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A STATEMENT BY NICHOLAS D. AVKSENTIEV AND

PROFESSOR PAUL N. MILIUKOV

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-N addressing American readers we ary, 1922. This scheme is somehow con- the population. It was the same state

wish to emphasize one thing in the nected with the renewed talk of recog. of changed psychology which brought

Russian situation which may not be nition of the Bolshevist Government. As about the speedy downfall of the Czar's sufficiently known in this country. In could be expected, no mention is made autocracy in March, 1917, in spite of all the midst of all that human suffering that the elections to such an Assembly the huge resources at its disposal. dissolution of statehood, economic decay, would be free and by a secret ballot. As to the danger of reaction, it must and financial chaos, brought about by Therefore the news is of no significance be stated that this danger really exists, the four years of Bolshevist domination, or value. Whoever knows the situation owing to the activity of Russian monthere is one thing which will finally in Russia at present knows that under archist organizations abroad which are detach itself as the chief result of the the pressure of the "Che-ka" the elec- helped with money by the German reacrevolutionary stage of Russian history. tions would be swept by the Bolsheviks. tionaries. In this country a similar This is the fact that, in spite of all the There is also some talk about a coalition monarchist organization is being helped destruction brought about by Bolshev. between the Bolsheviks and the other by a prominent American business man. ism, Russia is not a desert, and ele- Russian parties. This talk is also of no But the fate of the military adventures ments of organization can now be found importance, since the corresponding fact that can be prepared with this money is everywhere. Under that heavy cloak of in the Russian situation is the contin. sealed in advance. They cannot be Bolshevist uniformity, Russia is alive ued prosecution of the leading members made either stronger or more successful and not dead, in spite of all her miseries of all political parties opposed to Bolsh- than the many attempts by the so-called and sufferings. The experience of the evism, who are being executed, kept in “white armies” and “generals,” which past four years increased the political prisons, or exiled.

ended in complete failure and only consciousness of the large masses of the The Bolshevist aim behind these ru- helped to prolong the Bolshevist rule. Russian people, and by the side of de- mors is to gain recognition and the The basic reason for all these failures struction and ruin germs of new life are necessary economic and financial help in the past and in the future is a coneverywhere. Elements of new power, from foreign countries. But no help scious choice of the Russian masses, the nuclei of new governmental struc- can really relieve the Russian people which are unwilling to support such ture, can be found everywhere in the unless the political situation in Russia "liberators" as are likely to bring back country, and they can crystallize at any is radically changed. In the absence of to them their former landlords and moment as liquid crystallizes under a serious political concessions—which are administrators. Monarchy, which is certain degree of temperature.

impossible—the economic concessions closely allied with such elements, is It is unnecessary to prove that the are ineffective and bound to be ex- doomed forever. Russia will resurrect Bolshevist rule is undemocratic. Com- tremely limited in their application. a democratic federated republic. munism opposes itself to democracy, as Therefore we think that Bolshevism Federation is the only means to bring the rule of a “conscious minority"—to will fall just as Czarism fell, owing to back and to unite on the basis of free

government by democratic election. The its incapacity for a real compromise. agreement the various parts of the now . Bolshevist practice in Russia serves to As to the inevitability of chaos in dismembered Russia. This process is

show that an insignificant minority can Russia upon the downfall of Bolshevism, not easy, and may develop slowly and rule only by tyranny, by resorting to the there is no such possibility, in our opin- gradually, but it is sure to develop as obsolete methods of the former autocracy ion, since even now, as we stated above, soon as a firm basis is laid for it by a to a degree never known before. The re- Russia is not at all a wilderness. Germs stable democratic government. sult is the complete exhaustion of all ma- of new life are rife all over Russia and It is with the aim of welding together terial resources of the country and an nuclei of a new political organization all the Russian democratic groups that intense hatred of the prevailing majority are likely to develop at once and every- the conference of the members of the of the population towards the Bolshevist where, at the first opportunity. The former All-Russian Constituent Assemrulers. The days of the new autocracy agents of Mr. Hoover's Relief Adminis- bly was called in Paris, in January, are numbered; their end is near.

tration can probably testify to this by 1921. The members of that democratic But who will take their place? The their personal contact with the Russian parliament were elected in the end of current answers often given to that people throughout the country. The vi- 1917 by the entire population of Russia, question are three: 1. The Bolsheviki tality of the non-Bolshevist population on the basis of universal, direct, equal, will evolve themselves into a decent cannot be taken, of course, as a sign for and secret suffrage. The majority of government; 2. The downfall of Bolsh- the vitality of the Bolshevist régime, as the Constituent Assembly belonged to evism will be followed by anarchy and some people take it. Russia is alive in the anti-Bolshevist parties, and therechaos; 3. There will be reaction and spite of the Bolsheviks, and not because fore the Assembly was dissolved by restoration of the former Czar's autoc- of them. That is why we expect that Bolshevist bayonets after one day's sesracy upon the downfall of Bolshevism. the salvation of Russia will necessarily sion. In January, 1921, a conference of

In our opinion-and it can be proved come from within, from her own people. the members of the All-Russian Con-the Bolshviks are unable to evolve. It is true that the great mass of the stituent Assembly was called in Paris, Merely economic concessions will not re- population is too downtrodden and low- which elected an Executive Committee, vive Russia. At the same time the spirited to start on a general and organ- which we have the honor of representBolshevist rulers are well aware of the ized revolt. But it would be a mistake ing. The activity of the Executive Comfact that even elementary political con- to think that the spirit of resistance has mittee extends now over the principal cessions would bring the Bolshevist entirely gone. On the contrary, it ex- countries of western Europe. Our orrégime to a speedy end. Any step tends itself to the formerly privileged ganization does not pretend to represent toward democracy-like abolition of the groups of the Red Army and Red bu- formally the people inside of Russia, but notorious "Che-ka" (the Bolshevist se- reaucracy, in the measure that the we are working in full accord with all cret police) and free elections to the Bolshevist Government proves power- the Russian democratic groups.

Our Soviets—would at once deprive them of less and incapable to secure even their aim is not to direct or to govern, but to their power. At the moment this state- material existence. We are hopeful, follow the developments in the interior ment is dictated rumors are rife that therefore, and satisfied that the change of Russia and to help our democratic Mr. Lenine intends to convoke a Con- will come soon, and that it will be movement to assert itself against both stituent Assembly in January or Febru- caused by the changed state of mind of extremes of Bolshevism and reaction.

ROMAIN ROLLAND: THE MAN AND HIS WORK

A

MASSIVE and luminous biographical portrait of Jean-Chris

tophe's author is achieved by Stefan Zweig in "Romain Rolland: The Man and His Work." 1 It is the first biography of Rolland in English. It combines the charm of rich objective delineation with a persuasive revelation of Rolland, the artist.

From Rolland's boyhood, a physically frail one, it appears that music has nurtured and sustained him. His mother taught him the piano. When he was ill as a child and death seemed near, "a melody from Mozart watched over his pillow." "Whenever my spirit is weary, whenever I am sick at heart, I turn to my piano and bathe in music," says the novelist; a day rarely elapses without his "holding converse" with Beethoven. Shakespeare he discovered as a boy in a dusty loft. From Shakespeare and Beethoven he inherited a passionate admi. ration for greatness, and something of his own will to greatness, and the

Bain ability “to know life and yet to love it.” Because of his preoccupation with

ROMAIN ROLLAND, FROM A DRAWING BY

GRANIE these two masters he failed twice in the entrance examination to the normal

Christophe" his fame broké upon the school.

world like a flood. At twenty-two Rolland had added a third great idol, Tolstoy, the publication

Zweig gives us an unforgetable picof whose savage attack on art entitled

ture of Rolland at his work in two tiny

attic rooms in the heart of Paris, up "What Is to Be Done?" presently racked

five flights of wir ng wooden stairs: the young æsthete with frightful doubts and uncertainties. Sitting down one

Amid the books sits the gentle day in his attic, the troubled youth

monk of this cell, soberly clad like a wrote Tolstoy an impulsive letter, de- clergyman. He is slim, tall, delicate scribing his perplexities and bewilder- looking; his complexion is sallow, ment. In time came Tolstoy's answer to

like that of one who is rarely in the his unknown correspondent-thirty

open. His face is lined, suggesting

that here is a worker who spends few eight pages of long-hand written in

hours in sleep. His whole aspect is French, an entire treatise. Rolland's

somewhat fragile—the sharply cut cry had profoundly impressed the Rus

profile which no photograph seems to sian. “It has touched me to the heart.

reproduce perfectly; the small hands, I have read it with tears in my eyes," wrote Tolstoy, and then expounded his idea that only that art was of value which bound men together. “The hour

FICTION when Tolstoy wrote to his unknown

BRIDGE ACROSS (THE). By L. Allen Harker. correspondent,” observes the biographer,

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.75. “has been revived in a thousand letters Mrs. Harker's Raby in this story is as from Rolland to a thousand unknowns." truly girl-like as her Allegra in a former

One beholds Rolland laying the foun- tale. She is impetuous and tomboyish, dations of his art upon the "hidden therefore delightful to know. Her troumasonry of years spent in isolation," his ble with her cynical and drug-ruined life the continuous struggle of one who but somehow attractive father, her war"cannot come to terms with mediocrity.” time experiences and bachelor girl life One sees him laboring in an attic room in London, and finally her love story "small and simple as a monastic cell," make up an agreeable romance. first as a student, then as an unrecog. DAUGHTER OF THE MIDDLE BORDER (A). nized dramatist and a professor of musi- By Hamlin Garland. Illustrated. The Maccal history, and even now that fame has millan Company, New York. $2. overtaken him and he holds a Nobel

In this agreeably written narrative Prize for literature. In 1912 Romain

Mr. Garland carries on the semi-bioRolland was still unknown; in 1914, graphical record of "A Son of the Middle shortly before he had attained his fif- Border" in an equally readable manner. tieth year, with the publication of "Jean

Particularly interesting is the account

of his friendship with Mr. Howells and 1 Romain Rolland: The Man and His Work. John Burroughs. The publishers are By Stefan Zweig. Thomas Seltzer, New York. $4.

right in saying that this is an auto

his hair silvering behind the lofty brow; his mustache falling softly like a shadow over the thin lips. Everything about him is gentle: his voice in its rare utterances; his figure which, even in repose, shows the traces of his sedentary life; his gestures, which are always restrained; his slow gait. His whole personality radiates gentleness. The casual observer might derive the impression that the man is debilitated or extremely fatigued, were it not for the way in which the eyes flash ever and again from beneath the slightly reddened eyelids. ... The small and frail body radiates the mysterious energy of work. ...

The ardor of our recluse is allembracing, reaching forth to include the cultures of every tongue, the history, philosophy, poesy, and music of every nation. He is in touch with all endeavors. He receives sketches, letters, and reviews concerning everything. With his small, upright handwriting in which all the letters are clearly and powerfully formed, he permanently fixes the thought that pass through his mind, whether spontaneously arising or coming from without. . . . His thriftily collected hoard of these autographic intellectual goods is enormous. The flame of his labor burns unceasingly. Rarely does he take more than five hours' sleep; seldom does he go for a stroll in the adjoining Luxembourg; infrequently does a friend climb the five flights of winding stair for an hour's quiet talk.

There are a few passages in which the biographer's explicitness recedes before his personal affection for Rolland. The disaster of Rolland's brief marriage is only hinted at. But the brilliant warmth with which Stefan Zweig reveals many of the inner workings of genius is vastly satisfying to any student of literature and of the men who create it.

NEWTON FUESSLE.

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presented in two authoritative articles, “The Plight of Russia,” by ex-Governor James P. Goodrich, of Indiana, and “The Russia of To-Morrow," by Nicholas D. Avksentiev and Professor Paul N. Miliukov.

Mr. Goodrich was a Special Repre sentative of Herbert Hoover in Russia, where he spent two months investigating conditions in the Volga Valley. He is intending to return to Russia again in a few weeks to continue the work which he has begun and which is regarded as a most important factor in the passage of the bill appropriating $20,000,000 for Russian relief.

Mr. Avksentiev has been one of the leaders of the Social-Revolutionary party for the past twenty years. After the Bolshevist revolt of November, 1917, he became one of the leaders of the antiBolshevist movement. At present Mr. Avksentiev is the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Conference of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly.

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LON K. JESSUP is associate editor of E

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IERRE

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1921 PREPARES THE WAY

FOR 1922

BY ALVIN W. KRACH President of the Equitable Trust Company of New York The business year 1921 will not be

us who believe that the country's economic health is reflected primarily in the number and the size of dividends and extra-dividends; 1921 cannot boast of record earnings and capacity productions, but it can claim the distinction of having been the first post-war year to face the seriousness of the situation and to start the uphill job. It has been an austere year, a year of thoughtful planning, a year that chastened wisely. True it is that the individual business man is first of all concerned with his own affairs and is inclined to consider his own balance-sheet as infinitely more important than the Federal Reserve Bank statement; but, after all, individual prosperity can only be the emanation of a general healthy state of affairs. And 1921, a year of deflation (and deflation, to quote Professor Gustav Cassel, means not only a reduction of expenses, it means also a corresponding reduction of incomes), has done much towards bringing back a healthy state of affairs. The business community was perhaps obliged to observe a rather disagreeable diet, but the banker who is asked to diagnose the case may now confidently point out quite a number of highly satisfying symptoms.

As a body politic we are splendidly alive. The President's Message, Director Dawes's report, and Secretary Hughes's “thunderbolt” are splendid affirmations of our aptness to meet serious emergencies in the most direct and matter-of-fact manner. We have the men and we have the natural resources, and we must even admit that on closing of subscription days we were lately quite under the impression that the country's savings have not as yet been entirely depleted by an unhappy system of taxation. Incidentally one nay also recall that the ratio of reserves of our Federal Reserve Bank is about seventy-three per cent.

The international situation is rich in fair promises. Secretary Hughes launched in Washington a bold “peace offensive" which should win for the world the inestimable trophy of international economic understanding. Last year we recorded a few shy attempts at real world pacification, and to-day we could cite a hundred instances reflecting the world's fervent desire for peace. There is perhaps no more significant gesture than Marshal Foch's chivalrous proposal that the defeated nations be aided so that they may be re-established commercially. Victory does not rest after the laurels have been plucked, and it is our imperative duty, from selfinterest if not from any other reason, not to abandon those who need our cooperation.

I confidently hope that the destinies of 1922 will be happily shaped by the strenuous and courageous efforts of the past year.

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