made by the stroke of a pen, but are the President Wilson's personal possession.

in the field and at the mill. . . . But

the wastes in lumbering, colossal product of long evolutionary processes. These records were kept in a carefully

though they are in absolute amount, The Cairo riots indicate how danger- guarded steel box which contained, ac are trivial compared to the losses ous it would be for Great Britain to cording to the announcements of the

which our estate has suffered, and withdraw wholly from Egypt, for some "Times:"

still endures, from forest fires. civilized Power of experience and wis. The secret records of the Big Four in Under the Forest Service this kind of dom must protect the Suez Canal, to say Paris;

thing has been radically changed. The nothing of protecting the mass of Egyp- Documents and letters seen only by United States, having formerly been tians from injustice, disease, and ig. Wilson, Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Or- perfectly ignorant and callous about fornorance. There is a lesson in this ex- lando, and a few confidential advisers; estry and having had to learn the perience for the people of the United Minutes carefully guarded from pub- science and art of tree protection and States in their relations to Santo Do- lic view by the Government chiefs; tree cultivation from Europe, has now mingo and Haiti. One principle, how- Personal memoranda signed by the become one of the foremost countries in ever, must be always and constantly great leaders of the Peace Conference; the world in the scientific and economic borne in mind. A Power like the United Confidential reports from statesmen use of one of the most valuable natural States or like Great Britain, if it has to and military men;

resources of mankind. We have only to administer the affairs of a less-developed Europe's secret treaties which have turn to (

station people, must perform the task for the been mysteries for two generations. and suffering follows the ignorant and benefit first of the people themselves. What use Mr. Baker will make of careless handling of forests. second for human society at large, and these records is of course not yet evi- The development of the United States not at all for the selfish interests of the dent, nor is it fair to say that ex-Presi. Forestry Service has practically all trustee. England has followed this dent Wilson has released for publication come about in the last fifteen years. It principle in Egypt with great sincerity documents which by all standards of was established on its present basis in and patience, and its perplexing and un honor should be kept confidential. Per- the Department of Agriculture during profitable problem in that benighted haps at the present time strictures the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. country should command for the British should be confined to the manner in It is now proposed to transfer the Forstatesmen who are trying to solve it the which the New York “Times" has an est Service from the Department of sympathy of all well-intentioned people. nounced its proposed series. It is Agriculture to the Interior Department

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in connection with the reorganization of est Service activities are closely con- essential to the development of sound the Federal Government departments. nected with those of other branches of forestry methods, depends on close relaA reorganization of these departments the Department of Agriculture. Tree tionship with the scientists and scien. is greatly needed, but reorganization in diseases must be studied and combated tific atmosphere of the Department of itself is useless, and sometimes worse by the pathologists of the Department Agriculture-the greatest department of than useless, if it is not done reasonably of Agriculture. Insect pests must be biological science maintained by any and wisely. The transfer is advocated controlled by the Bureau of Entomology, government in the world. To sever this by Secretary Fall, of the Department of which is a branch of the Department of connection would destroy the very purthe Interior, but is opposed by practi- Agriculture. Eradication of poisonous pose for which the Forest Service excally every forester and every forestry herbs and the improvement of forage ists, with resultant deterioration or deassociation in the United States.

grasses in forest tracts which are used struction of the productive capacity of The chief argument in favor of the for grazing depend upon the work of the National Forests. transfer is that the Interior Department the Bureau of Plant Industry, which is The Forest Service has been managed deals with public lands; that many of in the Department of Agriculture. The for fifteen years in a non-political and our great forests are on public lands; control of predatory animals, such as efficient manner, and has steadily grown and that all questions connected with mountain lions, wolves, coyotes, which in the respect of men and communities public lands should be centralized under are injurious to the grazing tracts of who at first were suspicious of it. If one department. At first blush this forest, requires close contact with the its efficiency is weakened or curtailed by seems a sound argument, but a little ex Biological Survey, which is a part a transfer made ostensibly in the interamination of the question will show of the Department of Agriculture. A ests of efficiency, it would be as unwise that it does not fit the case.

very important part of the Forest Ser- and as unbusinesslike a thing as the In the first place, the Forest Service vice, which is perhaps not generally Government could possibly do. in fifteen years under the Department known, has to do with the management We hope that the President, who has of Agriculture has grown to be one of of the grazing land in forest tracts of deeply at heart the reorganization and the great successful and beneficent bu the Western mountains, and this work revitalization of Government efficiency, reaus of the Government. This growth must be in close contact with the Bus will not indorse the proposed transfer is partly due to the intimate relation of reau of Animal Husbandry, which is a without the most careful consideration; forestry to agriculture. The essence of part of the Department of Agriculture. for if he gives it the most careful conforestry is raising crops of trees, and it Thus it will be seen that the research sideration we believe he will not indorse is therefore an agricultural work. For work of the Forest Service, which is it at all.

BRITISH “PROPAGANDA” AND FRENCH “IMPERIALISM”

EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE FROM THE
ARMAMENT CONFERENCE AT WASHINGTON

BY ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT

M TE cannot disarm in an armed of those who are friendly to France call professional diplomatists themselves but world." it French imperialism.

masses of people. In this respect diploWhen these words came Briand pictures in words a Germany macy has followed the development of from the lips of a British spokesman still morally armed, whose outrages war. It is no longer confined to the who was addressing a large group of against civilization are fresh in the regulars, but is extended to the citi. press correspondents during Christmas memory of mankind, and declares that zenry. week at the Armament Conference, they France must still guard herself, and As that country would be surely occasioned no stir, aroused no antago- people shake their heads and call Francè beaten in war which ignored the condinism, set no special writer to preparing militaristic. Then Balfour pictures in tions of modern warfare, so will that an article on British ambition.

words an imaginary France, planning country be beaten in diplomatic negotiaWhy is it, then, that words to the some future submarine warfare against tions which ignores the conditions of same effect when used by French Britain, though the real France, still modern diplomacy. spokesmen raise an outcry at once prostrated by war, is before the very At Washington all the machinery of against France as an obstacle to the eyes of mankind, and people shake their the Conference has been built for the restoration of the spirit of peace?

heads again and call France imperialis. use of a diplomacy of the modern l.ind. It is certainly not because Britain is tic.

The facilities for connecting the delein danger, while France is secure. On In America at least France has been gates with the peoples of the nations the contrary, Britain to-day is obviously

speaking to an audience of skeptics:

speaking to an audience of skeptics; involved, so that information may go much freer from foreign peril than Britain, to an audience of believers. from the Conference to the people and France. It is simply because Britain This is not by chance. Each country knowledge of public opinion may be has taken the pains to create a friendly has created its own audience, or rather, conveyed in return to the delegates, inaudience, while France has not. Britain the diplomats of each country have. cluded meeting-places for conferences has been well served by her diplo- Apparently the French diplomats have between representatives of the delegamatists, while France by hers has been assumed that their business was with tions and the press correspondents. In served ill.

diplomats alone, that diplomacy was the New Navy Building, where these When the British argue that they something still to be carried on by pro- meeting-places are grouped, the British cannot disarm in an armed world, and fessionals, and have consequently made Empire is bounded on the south by are commended for saying so, those un little effort to make their case under. Japan, on the west by China, and on the friendly to Britain call it British propa stood by the peoples of other countries; north by Belgium, Italy, and the Netherganda.

while the British diplomats, without lands. Instead of finding their way When the French argue that they discarding the proved canons of their from hotel to hotel in various parts of must be armed in an armed world, and profession, recognize the fact that to the city to get information, the press are reproved for saying so, many even day diplomacy engages not merely the correspondents have found it for the most part sufficient to go from one head Thus while the delegates of the Meanwhile Britain was making the quarters in this building to another. It United States, Great Britain, and Japan most of her case. is true that no correspondent seeking spent a month or so in discussing among For many generations it has been the full information has been satisfied with themselves the relative strength of their policy of England to thwart any Power merely depending upon these regular respective battle fleets, the French were in Europe that seems to be on the way conferences, though there has been some left, as they put it, to "cool their heels." toward predominance and to lend her body to represent Great Britain, Japan, In this stage of the discussion concern weight to the side which seemed for the China, and usually Italy, respectively, ing naval ratios they took no part; they time being the weaker. Such a policy practically every day except Sunday; were not asked to take any part, and as this has many advantages. It is a but no one who attended these confer they felt aggrieved. Perhaps they had a policy which is always on the side of ences regularly could fail to get infor- right to nourish some resentment at what is apparently the under dog. It mation concerning the proceedings of this apparent disregard for their sus- is a policy of apparent aloofness from the Conference from the point of view ceptibilities, but there are two reasons the sordid quarrels of other nations. of each of the nations represented. why they should have taken the matter And it is a policy which insures mili

During all these weeks at the Confer more philosophically. In the first place, tary help in case of any conflict against ence among the nations at the New they should have realized that the pur- any prospective rival. It is a policy Navy Building, Belgium and Holland pose of this discussion was to see if which is likely to bring the added adhave been for the most part unrepre some way could be found to stop the vantage of the approval of others for a sented by spokesmen because they have naval competition, and France was not cause which is bound to result in matehad little which they wished to say; engaged in that competition. There rial advantage. Before the war of 1914 but France, which has much at stake, were no naval competitors except Amer Britain had two Powers to fear. One has been conspicuous by her absence. ica, Britain, and Japan; and any con- was Russia, the other Germany. By her The French headquarters have been in clusion concerning the subject had to be alliance with Japan she minimized the another part of the city, at the New reached by those three Powers and those danger from Russia and by her Entente Willard Hotel. There, it is true, the three Powers alone. So far as France with France put Russia in the balance inquirer for information may, after was concerned, it was not a question of with France against the Central Powers. making suitable appointments, receive ending a naval competition but begin. With the destruction of Germany as a courteous attention, and generally a rep- ning one, and it was naturally supposed naval Power and as a rival in the carresentative of the delegation has regu- that France had no intention of enter rying trade of the world Britain has larly met correspondents at an incon- ing the race as a new rival. France had found the balance in Europe tilting the venient hour of the day and talked to already stopped building her capital other way. She finds it to her interest them—in French. No notice of these ships and there was nothing in the to restore Germany as a source of profitdaily gatherings at this distant point world situation which led any one to able trade. Having received a predomihas been posted with the other notices suppose that she would begin burdening nant share of Germany's colonies, Eng. at the general press headquarters. The herself with an enormously increased land has nothing more to expect from French have been willing to give infor- navy while others were trying to get rid Germany except what she can get by mation to those who were willing to take of naval burdens. It is said that France commerce with her. On the other hand, some pains to seek it, but have them had put her proposed naval plans before France has every reason to fear a reselves taken no pains to give information the other nations early in the Confer suscitated and powerful Germany and from their point of view to any others. ence; but when she virtually accepted has not received from Germany what is

The consequences have been almost as the Hughes proposal in principle she owing to her in the way of reparation disastrous to the French cause as it was committed to the theory that the for the outrageous injury which Gerwould have been to trust to a small pro- naval race should be stopped. If her many did to her. For this reason it is fessional army to meet the masses of delegates had been wise, they would to the interest of France that Poland German conscripts. The French profes- have accepted the omission of France should be strong, while a strong Poland sional diplomats have been diligent and from the acute discussion as a compli- is likely to interfere with Britain's incompetent, but because they have ment to her good sense. In the second terests to the degree to which Poland trusted to the inherent strength of their place, they had the example of the Ital. secures valuable resources which Gercountry's diplomatic position, fortified ians. Like France, Italy was left out of many might otherwise have. So the I v the merits of the case, and have sup- the earlier discussion; but, unlike British policy now is opposed to the plied it with no defenders against the France, Italy kept patiently, persist interests of France. assaults of public opinion, they find ently, day after day, putting her case What annoys Britain is that France themselves, at a critical juncture in the concerning the naval ratio before the holds an economic position from which Conference, surrounded with adversa press correspondents of many lands. it is difficult to dislodge her. France ries. The French-atleast those at Wash- Italy's spokesmen gave to the press cor- can virtually say to Britain: "It is true ington-affect an indifference to the sit- respondents information concerning I owe you the money that you loaned uation. Least of all people in the world, Italy's military, naval, and financial me during the war; but I cannot pay it however, should the French ignore the condition, and they did it wisely. They until I get what is owing to me from influence of public opinion upon the des- did not present elaborate arguments or Germany. You do not want to press tiny of nations. It was because they flood the correspondents with reams of Germany for reparations because it is to lacked the support of public opinion of printed or typewritten matter; they your interest that Germany should not other countries that they were left alone simply stated Italy's objects as her dele- be overburdened. Very well; I shall to meet the Germans in an unequal gates would state them when the time have to manage without your help. I struggle in 1870; it was because they came for discussion in the Conference. will make my arrangements with Gerhad the support of the public opinion They cast no reflection on any other na- many alone-and with Turkey, for that not only of Europe but of almost the tion. They simply said in effect that all matter. Of course I should much prefer entire world except for their enemies the nations of Europe needed relief from your help. By the way, since you have that they emerged victorious in 1918. It all unnecessary burdens and that as far a navy enormously greater than any I is true that national interests determine as Italy was concerned she was contentcan hope to have, you won't mind. I am national policies; but public opinion has with any navy, no matter how small, sure, my having a strong fleet of suba great deal to do with deciding whether provided it was on an equality with that marines and light cruisers to protect my the policies shall be successful or not. of France. A French representative dur- empire, which is quite as wide-flung as Just because the French are realists ing these weeks might have been giving yours.” they ought to be able to take account of information from the French point of Now Britain does object to any nation this fact. instead of failing to take ac- view, without any loss of dignity and having a large fleet of submarines. So count of it as they have in Washington, with much gain in good will.

long as Britain has a strong battle fleet

CHARLIE CHAPLIN

with bases in all parts of the world,

posed that, while awaiting general acshe can maintain and protect her carry

ceptance by all nations of the world, the ing trade if no nation has the power to

naval Powers at this Conference as hold up those merchant ships in case of

among themselves, in the wholly imwar. The last time any nation at

probable case of war between any two tempted to blockade England it was by

of them, should accept the amendment methods that affronted the sentiments

to the existing law. of mankind. Germany's ruthless sub

Behind Mr. Root's proposals there has marine warfare brought the very name

risen a strong body of public opinion. of submarine into discredit. During

There can hardly be any question of the these weeks of the Conference, there

ultimate acceptance of the first rule, fore, Great Britain has urged that the

which would subject the submarine to submarine be altogether abolished. She

the existing law requiring any naval has argued that the submarine is use

vessel to warn a merchant vessel before less for anything except what she calls

molesting her, to visit and search her offensive warfare. Naval experts have

and place her passengers and crew in by no means agreed that this is true.

safety before destroying her; but there is Indeed, it is difficult, if not impossible,

a question whether the rule which puts to distinguish in warfare between the

the submarine in a category by itself offensive and the defensive. The British

will be or ought to be accepted. It is delegates have argued that, in spite of

impossible here to state the arguments hostile submarines, millions of men were

for and against the proposal. It is suftransported across the seas by Britain

ficient to say that any amendment to without the loss of a man except from

the existing law of naval warfare ought hospital ships, and that that fact proves

to be accepted only after the most care

THOMAS BURKE that the submarine is a feeble weapon

ful consideration, and should not be of defense. On the other hand, it is

adopted merely because repugnance to pointed out that during the war the

the methods of the German submarine troops that were transported overseas

pirates has given the submarine a bad were landed in friendly territory, and

BY THOMAS BURKE

name and has seemed to invest it with that the situation would be entirely dif

an evil power like that of a fetish. ferent in case of an invasion. Indeed, A new view of the personality of Talk to the effect that the French deit is argued that the submarine as well the famous film comedian. In this cision to retain freedom of action for as the mine was effective in keeping article the author of “Limehouse the building of submarines and auxilboth German and British coasts com Nights,” “ Out and Around London,” iary vessels has paralyzed the Conferparatively free from attack. In arguing,

and other vivid books about the by

ence and brought it near to a wreck is therefore, for the abolition of the sub

ways of London life goes below the

not to be taken seriously. There can be marine as a weapon of war Great

no exhausting competition in building

surface of things and shows us the Britain has stood alone; but she has

subordinate craft. Nobody plans such

true psychology of Charles Chaplin kept steadily at the task of discrediting

competition and nobody expects it. The the submarine in the eyes of the world.

as he sees it. It will appear in our

existing competition for the building of Of course there is no evil inherent in

next issue.

capital ships has been stopped. The the submarine itself. The evil is in the

naval ratio has been agreed upon. The outi

se of it, such as that by rine warfare. The accusation against main structure of the American prothe Germans; but the result of the Brit- France brought a responsive protest

posal has stood, as Mr. Balfour preish appeal to public opinion has been from M. Sarraut, head of the French

dicted it would stand. The ill feeling that any proposal to maintain a fleet of delegation. And the .statements of the

between Great Britain and France, submarines is one which has in it a French naval officer were officially re

which everybody who reads the papers suggestion of obloquy.

pudiated by the French Government. knows of anyway, has been revealed When America, Britain, and Japan Nevertheless France thus found herself

once more; but it has not prevented agreed upon a naval ratio of 5-5-3, they under condemnation by the peoples of

them from reaching a common underannounced to France that, in their opin- two nations who had been her allies and

standing on vital matters. Those who ion, the present state of the French friends.

look at this Conference from a point of navy was such as to make it fair for The episode is useful as an illustra

view in Europe are, after all, looking at France to have a tonnage of capital tion of the fact that the nation which

it from a parochial point of view, even ships that would make her ratio 1.75. ignores the methods of modern diplo

though Europe may be said to be a very France replied that, as she had not been macy—which is at the same time both

large parish. After all, as Theodore consulted about the ratio, she had been mass diplomacy and open diplomacy-is

pen diplomacy-is Roosevelt pointed out, the world passed thinking the matter over and she had bound to suffer.

from the Mediterranean age to the Atdecided on a figure about twice as large Though the United States has. like lantic age in the course of its progress, as that assigned to her. This French the other nations with the exception of and now is passing out of the Atlantic reply created a great deal of disturb Britain, opposed the abolition of the age into the age of the Pacific. To-day ance. By an exchange of notes Secre. submarine, the American delegates have it is not the balance of Europe that tary Hughes secured from M. Briand, proposed rules for the control of sub- needs attention; it is the balance of the the French Premier, the French Govern- marine warfare. These rules have been world. It is no longer possible for one ment's consent to accept the ratio drafted by Mr. Root. The first states country to direct the course of history named by the three Powers, with a the existing law concerning the holding by directing the distribution of forces reservation as to the building of sub- up of merchantmen on the high seas and on a single continent. The Conference marines and light cruisers. At the men- definitely subjects the submarine to the at Washington has accomplished altion of submarines the British became observance of that law. The second ready a great deal, but among all its denunciatory. At a session of the dele rule would amend the existing law by accomplishments there is nothing that gates Mr. Balfour accused France of prohibiting the submarine from molest. can compare with its achievement in planning war upon Britain, and at a ing merchant vessels altogether. The bringing forth proof that for the future later session Lord Lee reiterated the third rule would subject the violator of peace and welfare of the world diplocharge, buttressing it by quoting state the existing law and of the proposed macy must not only have new methods ments ascribed to a French naval officer amendment to the penalty of death as a but also new objects. in defense of Germany's ruthless subma- pirate. Mr. Balfour for the British pro- 2 January, 1922.

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