Слике страница

some of the shabby little churches have upon as a cash crop, for it is very hard he is secular as well as religious adsomething to do with it. The Parson's to find an available market for farm viser; he can always tell where seed “grip” always holds something besides produce. Young people from factories potatoes are procurable, what to do for Prayer-Books. After butchering time and department stores, content to rough peach borers and apple scab, and what there may be a few small steaks or other it a little, find health in the country air; the biggest boy should do to prepare for savory trifles, and when boys gather but sometimes the swimming-hole, the à good job. around a furnace or old stove with some fields and sky, are not sufficient. Some Just now there are communities betidbit sizzling on the end of a stick they of the Parson's friends in one isolated yond number where just such work as are very likely to think there really is hamlet sent out a cry for help—they this is needed. It is what we rather something in the Parson's preaching. couldn't keep their boarders without snobbishly call "uplift” and “social serOn some of these occasions.the Parson's some Saturday-night amusement. So the vice,” but remember that the religion valise is likely to show a businesslike Parson loaded up a few accessories and that vitalizes it is not "popularized.” It set of clippers also, and a group of journeyed over the hills and through the goes hand in hand with a dignified smooth-headed young Christians appear swamps and got up a sociable. They liturgy and a beautiful service, and, before their admiring friends after shed- had a fine time, with games and danc- though I have not heard the Parson ding their shock of unbrushed hair. It ing; the tired Parson spent the night preach, I am quite sure that he does not was after such an incident that the visit- with a neighbor, and most of the city need to give his hearers a résumé of the ing bishop of the diocese commented on boarders attended the service he held week's events, with his private interthe neat, nice-appearing boys. The Par- the next morning. Sometimes he has a pretation of the Washington Conference son confided his part in it to the bishop, Sunday itinerary of fifty miles or more; and the trend of the universe added. He who observed that it was not every min- he goes to one place Saturday night, has translated his church into terms of ister who was able to trim the congre- visits around or holds a party, has an work, and the time may yet come when gation.

early service the next morning, journeys the seed from these Connecticut hills In some of these communities summer on to a second hamlet for service, and may change the whole destiny of State boarders of the humbler sort are relied then perhaps to a third. At every place and Nation.





TAR has come to an end between

the French and the Turkish

Nationalists. Å few weeks ago military operations were going on between Turks and French in Cilicia on a 350-mile front, and between Turks and Greeks in western Asia Minor. The first of these wars is now closed by the Treaty of Angora. The second one is not to last long, as we hear of a general retreat of the Greeks towards the sea.

Like the Wiesbaden agreement between France and Germany, the Angora treaty is not the work of regular diplomats; M. Franklin-Bouillon, a French Congressman, having received full powers from Paris, has negotiated it with the Nationalist Government of Mustapha Kemal at Angora. The Angora Government has not been officially recognized by the foreign Powers. But it represents the Turkish nation, it has carried on a successful war against the Greek invaders of Anatolia, it has held its own against formidable odds. The great National Assembly of Angora has no money, but it also has no foreign debt. The army lives on the country. And it must be admitted that Kemal's authority and independence have been constantly growing during the last months.

The terms of the Angora treaty are as follows:

1. Hostilities are to cease immediately and all prisoners to be released on both sides.

2. Full amnesty is to be granted in all regions evacuated by one party and occupied by the other.

3. The rights of minorities are solemnly recognized by the Turkish Government, on the same basis as in the European treaties of 1919 regard

Second, France resumes her traditional policy of friendship with the Moslems, a policy which will insure her peaceful control over the millions of Mohammedans in Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and the Sudan.

Third, a pacifying and stabilizing effect of this treaty is expected in the Caucasus and in central Asia. Owing to the general disorder which prevailed there in 1919 and 1920, the Russians had overrun national resistance in Northern Caucasia, in Georgia, in Armenia. The new state of things in Asia Minor does not directly affect Russia, but it shows once more that national will is finding sooner or later a successful expression everywhere. What happens to the Turks is an encouragement to the Caucasian nationalities. Some time ago Mustapha Kemal had con

cluded an alliance with the Moscow International KEMAL PASHA, TURKISH NATIONALIST

Government, from which he expected a LEADER

supply of arms, ammunition, and ing minorities in Poland, Rumania,

money. Moscow did not live up to the etc.

pact, and, as there is little chance of the 4. The Turks will recover a strip of

Bolshevist doctrine spreading in a Mosland which they lost by the Sèvres lem country, there seems to be no futreaty (1920), and where the popula- ture for the Soviets' influence in Asia tion is overwhelmingly Moslem. (In Minor, where military help was their the five districts crossed by the new

only asset.
line, from Payas, on the Alexandretta

Last, but not least, France can now
Gulf to Djezire-ibn-Omar, on the
Tigris, the Moslems are respectively

concentrate on her peaceful mission in 86 per cent, 77 per cent, 82 per cent,

Syria proper. Her duties are many, be80 per cent, 65 per cent. A plebiscite

cause her influence has been lasting and would undoubtedly have given Tur- deep and has aroused many hopes. To key what France and Syria abandon quote “The New World" of Mr. Isaiah by the Angora treaty.

Bowman: “The interests of France in What are the consequences of this Syria do not date from recent times. treaty?

From the days of the early Phænician First, France is withdrawing 50,000 traders, long before the Christian era, men from Syria in the next three Marseilles had maintained commercial months, leaving only 35,000, most of intercourse with Syria, and the relationwhom will be withdrawn later.

ship has remained unbroken to this day. During the Crusades, France took the lead in the effort to redeem the Holy Land from Mohammedan conquerors. It was quite a natural thing that Frenchmen should thereafter become the rulers of Syria. Antioch and Tripoli had French princes, Jerusalem a French King. France, the eldest daughter of the Church,' had played a noble part in the redemption of lands sacred to Christians, and in recognition thereof the Pope conferred on French kings the title of 'Protector of Oriental Christians.'"

In modern times the French have financed the Syrian railways and built the important silk factories of Lebanon, which export annually one million pounds of silk to France. Besides, to quote Bowman again, “French schools are more numerous throughout the for

(C) Keystone mer Turkish territories than those of

FRENCH HEADQUARTERS IN ADANA any other nation. There is need of France in Syria and elsewhere in the sphere of action. Peace is worth too tioned districts, all of which have a Near East, in the interests of Western much for the peacemakers to take such density of less than fifty inhabitants per civilization and as a barrier against petty schemes into consideration. It is square mile), are the following: French anarchy."

true that France did not ask anybody's troops will withdraw gradually, and be

permission before concluding peace with replaced by Turkish regulars only. The Criticism has been directed against the Kemalists; but, after all, England police force will be commanded by the Angora treaty. It has not come asked for no approval when she con- French officers. There will be French confrom the Moslem world, nor from the cluded a trade agreement with Moscow, suls in the main cities. The present GovFrench opposition parties. It has come or when she continued supporting Emir ernment employees will be left in place. from the British Colonial Office. As Feisal after he took an attitude of open France, which has spent one hundred these attacks have not been seriously hostility towards the French.

million francs for the Armenian refusupported by the most enlightened part A more serious objection has been gees and fought in Cilicia for three -the largest part-of British public raised by Armenians abroad and by

years, cannot do more. Some are blamopinion, there is no need of reviving the their friends, who wonder how the ing her for not assụming the whole requarrel. Like other quarrels between Christian population of Cilicia is to be sponsibility of Armenia's protection. England and France, it had no ground protected when Turkish rule is resumed. She has been blamed by others for takexcept in the irritation of a few officials The guaranties given to Christian ing too many responsibilities. But the whose combinations had been upset, minorities in the evacuated regions, and facts speak for her. France is satisfied combinations which were founded upon in particular to the Armenians (whose that she has made peace in all the rethe hope for everlasting trouble in the proportion runs between eight per cent gions of the world that were in the Near East, and especially in the French and fifteen per cent in the above-men- reach of her influence. Can all her

critics say the same?

As early as 1919 there were plans for

the settlement of the Armenian question. These plans were held in suspense because America had not decided about her attitude in the matter. America,

which had done much to encourage the ANGORA

national aspirations of the Armenians,

finally did not accept the mandate over L.VAN

Armenia, which was voted down by the

Senate. It is probable, however, that DIARBEKR

America will play a large part in the

Djezire-don. Omar

future development of the Armenian

country. ADANA

The various small fires that followed

the great world blaze are thus being MOSUL°

put out, one after the other. The smoke ALEPPO

of battle is now lifting from these lands R

of western Asia where so many interests MESOPOTAMIA

have been clashing ever since Alexander the Great. "Nowhere else has so much

history run through so narrow a space," BEIRUT DAM

it has been said. Leaving the past to


bury its dead, we find that since the
Armistice of 1918 Anglo-French differ-

ences have been the poison which prePALESTINE

vented a peaceful settlement from being JERUSALEM

reached at once. The solution has now

been found, and friction will lose its inBOUNDARIES OF SYRIA

tensity as soon as colonial extremists (1) Northern boundary established by the Treaty of Sèvres

stop their thundering and leave (2) Southern boundary established by the Franco-British Agreement (3) New northern boundary established by the Angora Peace Treaty, October, 1921

to crystallize.



chance for sobet PPIDID LO eristaa


10 understand the real situation in the local communes, I think that the in- the crops. I went through their grainRussia it is necessary to go back formation I have is reasonably accurate. houses. They had eleven communal

a bit, because the famine is due The famine district is perhaps the grain-houses, which are usually filled to a number of contributing causes. In most densely populated in the world with grain; but nine of them were 1920 there was planted in all Russia outside of ina dependent wholly upon empty without a pound in them, and the seventy-six per cent of the crop planted agriculture. The Volga Valley has no other two were only partially filled. I in 1916. In 1921 the peasants planted industrial background; no manufactur- met there a rather clean-looking lot of fifty-five per cent of the 1916 crop. The ing centers, as the industries of Russia farmers, Russian farmers, who had asmajor part of that decrease occurred in very largely disappeared during the last sembled in the communal hall. This the years 1918, 1919, and 1920, with a three or four years, so that the people year the Government did not tax them marked decrease in the last two years. must depend wholly on the products of at all, but instead gave them back There are several causes given for such the soil. And so we find extending from enough seed to sow 330 dessiаtines of a condition, one the policy of requisi- Kazan to Samara a population averag. rye, so that they have plowed for next tions, which is recognized by both Mr. ing above 100 to the square mile. That year 800 dessiаtines of ground ready to Trotsky and Mr. Lenine.

is four times the population of my own sow either rye, wheat, or other grain The other is due to the war which State of Indiana depending on agricul- which they may be able to secure. swept over this famine district-a civil ture alone. When you eliminate the The crop this year compared to 1919 war following four years of foreign con- waste land in these provinces, or rather was only about six per cent, and comflict in which Russia was engaged. The the commune

or collections of com- pared to 1920 about seven per cent. The peasants had a partial crop shortage in munes, there are found from 150 to 190 peasants had enough available food1920, due to two causes-short planting to the square mile, so that you can stuffs to preserve the lives of 3,798 peoand, failure of rainfall. Then in 1921, realize something about the real situa- ple in that particular commune. But following the season of a fifty-five per tion from the population view.point. there are not that many now, because a cent planting, came an almost total fail- Traversing the German and Russian great many of them have already died. ure of rain. The rainfall in May, June, communes, I found an appalling situa- They have only about 142 poods of food and July was less than ten per cent of tion. Entering the cities of the lower per capita, including their cabbage and normal. So that had there been a nor- Volga and observing great, strong, everything used there. These reports mal crop planting during 1921 in that round-faced, red-cheeked men and wo- they gave to me recently, but since July part of Russia, from the Tartar Republic men in the bazaars and on the streets, 1 25 of them have died from cholera, on down to the Caspian Sea, there would one might think that there was no fam- 30 from typhus, and 45 from starvation. still have been a tremendous grain ine in that country; but when you go They said that in that little commune shortage in the lower Volga country. into the community houses, where de- they have 1,146 children under fifteen

I have recently returned from Russia, serted children and orphans are assem- years of age and that at least 800 of where I spent two months in the famine bled, go out among the communes and them must have help or die of starvadistricts. I first went to Moscow, then into the communal homes, where they tion before next spring. out to Samara and down the Volga have gathered the victims together, you It was my opinion, judging from the River to Saratov, then thirty miles be- realize how terrible the situation is, serious expression on the faces of these low Saratov. I drove out in the Volga especially when you get down to brass- farmers, that they believed they were district to sixteen different communes, tack facts and the very small telling the truth. They said the Governvisiting the various communal houses, amount of food the people have upon ment had promised them seeds, and examining their records, going through which they must depend to sustain life they were in high hopes of getting it. their grain-houses, collecting all the sta- for the next six months of winter. This commune and all others told me tistics that I could get to ascertain the Let us consider two typical com- that if they could get enough grain to true situation. I afterwards went to Ka-. munes. I do not select them because of sow their wheat next spring they would zan, and then from Moscow to Petrograd, their unusual character, but because not need help after next harvest. In the covering most of the so-called famine dis- they are typical of communes on the Russian commune of Babaroff I found trict, except the extreme lower part and Volga. First, there is the commune of eight out of nine warehouses empty of the district at the north end, extending Schilling, which is German, with a popu- grain. out towards the Siberian frontier.

lation of 3,798. It contains 4,467 des- Near the commune of Schilling I saw On my return to Moscow after my siatines, which is only 312 or 334 acres a grandfather and grandmother, a son, first trip, I went to the Commisar of to the inhabitant. The peasants planted the daughter-in-law, and five children on Agriculture and asked him to prepare in 1919, 1,590 dessiаtines of land, which their knees crawling across their little me certain statistics, which I after- yielded 37,950 poods of grain, of which allotment of land gathering every weed wards got on my return there. In the the Government took 12,000 in taxes they could get, tying them in bundles, capitals of the various states I went to that year. (A dessiatine is equal to 2.2 and hauling them down to their comthe Commisar of Agriculture to get

of ground and a pood is 36 mune, where they thrash out the weedwhat facts I could obtain there, and pounds.) In 1920 the peasants planted seeds and grind them in the communal then went into the commune and got 1,737 dessiаtines, a little more than in mill, mixing with rye. The straw from the communal records, which are very 1919, and raised 30,533 poods. That the weeds they put in stacks, that their complete in most of these Russian com- year they had almost a failure of wheat, stock may eat it to keep them alive unmunes, especially so in what is known the crop decreasing from 22,888 to 4,646 til the next harvest. I asked them as the German-Russian Commune in the poods. There was a partial drought in whether or not the stock would eat the lower part of the Volga Valley. Those 1920, but their potato crop increased weeds, and they replied: "They will not records are very complete and accurate from 7,000 to 19,800 poods, which kept until everything else is gone. But they in the Tartar Republic. Other places them alive that year.

will eat it before they will starve to have kept their records with more or But the Government during that year death.” I saw children out along the less accuracy, so the conclusion I ar- took 5,000 poods, or forty per cent of little waterways gathering rose pods, rived at was made up of this informa- what they got the year before. In 1921 cockle-burs, and the like in little bags. tion obtained from the Commisar of the peasants planted 1,255 dessiаtines, These they took home to grind in their Agriculture at Moscow, and from the about twenty per cent less than in 1920. little communal mills, which they have commisars of the various states. Ву Of these 1,255 dessiаtines they did not everywhere. checking that back with the records of get back even the seeds used to plant In this commune 145 people starved to



[ocr errors][graphic][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]


death this year, 65 died of typhus, mune, as we were passing a small shed feeds children in both Moscow and which is increasing, and 82 of cholera. near pne of the abandoned houses, we Petrograd, as the Russian Government,

I had heard reports from different found in it two little girls, ten and realizing the seriousness of the situacommunes of people starving, but knew twelve years of age. They came out of tion, has taken from the Volga district that they had food enough to prevent the shed holding their arms about them, many abandoned and orphaned children them starving for the time being. I shivering and crying in the cold, bitter and has sent them into Moscow and said to them—there were twenty or wind, which was blowing the snow Petrograd, and several thousand more thirty in the communal hall: "I wish across the commune on that bitter day. have come from the Tartar Republic. you would tell me why it is that where I inquired of them regarding their Regarding transportation, I had there is enough to preserve life for all troubles. They replied that their father conference with the Commisar of Railof you for several months you permit and mother and two of their brothers roads two days before I left, and went your neighbors to starve to death." had died of cholera and starvation the over the whole situation with him. If Rather slowly a peasant answered the week before; that for the past five days you can rely on the reports of the Britquestion: "You Americans do not un- they had had nothing to eat except cab- ish Commissioner, appointed a year ago, derstand. There is not enough to keep bage leaves and carrots, which they had Russia has over 1,200 more engines now us alive until next harvest. So that if gathered about the commune. They than then; 8,026 in good running order, we divide up now and do not get help were barefooted and had no clothing ex- 7,000 engines needing light repairs, and we shall all starve to death. It is bet- cept thin cotton dresses extending to 6,000 engines needing heavy repairs. ter that some should die in order that the knees. They said that they were The Russian Government has bought others may live."

very, very hungry and looked as if they 856 engines from Germany and 1,000 That was his philosophy. He told me were in great distress, being exceedingly from Sweden. They are being delivered that the peasants had had an unfortu- thin and emaciated.

now. The Government has 440,000 nate experience in the year 1891, when I asked these little girls why they did freight cars in good order and 110,000 300,000 of them died of starvation in not go to the communal authorities and that need light repairs, which is twentythe Volga Valley. When you get inside apply for help at the feeding kitchens. three per cent, a rather heavy proporof Russia and understand the terrible They replied that they did not think it tion. There is no question but that the situation which confronts the Russian would be any use, as they had learned Russian Government can move the food people, you cease to wonder why, know- that there was not food enough for supplies and move them quickly. The ing that death must overtake them all everybody. We gave them 100,000 Commisar says that he can, and I am if they divide, they should choose rubles, which are worth about $1 in certain he is right. to preserve their own families. They American money, and told them to go Regarding the shortage of animals, in are making every possible preparation to the communal hall, where they would 1919 the Schilling commune had 1,223 to meet the situation. Perhaps they will be taken care of, and this they did. horses, in 1920 it had 891 horses, and discount the figures we get, because a These children probably would have in 1921 it had 451 horses. Of cows it human being has a tremendous capacity starved to death had we not discovered had 582 in 1919, 461 in 1920, and 413 in to maintain life under adverse condi- them. I asked the communal officers 1921. The cows decrease but little in tions.

why they did not look these cases up; number, as they are needed for milk to In the commune of Houk, twenty but they did not give a very good ex- keep the children alive. Of sheep there versts beyond Markstadt, we found the cuse, replying that cases of hunger were were 1,352 in 1919, 1,151 in 1920, and communal kitchens in operation. They usually called to their attention and only 424 in 1921. That shows a deserve one meal a day at the noon hour, that they had all they could do, with the crease of sixty per cent. Of pigs there giving to those who have no food three limited supply of food at their com- were 781 in 1919, 246 in 1920, and 58 in ladles of soup made of cabbage, carrots, mand, to care for those who came to 1921. That is a decrease of 92 per cent. and other vegetables with some meat in them.

This tells the story without comment. it; also about a half-pound of rye bread. The Soviet Government, whatever you The Russian people are well equipped Next we visited the communal home, may say or think about it, is co-opera- to use corn for food. Every commune where orphans and abandoned children tive in the work of relief to the fullest in Russia has its communal windmill, are collected from the near-by com- extent. It will not permit a pound of with the old-fashioned stone burrs, with munes. In this home we found 145 food to be diverted, but is carrying it which they grind all their foods. The children. When they are first received, to its destination without loss. No one Commisar of Agriculture in the lower they are deloused and given a bath. can steal food from the American Re- Volga Valley has been carrying on a These children, when they enter the lief Administration, under penalty of campaign to induce the Russian farmers home, are dirty, ragged, living skele- death. I heard a man tell the A. R. A. to raise corn, to diversify crops, and get tons, with a helpless, hungry look in officers at Saratov that if any one stole away from the antiquated three-year their faces, and take little or no interest anything to report them; that any one system, under which they cultivate but in their surroundings. They seem more stealing American food would be stood one-third of the land each year. The like an animal that has been shot to up against a wall and shot; so that Commisar of the Tartar Republic has death and crawled off in the brush to there has been a remarkably small been especially active in this educadie. It was a sorrowful sight for an amount of food lost. I talked with dif- tional propaganda. American to witness. After the chil- ferent communal officers, who drive The work of the American Relief Addren are cleaned up they are given forty or fifty versts across the country, ministration in Russia, having only rerough cotton clothing, very scant and hauling the food out and distributing it cently begun, is not at present very light. Most of them are without shoes to the kitchens, whence every pound of extensive. There are only seventy-five and stockings, although the thermom- food goes into the mouths of the hungry in the personnel; in fact, a large force eter on the day we were there was 28 people of Russia. That which is now is not needed, as the local people not degrees below zero and the home in being sent is used only for children. only do most of the work but also furwhich they were quartered not very I believe that 20,000,000 bushels of nish without charge buildings, equipwell heated on account of the shortage corn and 5,000,000 bushels of wheat sent ment, and everything. The Soviet of fuel.

from America would save the situation. Government is furnishing transportaI found in this commune forty-one The Russian Government has exempted tion free all over the country, and ashouses which had been abandoned. The from taxation what was called the fam- sists in every way possible. Although owners had either died or fled. Th ine provinces, so that every province in not so efficient as it might be, the Govroofs had been torn off these houses to Russia is seeking to get into that class. ernment is co-operating in a wholeget wood for fuel, which is very scarce There are from ten to fourteen prov- hearted way with the work to which in that country, as the lower Volga is inces in the famine area, with a popula. the American Relief Administration is almost as devoid of timber as western tion of about 25,000,000 people.

devoting its labor and resources in Rusjansas. On the outskirts of this com- The American Relief Administration sia.

« ПретходнаНастави »