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film or plate in winter is quite different sure to make mistakes in timing unless which you would find it hard to account from what it is in summer. The sum- during the early stages of your snow- for unless you knew the reason. mer-season amateur taking up snow scape experiments you rely upon a good After stepping outdoors in winter to photography for the first time will have exposure meter. One of these can be take a picture, it is advisable to look at poor success unless he acquires a new purchased in any photographic store. your lens to make sure that the moisset of exposure rules. Any one wholly Even when guided by a reliable ex- ture has cleared. It will do so after the unfamiliar with light conditions can posure meter one would do wisely to glass has become acclimated to the cold. easily be fooled into thinking that there make a certain amount of allowance for If the coating of moisture is slow in is more light on a bright winter day the physical changes which the mechan- evaporating, you can speed matters with the glare of the sun on the white ism of a camera goes through in winter. along by wiping the lens with a clean snow than on an ordinary summer day. Cold weather affects the metal parts. It linen handkerchief. But wipe very
The camera, however, cannot be oftentimes happens that a shutter works gently indeed, so that the glass will not fooled. It knows very well the differ- more slowly on a cold winter day than be scratched. ence between summer and winter light, it does in summer. Indeed, there have Photographic plates and films should knows that the matter is wholly one of been times with my own camera when be carried in such a way that there is light intensity. The light of summer is the shutter has refused to function at no possibility of getting them wet. direct, while that from the snow in win- all. I have been forced to go indoors Small round tin containers sealed with ter is reflected. And reflected light can and allow it to thaw out.
strips of adhesive tape serve as waternever be as intense as direct light. This Inattention to the physical changes to proof protection for films. For the size means that an open snowscape almost which a camera is subject in winter is of film known as 1A or smaller an universally demands a longer exposure an important element in getting good empty shaving-stick tube does very well. than does an open summer landscape, pictures. Only by knowing one's cam- Plates and films, so far as practicable, although of course the winter scene era thoroughly, knowing what to expect should be protected from continued exwhich is wholly devoid of snow takes a under given conditions, can one make treme cold. If it is found possible to longer exposure than the snowscape. the proper amount of allowance for tem- keep a set of plate-holders warmly This matter of exposure is in some porary shortcomings.
wrapped in a blanket or some article of respects the most important element of It is essential to know, for example, clothing before and after exposure, this all in taking snow pictures. It demands that when you .take a camera from a care may prove an element in securing careful study. There are a number of heated house into the extreme cold of satisfactory pictures. It does plates no general rules, of course, which are ap- outdoors there almost invariably forms good to get them chilled. In any case, it is plicable both to summer and® winter on the lens a cloudy coating of mois- unwise to develop a plate or film immework, as, for example, the nearer a ture. If a picture were 'taken under diately upon bringing it indoors. Before given object is to the camera, the longer these conditions, the finished print doing so allow the plate or film to become the exposure. Even so, you are almost would be an indistinguishable blur, acclimated to the heat of the house.
CAPITAL SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT
A LETTER FROM THREE ARMY AVIATORS
Aberdeen Proving Ground,
The Editor of The Outlook,
New York, N. Y. Dear Sir:
AN it be that the question of the
vulnerability of battleships to at
tack from the air is again being discussed on the negative side? Apparently such is the case in view of the article recently published in The Outlook and written by Commander Cleary, of the United States Navy. Offcers of the Army Air Service who participated in the bombing maneuvers off the Virginia Capes this summer had believed that the question of battleship vulnerability had been settled once and for all. Certainly, nobody who saw the Ostfriesland, the masterpiece of German naval construction, the pride of the Imperial German Navy, roll over on its back and take up its final resting-place on the sandy bottom of the Atlantic Ocean can ever be convinced that a ship could be constructed capable of resisting attack from the air.
In this connection, the Ostfriesland, which has been referred to as an “obsolete ship," cost the German people $40,000,000 to construct, was one of the most modern ships of the German navy,
and had two protective steel decks es- the time required for a bomb to drop
As concerns anti-aircraft gunfire, the In the course of his article the naval record of hits on the western front durcommander says:
ing the recent war was only one hit in She was taken out and anchored
67,000 shots. The highest percentage for the purpose of sinking her. ..
claimed by ordnance experts even to-day Generally ideal summer weather pre- is but one hit in 40,000 shots. It is vailed. The ship was without anti- merely a problem in arithmetic to figure aircraft gunfire or ability to maneu- the time it would take to secure one ver, and the planes bombed from the
solitary hit. In fact, it is well known very low altitude of 1,200 to 2,000 feet.
and realized by persons conversant with True, the Ostfriesland was anchored; this subject that the effects of anti-airbut the inference that an anchored tar- craft fire are so small as to be practiget is easier to hit than one in motion cally negligible. The sooner this fact is is far from the facts in the case. This admitted by naval experts, the simpler had been demonstrated by extensive will be the question of deciding the relatests on towed targets near Langley tive importance of capital ships and airField the past summer. Army bombers craft. secured a much higher percentage of As concerns weather conditions: Ideal hits on towed targets than they did on weather prevailed in the bombing of the stationary targets, for the reason that Ostfriesland, but during the bombing of the bombing plane travels in the same the Frankfort, four days before this direction that the target is moving, and time, one formation of Martin bombers consequently is over it for a greater went out, did their bombing, and relength of time. Obviously, the faster turned during one of the worst storms the target is moving, the easier it would that hit the Atlantic coast this summer. be to hit.
Only one ship of this squadron was! As concerns maneuverability, it is a forced down by motor trouble after the matter well known to all naval officers bombing was completed. It landed on. that it is an impossibility for a capital shore without serious damage. This ship to change its course in the least flight got a higher percentage of hits degree within eleven seconds, which is than any other flight that bombed the
Frankfort. Naval experts will admit the air. That is the reason why the
of six Army 2,000-pound bombs dropped "As concerns the altitude from which there were no hits. This is literally corwe bombed: Even admitting that at an rect, but it was the 2,000-pound bombs altitude of 2,000 feet aircraft might be which put the Ostfriesland under the in danger from machine gun fire, or pos- water in less than thirty minutes. It sibly from anti-aircraft fire, no was the mining effect of the bombs excontends for a single minute that we ploding near the ship and under the might not suffer loss of ships and loss water which tore terrific holes in her of life. We didn't join the Air Service sides that sent the vessel to the bottom. with any expectation that we would To be sure, we didn't hit her, but we rival Methuselah. Certainly we would did sink her. It is hardly fair to conhave our casualties, but machine guns, sider as hits only those bombs which artillery, and gas did not prevent the came into contact with the target itself infantry from going over the top and for the reason that every bomber tried accomplishing its mission. No more not to hit the ship. He wanted to strike would the loss of airplanes prevent the the water close to it, for he realized the Air Service from going to sea and ac- greatest damage could be inflicted in complishing its mission. It is ridicu- that way. In fact, General Mitchell imlous to argue that bombing squadrons pressed upon us that he did not wish us would not bomb from low altitudes to hit the vessel, but to place the bombs simply because some of their planes close to her in the water. To say we might be shot down.
received only 16 hits out of 69 bombs The naval commander writes as fol. dropped is a very misleading statement lows:
for the reason that every bomb striking Furthermore, if the Ostfriesland the water within fifty feet caused more had carried three or four or more damage than a direct hit would have fast light pursuit planes (armed with caused. Another statement made by machine guns firing explosive and
Commander Cleary was that we dropped incendiary bullets), as all modern
eleven Army 1,000-pound bombs and seships do carry or will shortly carry,
cured three hits. The writers took part these light planes, capable of outmaneuvering with ease the heavy
in that particular phase of the bombing, bombing planes, would have shot and we remember clearly, as the records down number of the bombing will show, that we did not drop eleven planes before they came anywhere bombs of that type. We carried eleven near the target ship.
Army 1,100-pound bombs, but after we Surely the commander knows that in had dropped five and secured three ditime of war no squadron of bombing rect hits and two close to the ship in planes would go on a mission without the water we were given the emergency their escort of pursuit planes. For signal to stop bombing by the Navy. every bombing squadron we would have Had we dropped the remaining six two pursuit squadrons, each of which bombs it would have been unnecessary contains twenty-one fast fighting air- for the next flight of bombing planes to planes. What chance would these three have left their airdrome, for the Ostor four pursuit planes carried on a capi
friesland would have sunk as a result of tal ship have against the fighting craft this attack. guarding the big bombers? None, abso- The one vital point in this controlutely none. The commander may say versy which seems to have been absothat the other capital ships of th flee lutely lost sight of by the defenders of would also have pursuit planes. The the capital ship is that prior to the answer is that in time of war, with a bombing tests this summer naval offiproperly developed air force, we would cers were positive in their statements not be limited to one bombing squadron that aerial bombs could not sink a batand two pursuit squadrons of protecting tleship under any circumstances. They planes. We wouldn't, or at least let us ridiculed arguments of Air Service offihope we won't have.to, wage war with cers to the contrary. They were vitri. one bombardment squadron and two olic in their articles written for publipursuit squadrons. With a properly de- cation. Why, one would have thought veloped air service we would have sev. it was sacrilegious to even imagine that eral wings of bombardment and several an airplane could carry a weapon capawings of pursuit to meet any approach- ble of sinking, or even putting out of ing fleet. We would be able to mass at commission, for that matter, one of least a dozen pursuit planes for every those great, big, beautiful floating palplane the capital ships could send into aces which cost the taxpayers of this
A MODERN AERIAL BOMB OF ABOUT THREE
HUNDRED POUNDS WEIGHT Its size may be judged by the white band on the upper left side of the picture. This is
the arm of a man holding the bomb
credit would be given only for direct hits, and, as the case of the Ostfriesland so well illustrates, direct hits are not the ones which sink a ship. The bombs which strike the water close to the ship inflict the death blows. The Army might have bombed the Iowa and dropped ninety per cent of its bombs within twenty-five feet of the vessel (any one of which would have sunk the ship if the bombs were live), and arti. cles would have been published to the effect that the Army failed to hit the target ship. Had we been permitted to bomb the Iowa with a view to its destruction, the Army would have partici. pated gladly, and there would now be one more battleship resting on the bottom of the Atlantic.
It is well known that dummy bombs are not true in their trajectory. What might easily be a direct hit with a live bomb, perfectly designed and constructed, would very likely be a one hundred or two hundred foot miss with a dummy bomb.
The Naval Air Service probably did not secure a high average on the bombing of the Iowa, but the slow movement of the vessel or the altitude from which they dropped their bombs had nothing whatsoever to do with the percentage obtained. Let's admit that it is hardly fair to conduct an experiment with dummy bombs with their false and un
true trajectories and then come before Wide World Photos
the public with a statement of the few AN AIRPLANE DESIGNED FOR USE FROM A SHIP—THE CYLINDERS ABOVE THE WHEELS ARE INFLATED FLOATS
hits obtained, laying emphasis on the
fact that the vessel was moving and country the huge sum of forty million few hits obtained by the Naval Air Ser
saying nothing of the type of bomb used. dollars to construct! That was the sub- vice during that experiment. He inti
The commander also says: ject of dispute, and it was decided so mates that the low percentage was due conclusively that it irritates those of us to the fact that the ship was moving
Operations against her [the Iowa) who dropped the “bombs which were at a rate of speed of about six miles an
were delayed one day by fog in which
the airplanes could not operate, alheard round the world” every time an hour, and also because the planes
though this fog did not prevent the article appears which attempts to cham- bombed at 4,000 feet, an altitude higher
Iowa and the attending ships from pion the capital ship, the ship which than the bombing that was done during maneuvering. takes three years to build and which the sinking operations. He also lays costs the country more than is required emphasis on the fact that the Army did To be sure the experiment was de to construct one thousand of the type not participate in this maneuver except layed one day, but it was not delayed of airplane which so speedily sent the through the use of three blimps in the by Air Service officers. The searching pride of the German navy to her search part of the problem.
parties were ready to take off. Army watery grave.
We wish to take advantage of this planes experienced no difficulty that day One super-dreadnought costs $40,- opportunity to lay emphasis on the fact in flying because of poor visibility. The 000,000.
that the Iowa problem was primarily naval officer who considered.it advisable One super-bombing plane costs $40,- and principally one of location. Many to wait until the visibility was better 000; one thousand of these bombing naval officers were positive in their probably considered that there was an planes can be built for the price of one statements that airplanes could not lo
element of risk involved and believed it battleship. These are not fancies, but cate a battleship if given merely a gen- unnecessary and unwarranted to risk facts. What chance would the king of eral location, and to establish this ques- the lives of his Air Service officers in the jungle have if attacked by one thou- tion one way or the other the Iowa, at times of peace. Surely the commander sand poisonous reptiles-each carrying zero hour, was somewhere between Cape
realizes that had there been war the a fatal sting?
Hatteras and Cape Henlopen, and not Air Service would have operated regardWhy not admit frankly that an air- farther out to sea than one hundred less of tlie visibility. During the St. plane can sink a battleship, or any type miles nor nearer to land than fifty Mihiel offensive the visibility was so of war-vessel? Why cloud the issue miles. The army was invited to partici- poor that the planes were flying barely with a multitude of collateral facts? pate in this problem, and sent three air- over the tops of trees, but they operated
Every time an Air Service officer ships. The Iowa was located within and they secured results. It is hardly reads an article stating that a battle- two hours after the airships left their fair to lead the public to believe that ship cannot be sunk by airplanes he is airdrome, and it was located by army an army, or a navy, for that matter, reminded of the Swede who was in jail airships, not naval seaplanes.
which postponed its maneuvers in time and who was informed by his lawyer True, as Commander Cleary says, the of peace for the sake of the health and that he could not be put in prison for Army Air Service did not participate in possibly the lives of its men would hesi. that offense. The Swede replied: "Yah, the bombing exercises, for the reason tate in time of war because it was but they got me in here just the same." that they were not to be conducted with highly possible that some one might be
Commander Cleary mentioned the live bombs. Nothing could be proved by lost. bombing of the battleship Iowa and the the use of "dummies," inasmuch
Let us remember that it was the con
viction of many naval officers that a ship could not be located at sea. Let us also remember that the ship was located, and that it was located easily and speedily.
Let us remember that some naval experts ridiculed the idea that airplanes could sink battleships. Let us also remember that a submarine, a destroyer, an armored cruiser, and a battleship were sent to the bottom with the greatest of ease, and that each one of these vessels went under in less than thirty minutes after the heavy bombing commenced.
We rest our case, satisfied with the verdict which is sure to be rendered by the jury of American people, whose money, in the form of taxation, pays for the construction of capital ships which,
tests have proved, are impotent when It should be borne in mind, however, attacked by airplanes.
that the armor-piercing shell, the torVery truly yours,
pedo-boat, and the submarine have all C. E. SHANKLE,
been heralded as sounding the knell of First Lieutenant Air Service, U. S. A. the battleship. A better case can be HAROLD LEE GEORGE,
made out for the airplane than for any First Lieutenant Air Service, U. S. A. of these other weapons, but can we yet CARLYLE W. GRAYBEAL,
say that the verdict on the battleship is First Lieutenant Air Service, U. S. A. "thumbs down"?
Each new weapon of offense against (We are glad to have the privilege of the battleship has in turn developed publishing this communication from new methods and tactics of defense. We three of the officers who took an active confess that, despite the expert testipart in the bombing tests. We consider mony which has been presented here, it a valuable contribution to the discus- we do not expect to see the battleship sion which has been carried on in these yield control of the high seas at the pages concerning the relative power of present time. We are ready to grant airplanes and battleships. The testi- that the airplane is the most portentous mony of these three officers is indeed menace to its existence which has yet weighty.
THE RECTOR OF ALL OUTDOORS
BY EMILY TAPLIN ROYLE
HE Country Pew vs. the Country Large and thriving families dwindled and entertaining display. Since the
ture of Ohio communities where farms grew up to woodland, little mills the old country schoolhouses are closed, “the sheep look up and are not fed." To and shops were abandoned, and new- and the Parson has been able to turn complete the picture Mr. and Mrs. comers to the districts settled early in some of these disused schools into comBruère should tell us what religious our history found pioneer conditions munity centers. The Parson told us last body of the present time willingly or- awaiting them. The hill lands of Con- winter how he drove twelve miles over dains ignorant men of limited intellec- necticut, sold at modest prices, attracted very rough roads to hold a Christmas tual power and sends them out as land-hungry immigrants of many nation party in a closed Methodist church. He apostles to intelligent country people. alities, to whom the possession of a lit- got to the little hamlet at dusk, and rang I shall perhaps be accused of the arro- tle farm was the greatest gift the New the church bell vigorously. In that comgance sometimes ascribed to the Angli- World could offer. These farms are munity ringing the church bell means can communion if I say that at least I often on rough hill roads, so isolated just two things-fire or a visit from the am sure they are not Episcopalians. that there are no neighbors, no passing Parson. So people looked out to see if Our educational standards are high, and traffic; and in many cases the husband it was a fire, and as there was no sign an intelligent financial system tends to and father leaves home, sometimes for of that danger, they ate their suppers remove the clergy from the eleemosy. weeks at a time, to take some job that with despatch and made ready for a nary servitude that is suggested by the will bring in cash to pay taxes and inter- party, the only dissenters being the bats, Bruère survey.
est, while wife and children work the whose squeaks and flutters in the belfry Perhaps the authors of this survey farm. Imagine these people, isolated, followed the time-honored precedent of would see another evidence of clerical uneducated, often unfamiliar with rural all bats, ecclesiastical or otherwise. The dependence in a minister who acts as American life, and you have the mission Christmas party included gifts from barber to country boys, as middleman field in which the "Pastoral Parson" good friends of the missioner in the to sell pigs for an isolated farmer, as finds his work. He is, properly speak- great city, games, dancing (the Parson's fertilizer mixer and general handy man ing, a diocesan missioner of the Episco- small victrola pays a good many parofor a scattered community, and then in pal Church, but his scope is so broad chial calls), and simple refreshments. eucharistic white feeds the souls of and so undefined that he might well be These gatherings in isolated places are humble folk with the heavenly bread, called the rector of all outdoors. Changes a regular part of the Parson's work. In after he has helped them to provide the in rural conditions have caused other many cases there is absolutely no amuseearthly food that is too often obtained religious communions to give up their ment for the young people, and the rewith strain and toil. Here is no igno- work. There are many disused and sults of this are altogether evil. Some rant preacher speaking to prosperous abandoned churches, lost in the hills or strait-laced people have been rather country people, secure (may I add, on untraveled roads where fifty years shocked when the Parson acted as umsmug?) in the knowledge of their fat ago there was a small rural community. pire at a Sunday afternoon ball game, acres. His people are often ignorant, Now there are a few scattered families after church; and, what is more, he always poor, scattered, and isolated- and a closed church. The Parson ob- brought bat, ball, and catcher's glove sometimes the last feeble shoots of an tains the use of such a church; some- with him on Saturday night, incongruold ancestral tree deeply rooted in times it is possible to buy it and turn ous company for his priestly vestments. American history, sometimes toiling it into a community center as well as But he thinks clean baseball is one form peasants whose first knowledge of Amer- church. A church is not, however, abso- of Americanization for the growing lad ica was Ellis Island.
lutely necessary for his ministrations, of foreign parents, shut off in lonely The great changes in the New Eng. for he wrote us recently of an occasion hamlets where Satan is the most active land States came with the Civil War- when he baptized a family of eight chil- purveyor of amusement. too many of the young men never came dren in the kitchen. Then the next time And those very boys like to come to back. Some made the Southern battle- he came along that lonely road he had the Parson's Sunday school. He teaches field a piece of Northern ground; others his stereopticon outfit, and there was a them and talks straight to them, but, wandered to the new lands of the West. display of religious pictures and a talk knowing boy nature, it is just possible 1 See The Outlook for November 16, last.
about sacred things as well as a secular that sessions held in the basement of