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A STATEMENT BY NICHOLAS D. AVKSENTIEV AND
PROFESSOR PAUL N. MILIUKOV
In addressing American readers we ary, 1922. This scheme is somehow con- the population. It was the same state
wish to emphasize one thing in the nected with the renewed talk of recog- of changed psychology which brought
Russian situation which may not be nition of the Bolshevist Government. As about the speedy downfall of the Czar's sufficiently known in this country. In could be expected, no mention is made autocracy in March, 1917, in spite of all the midst of all that human suffering that the elections to such an Assembly the huge resources at its disposal. dissolution of statehood, economic decay, would be free and by a secret ballot. As to the danger of reaction, it must and financial chaos, brought about by Therefore the news is of no significance be stated that this danger really exists, the four years of Bolshevist domination, or value. Whoever knows the situation owing to the activity of Russian monthere is one thing which will finally in Russia at present knows that under archist organizations abroad which are detach itself as the chief result of the the pressure of the "Che-ka" the elec- helped with money by the German reacrevolutionary stage of Russian history. tions would be swept by the Bolsheviks. tionaries. In this country a similar This is the fact that, in spite of all the There is also some talk about a coalition monarchist organization is being helped destruction brought about by Bolshev. between the Bolsheviks and the other by a prominent American business man. ism, Russia is not a desert, and ele- Russian parties. This talk is also of no But the fate of the military adventures ments of organization can now be found importance, since the corresponding fact that can be prepared with this money is everywhere. Under that heavy cloak of in the Russian situation is the contin sealed in advance. They cannot be Bolshevist uniformity, Russia is alive ued prosecution of the leading members made either stronger or more successful and not dead, in spite of all her miseries of all political parties opposed to Bolsh- than the many attempts by the so-called and sufferings. The experience of the evism, who are being executed, kept in “white armies" and "generals," which past four years increased the political prisons, or exiled.
ended in complete failure and only consciousness of the large masses of the The Bolshevist aim behind these ru- helped to prolong the Bolshevist rule. Russian people, and by the side of de- mors is to gain recognition and the The basic reason for all these failures struction and ruin germs of new life are necessary economic and financial help in the past and in the future is a coneverywhere. Elements of new power, from foreign countries. But no help scious choice of the Russian masses, the nuclei of new governmental struc- can really relieve the Russian people which are unwilling to support such ture, can be found everywhere in the unless the political situation in Russia "liberators" as are likely to bring back country, and they can crystallize at any is radically changed. In the absence of to them their former landlords and moment as liquid crystallizes under a serious political concessions—which are administrators. Monarchy, which is certain degree of temperature.
impossible--the economic concessions closely allied with such elements, is It is unnecessary to prove that the are ineffective and bound to be ex- doomed forever. Russia will resurrect Bolshevist rule is undemocratic. Com- tremely limited in their application as a democratic federated republic. munism opposes itself to democracy, as Therefore we think that Bolshevism Federation is the only means to bring the rule of a "conscious minority”—to will fall just as Czarism fell, owing to back and to unite on the basis of free government by democratic election. The its incapacity for a real compromise. agreement the various parts of the now Bolshevist practice in Russia serves to As to the inevitability of chaos in dismembered Russia. This process is show that an insignificant minority can Russia upon the downfall of Bolshevism, not easy, and may develop slowly and rule only by tyranny, by resorting to the there is no such possibility, in our opin- gradually, but it is sure to develop as obsolete methods of the former autocracy ion, since even now, as we stated above, soon as a firm basis is laid for it by a to a degree never known before. The re- Russia is not at all a wilderness. Germs stable democratic government. sult is the complete exhaustion of all ma- of new life are rife all over Russia and It is with the aim of welding together terial resources of the country and an nuclei of a new political organization all the Russian democratic groups that intense hatred of the prevailing majority are likely to develop at once and everythe conference of the members of the of the population towards the Bolshevist where, at the first opportunity. The former All-Russian Constituent Assemrulers. The days of the new autocracy agents of Mr. Hoover's Relief Adminis bly was called in Paris, in January, are numbered; their end is near
tration can probably testify to this by 1921. The members of that democratic But who will take their place? The their personal contact with the Russian parliament were elected in the end of current answers often given to that people throughout the country. The vi. 1917 by the entire population of Russia, question are three: 1. The Bolsheviki tality of the non-Bolshevist population on the basis of universal, direct, equal, will evolve themselves into a decent cannot be taken, of course, as a sign for and secret suffrage. The majority of government; 2. The downfall of Bolsh-' the vitality of the Bolshevist régime, as the Constituent Assembly belonged to evism will be followed by anarchy and some people take it. Russia is alive in the anti-Bolshevist parties, and therechaos; 3. There will be reaction and spite of the Bolsheviks, and not because fore the Assembly was dissolved by restoration of the former Czar's autoc- of them. That is why we expect that Bolshevist bayonets after one day's sesracy upon the downfall of Bolshevism. the salvation of Russia will necessarily sion. In January, 1921, a conference of
In our opinion-and it can be proved come from within, from her own people. the members of the All-Russian Con-the Bolshviks are unable to evolve. It is true that the great mass of the stituent Assembly was called in Paris, Merely economic concessions will not re- population is too downtrodden and low which elected an Executive Committee, vive Russia. At the same time the spirited to start on a general and organ- which we have the honor of representBolshevist rulers are well aware of the ized revolt. But it would be a mistake ing. The activity of the Executive Comfact that even elementary political con- to think that the spirit of resistance has mittee extends now over the principal cessions would bring the Bolshevist entirely gone. On the contrary, it ex- countries of western Europe. Our orrégime to a speedy end. Any step tends itself to the formerly privileged ganization does not pretend to represent toward democracy-like abolition of the groups of the Red Army and Red bu- formally the people inside of Russia, but notorious "Che-ka" (the Bolshevist se reaucracy, in the measure that the we are working in full accord with all cret police) and free elections to the Bolshevist Government proves power the Russian democratic groups. Our Soviets-would at once deprive them of less and incapable to secure even their aim is not to direct or to govern, but to their power. At the moment this state material existence. We are hopeful, follow the developments in the interior ment is dictated rumors are rife that therefore, and satisfied that the change of Russia and to help our democratic Mr. Lenine intends to convoke a Con- will come soon, and that it will be movement to assert itself against both stituent Assembly in January or Febru- caused by the changed state of mind of extremes of Bolshevism and reaction.
ROMAIN ROLLAND: THE MAN AND HIS WORK his hair silvering behind the lofty
brow; his mustache falling softly like MASSIVE and luminous bio
a shadow over the thin lips. EveryA graphical portrait of Jean-Chris.
thing about him is gentle: his voice
in its rare utterances; his figure tophe's author is achieved by
which, even in repose, shows the Stefan Zweig in "Romain Rolland: The
traces of his sedentary life; his gesMan and His Work." It is the first
tures, which are always restrained; biography of Rolland in English. It
his slow gait. His whole personality combines the charm of rich objective
radiates gentleness. The casual obdelineation with a persuasive revelation
server might derive the impression of Rolland, the artist.
that the man is debilitated or exFrom Rolland's boyhood, a physically
tremely fatigued, were it not for the
way in which the eyes flash ever and frail one, it appears that music has nur
again from beneath the slightly redtured and sustained him. His mother
dened eyelids. ... The small and frail taught him the piano. When he was ill
body radiates the mysterious energy as a child and death seemed near, "a
of work. ... melody from Mozart watched over his
The ardor of our recluse is allpillow.” “Whenever my spirit is weary,
embracing, reaching forth to include whenever I am sick at heart, I turn to
the cultures of every tongue, the hismy piano and bathe in music," says the
tory, philosophy, poesy, and music of
every nation. He is in touch with all novelist; a day rarely elapses without
endeavors. He receives sketches, lethis "holding converse" with Beethoven.
ters, and reviews concerning everyShakespeare he discovered as a boy in a
thing. ... With his small, upright dusty loft. From Shakespeare and Bee
handwriting in which all the letters thoven he inherited a passionate admi
are clearly and powerfully formed, he ration for greatness, and something of
permanently fixes the thoughts that his own will to greatness, and the
pass through his mind, whether Bain ability "to know life and yet to love
spontaneously arising or coming from it.” Because of his preoccupation with ROMAIN ROLLAND, FROM A DRAWING BY without. ... His thriftily collected
hoard of these autographic intellec
GRANIÉ these two masters he failed twice in the
tual goods is enormous. The flame of entrance examination to the normal Christophe" his fame brokė upon the
his labor burns unceasingly. Rarely school. world like a flood.
does he take more than five hours' At twenty-two Rolland had added a
sleep; seldom does he go for a stroll
Zweig gives us an unforgetable picthird great idol, Tolstoy, the publication
in the adjoining Luxembourg; infreture of Rolland at his work in two tiny of whose savage attack on art entitled
quently does a friend climb the five attic rooms in the heart of Paris, up “What Is to Be Done?" presently racked
fights of winding stair for an hour's five flights of winding wooden stairs: quiet talk. the young æsthete with frightful doubts and uncertainties. Sitting down one
Amid the books sits the gentle
There are a few passages in which the day in his attic, the troubled youth
monk of this cell, soberly clad like a biographer's explicitness recedes before wrote Tolstoy an impulsive letter, de clergyman. He is slim, tall, delicate his personal affection for Rolland. The scribing his perplexities and bewilder looking; his complexion is sallow, disaster of Rolland's brief marriage is ment. In time came Tolstoy's answer to
like that of one who is rarely in the only hinted at. But the brilliant his unknown correspondent-thirty
open. His face is lined, suggesting
warmth with which Stefan Zweig reeight pages of long-hand written in
that here is a worker who spends few
veals many of the inner workings of French, an entire treatise. Rolland's
somewhat fragile-the sharply cut
genius is vastly satisfying to any stucry had profoundly impressed the Rus
profile which no photograph seems to
dent of literature and of the men who sian. “It has touched me to the heart.
reproduce perfectly; the small hands,
NEWTON FUESSLE. I have read it with tears in my eyes," wrote Tolstoy, and then expounded his idea that only that art was of value
THE NEW BOOKS which bound men together. “The hour
biographic record which reads like a when Tolstoy wrote to his unknown
BRIDGE ACROSS (THE). By L. Allen Harker. correspondent,” observes the biographer,
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.75. intimate social history of midland Amer. "has been revived in a thousand letters Mrs. Harker's Raby in this story is as from Rolland to a thousand unknowns." truly girl-like as her Allegra in a former
ica. One beholds Rolland laying the foun- tale. She is impetuous and tomboyish, HELEN'S BABIES. By John Habberton. Medations of his art upon the "hidden therefore delightful to know. Her trou
morial Edition. The Stewart & Kidd Com
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio. $3. masonry of years spent in isolation," his bles with her cynical and drug-ruined
HELEN'S BABIES. By John Habberton. The life the continuous struggle of one who but somehow attractive father, her war. F. A. Stokes Company, New York. Me. "cannot come to terms with mediocrity.” time experiences and bachelor girl life morial Edition. $2.50. One sees him laboring in an attic room in London, and finally her love story
As the two titles above show, two "small and simple as a monastic cell," make up an agreeable romance.
memorial editions have appeared of first as a student, then as an unrecog. DAUGHTER OF THE MIDDLE BORDER (A).
"Helen's Babies." The first edition was nized dramatist and a professor of musi By Hamlin Garland. Illustrated. The Mac
published about forty-five years ago. It cal history, and even now that fame has millan Company, New York. $2.
achieved an enormous success, and it overtaken him and he holds a Nobel
In this agreeably written narrative almost seemed that the author's jocose Prize for literature. In 1912 Romain Mr. Garland carries on the semi-bio- dedication was to be realized-he dedi. Rolland was still unknown; in 1914,
graphical record of "A Son of the Middle cated it "To all fathers and mothers shortly before he had attained his fif. Border" in an equally readable manner. each of whom possesses the best children tieth year, with the publication of "Jean Particularly interesting is the account that ever lived," gently suggesting that
of his friendship with Mr. Howells and each such father and mother should pur1 Romain Rolland: The Man and His Work
John Burroughs. The publishers are chase a copy. Mr. Habberton was a By Stefan Zweig Thomas Seltzer, New York. $4.
right in saying that this is an auto- newspaper man; he died less than a
year ago. He was always fond of little
Popovic. (The Interpreters' Series.) Duf
field & Co., New York. $2.
These nine stories by the greatest of modern Serbian writers are correctly described as giving an extraordinarily vivid and true picture of the life and the soul of the Serbian people to-day. They deal with every side of the national life, and range from tragedy to comedy, and from legend to the most up-to-date realism. NOBODY'S MAN. By E. Phillips Oppenheim.
Illustrated. Little, Brown & Company, Boston. $2. We do not know how many stories Mr. Oppenheim has written, but we happen to note the fact that twenty-nine of his books have been reviewed in this department. His popularity is not at all on the wane, but we frankly express our judgment that this particular book would not rank high as compared with those that have appeared since the war ended. It is less exciting and "gripping" than "The Great Impersonation" and less entertaining than is “Jacob's Ladder.” Perhaps this is because it deals chiefly with English politics and
From Robert Henri; His Life and Works." Reproduced by permission of Boni & Liveright only incidentally with detection of crimi
have returned to interpret the beauty of text, while largely technical, is on the TO HIM THAT HATA. By Ralph Connor. The George H. Doran Company, New their native State.
whole clear and informative.
SILHOUETTES OF MY CONTEMPORARIES.
by William Yarrow and Louis Bouche. social problems and, like all of the au
Illustrated. Privately Printed. Boni &
By Lyman Abbott. Doubleday, Page & Co.,
Liveright, New York. thor's stories, is inspired by wide human
New York. $3.
$10. sympathy and belief in mutual effort for As we are told in this sumptuous
The papers from Dr. Abbott's pen advance and accomplishment. The scene volume, Robert Henri's work is uneven,
which have appeared in The Outlook is the Canadian Northwest. There are for he does not always succeed in find
under the general title “Snap-Shots of stirring incidents and tense situations. ing the abstract basis upon which to
My Contemporaries" have been gathbuild his picture. But when he does
ered with others in this volume. In HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY succeed, as he often does, “the result is
addition to the sketches which appeared HISTORY OF VERMONT. By Walter Hull not proclaimed by the manner of his
in The Outlook the volume contains Crockett. Illustrated. 4 vols. The Century painting but by the completeness of his
similar sketches of John Fiske, General History Company, Inc., New York. $31.50. conception." Certainly no one can look
William Booth, Abraham This history of the great-little State
Theodore Roosevelt. at the forty reproductions of Henri's of Vermont gives in elaborate detail the
The publishers story of the State from its beginnings.
have given the volume the advantage of work in this book without feeling in It is the result of much research, and
the presence of something very viva clear type and attractive binding. should become a “household word" in cious and vigorous.
Dr. Abbott in his preface describes his
use of the title "Silhouettes" as indi. the families of loyal Vermonters. The PICTORIAL LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY.
cating his effort "to trace in outline the type is exceptionally readable, and there
By the Photo Pictorialists of Buffalo, Ilus-
portraits of some of my contemporaries," are numerous illustrations.
lishing Company, Boston, $3.30.
thus making a volume which should be MUSIC, PAINTING, AND OTHER ARTS
All students of pictorial photography a gallery of shadow pictures. One reART AND ARTISTS OF INDIANA. By Mary
will like to own this book, which de viewer, Mr. Willis Fletcher Johnson, in Q. Burnet. Illustrated. The Century Com scribes the methods in general use for the New York “Tribune,” in an apprepany, New York. $6.
"controlling the photographin other ciative and friendly article, takes excepIndiana has become prominent in words, for producing the diffused and tion to the title of the book because "a literature and the author wishes us to sometimes beautiful effects which are to silhouette is a portrait showing just one appreciate what prominence it has in be seen in all current exhibitions of side of the subject and without a touch painting. The period covered is that of "advanced work" in photography. Some of color or gradation of light and shade over a century; it includes the New of the numerous reproductions shown in and without the slightest background or Harmony Settlement, the itinerant por- this volume are very pleasing, many environment. But these pen-portraits of trait painters, the earliest art school of others suffer from faint printing, but all a few of the great men whom he has the Middle West, and, finally, the artists will whet the reader's interest and make known in a lifetime of more than eighty of Indiana who, having studied abroad, him wish to see the originals. The years are vastly more than that."
"They Gave Me Up!"
"But I Refused
have it. I feel good only when I drink Paradise Water. I look at it as the best blood purifier, the best internal cleanser, there is -and I say, in all earnestness, that no one who drinks it regularly—sick or well-- will fail to benefit thereby.”
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“I went through all that-and more. Finally they gave me up-everybody. But I refused to die.
“First, I changed my whole scheme of living. I went on a diet as strict as any man has ever faced. I watched every single little thing that would either help or harm me-and acted accordingly. I willed that I would get better.
“And then I heard of Paradise Water, from Paradise Spring in Maine. Its claims were so strong that I bought some simply to disprove them! I had tried practically every remedy of every sort and I didn't believe I would get any help from Paradise.
“But the very first case of Paradise convinced me that it would help me. So I stuck with it-drank it in large quantities and to the exclusion of all other water. At the end of six weeks, my blood pressure was down to 145, or but 10 degrees above normal. Think of that! And I began to acquire a general feeling of fitness of peace of mind, of buoyant good health, that I hadn't experienced in years.
“That was about 8 months ago. Since that time, except for several brief periods
The above remarkable story is an exact statement of fact. This man is a leading business man in a Middle West metropolis, and if you are interested, we'll send you his name and address,
If you are ailing specifically from Bright's Disease or other forms of Kidney or Bladder Trouble, from Prostatitis, Articular Rheumatism, Feeble Digestion, or Heart and Arterial Deterioration, start .drinking Paradise Water today. Your grocer will deliver a case to your door; or if he hasn't it in yet, order direct from us. Also served at drug stores. Comes in Natural or Carbonated, both delightful table waters, in addition to their healthgiving qualities. Quarts, pints, half-pints. FREE: If you want more information about Paradise Water, without obligating yourself in any way, write for valuable free health book,“ The Story of Paradise Spring ”—also names of dealers in your city. Write now. PARADISE SPRINGCo., BRUNSWICK, ME.
FIELD FISHER needs no introduction in the pages of The Outlook. Her novels have been appearing every year with remarkable regularity and her short stories are published in many of the lead
ing magazines. Miss Canfield was educated at the Ohio State University and at Columbia. She has studied and traveled extensively in Europe and spent three years in France doing war work. The physical and political aspects of 1 the Russian problem are strikingly presented in two authoritative articles, “The Plight of Russia,” by ex-Governor James P. Goodrich, of Indiana, and "The Russia of To-Morrow," by Nicholas D. Avksentiev and Professor Paul N. Miliukov.
Mr. Goodrich was a Special Repre sentative of Herbert Hoover in Russia, where he spent two months investigating conditions in the Volga Valley. He is intending to return to Russia again in a few weeks to continue the work which he has begun and which is regarded as a most important factor in the passage of the bill appropriating $20,000,000 for Russian relief.
Mr. Avksentiev has been one of the leaders of the Social-Revolutionary party for the past twenty years. After the Bolshevist revolt of November, 1917, : he became one of the leaders of the antiBolshevist movement. At present Mr. Avksentiey is the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Conference of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly.
Professor Miliukoy is one of the founders and leaders of the Russian liberalism; he was the spokesman of the Liberal Opposition in the Duma. He is now the leader of the left wing of the Constitutional-Democratic party and a member of the Executive Committee of the Conference of the All-Russian Con. stituent Assembly. TLON K. JESSUP is associate editor of
L "Outing" and the author of "The Motor Camping Book" and other volumes. DIERRE DE LANUX was born in Paris I and lived there until 1916, when he came to America on a mission from the French Government with the French High Commission. He was a member of André Tardieu's Bureau Technique on the Peace Conference in 1918, and in 1919 went on a mission to the Balkans. M HREE aviation officers who took part
1 in the bombing test off the Virginia capes come to the defense of the air plane in this issue. M ARGUERITE WILKINSON is both a poe:
M and a lecturer on contemporary poetry. She was born in Nova Scotiain and educated in Evanston, Illinois. Her latest volume of criticism, “New Voices,”! has received wide attention
from 1% to 2 gallons of Paradise Water every day. And I tell you I knew the difference right away when I didn't
1921 PREPARES THE WAY
BY ALVIN W. KRACH President of the Equitable Trust Company of New York The business year 1921 will not be
I fondly remembered by those among us who believe that the country's economic health is reflected primarily in the number and the size of dividends and extra-dividends; 1921 cannot boast of record earnings and capacity productions, but it can claim the distinction of having been the first post-war year to face the seriousness of the situation and to start the uphill job. It has been an austere year, a year of thoughtful planning, a year that chastened wisely. True it is that the individual business man is first of all concerned with his own affairs and is inclined to consider his own balance-sheet as infinitely more important than the Federal Reserve Bank statement; but, after all, individual prosperity can only be the emanation of a general healthy state of affairs. And 1921, a year of deflation (and deflation, to quote Professor Gustav Cassel, means not only a reduction of expenses, it means also a corresponding reduction of incomes), has done much towards bringing back a healthy state of affairs. The business community was perhaps obliged to observe a rather disagreeable diet, but the banker who is asked to diagnose the case may now confidently point out quite a number of highly satisfying symptoms.
As a body politic we are splendidly alive. The President's Message, Director Dawes's report, and Secretary Hughes's “thunderbolt" are splendid affirmations of our aptness to meet serious emergencies in the most direct and matter-of-fact manner. We have the men and we have the natural resources, and we must even admit that on closing of subscription days we were lately quite under the impression that the country's savings have not as yet been entirely depleted by an unnappy system of taxation. Incidentally one may also recall that the ratio of reserves of our Federal Reserve Bank is about seventy-three per cent.
The international situation is rich in fair promises. Secretary Hughes launched in Washington a bold "peace offensive" which should win for the world the inestimable trophy of international economic understanding. Last year we recorded a few shy attempts at real world pacification, and to-day we could cite a hundred instances reflecting the world's fervent desire for peace. There is perhaps no more significant gesture than Marshal Foch's chivalrous proposal that the defeated nations be aided so that they may be re-established commercially. Victory does not rest after the laurels have been plucked, and it is our imperative duty, from selfinterest if not from any other reason, not to abandon those who need our cooperation.
I confidently hope that the destinies of 1922 will be happily shaped by the strenuous and courageous efforts of the past year.