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the country during each month of the year, the total forming, of course, three per cent of the Poles already resident in America. Now the Poles in Europe who want to come here may embark from Dantsic, as the one Polish port, or from any other port, may take passage on any ship, and may arrive at New York, Boston, Philadelphia, or other Atlantic ports. Not until the vessels containing these Poles have docked is it finally possible to decide how many incoming Poles have a right to remain here.

Suppose the immigrant is deported. What then? Many families have sold their homes and have spent practically all that they had in getting to ports and paying steamship fares. Now they must return in this winter-time to their own impoverished countries, with no home to go to and probably without the oppor

tunity of taking up again the work they Kadel & Herbert

had abandoned. There may be even AIRPLANE VIEW OF ELLIS ISLAND, WHERE IMMIGRANTS ARE EXAMINED BEFORE something worse. The story is told of ENTERING THE UNITED STATES

some Armenian women and children

who three months ago came to the Hohenzollerns." Of a leader in his own that theoretically Watterson made ini. United States seeking safety, who were party, namely, William Jennings Bryan, placable enemies, but practically he did deported because the Armenian quota he said as long ago as 1900: "He has not, because, though his temper was hot, had been exceeded, and who returned to had his fling and has failed. He should his nature was kindly. He hated emo- meet, not only death, but a still more yield leadership to other hands and de- tionalism and hysteria, but he was terrible fate. vote himself to healing the breaches." always ready to fight for his political And after Theodore Roosevelt's death, principles, even though at times he THE ATLANTIC CARRIERS Watterson said, “Our differences cut no skirmished outside party lines.

T is not unnatural that the transatfigure in our personal relations."

By Colonel Watterson's death the lantic steamship companies should If sometimes excessively outspoken, country loses a brilliant writer, a nota- wish to take as many emigrant passenColonel Watterson was not at all irre- ble public figure, a man of marked indi- gers as they think they can land. They sponsible. In a review of his autobiog- viduality, and one of surprising vitality. have been exasperatingly exceeding raphy, published in 1920, we quoted his

their monthly immigrant quotas, despite serious view of newspaper duty: “I LO, THE POOR IMMIGRANT!

the fact that they had before them figtruly believe that next after business HRISTMAS on Ellis Island, in New ures showing the exact status of the

York Harbor, was different from quotas from each country. No less than comes disinterestedness in the public any preceding Christmas there.

three thousand aliens in excess of these service, and next after disinterestedness Heretofore those who have been com- quotas have been disembarked at our

me moderation and intelligence, clean- pelled to spend that day on that island ports. Some immigrants, by executive liness and good feeling in dealing with had at least the pleasant anticipation clemency, have been temporarily adaffairs and its readers.” Speaking to a of entering a new and prosperous life mitted under bond, where it has been gathering of newspaper men on the day in America. But on Christmas day, shown that deportation would be an exof Colonel Watterson's death, a Wash- 1921, Ellis Island held more immigrants treme offense against humanity, and in ington correspondent who as a younger than it had capacity for, and very many addition, the eleven hundred inimiman served under Colonel Watterson on of them were deprived of any anticipa- grants at Ellis Island under orders to the "Courier-Journal" quoted him tion of a new and prosperous life in be deported have now been admitted for saying: “A Courier-Journal reporter al- America.

ninety days. More than twelve hundred ways gets the news, and always gets it They were facing deportation. The aliens have been returned to their forfirst; but he always remembers in get- transatlantic steamship companies have mer homes because of excess of quotas. ting it that the 'Courier-Journal is a delivered aliens in excess of the quotas At present over two thousand aliens in gentleman."

established under the Immigration Law New York Harbor await an opportunity It would be hard to say whether Wat- passed last May. That law limits the to be landed. terson was the more striking and salient annual number of incoming immigrants Hence, at the Secretary of Labor's in figure in journalistic life or in political to three per cent of the number of stance, Representative Johnson, of the life. Both sides are brought out in the foreign-born persons of any nationality State of Washington, Chairman of the autobiography, and we strongly recom- in the United States-a mechanical and House Immigration Committee, has inmend Americans generally to read that mediæval provision, as The Outlook has troduced a bill empowering the Secrebook, which is one of the most illumi- said. It deprives us of aliens whom we tary of Labor to penalize steamship nating and entertaining of American want and gives us aliens whom we do lines by withdrawing immigration privibiographies. not want.

leges from them for continued violation A keen and just characterization is It provides that a fixed number of of the quota law. Nor is this all. As that of one writer, who says, in effect, Poles, for instance, may be admitted to the result of that law shows, in too

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integrity in newspaper a management C

as

many cases efforts to get immigrants into this country amount to fraud, Mr. Johnson has also introduced a bill by which he would suspend the immigration of aliens to the United States for three years, the bill not applying to Government officials, to travelers or temporary sojourners for pleasure or business, to students who may enter the United States solely for the purpose of study in educational institutions particularly designated by them, to ministers of any religious denomination, or to husbands, wives, and minor children of naturalized citizens or of persons who have taken out their first papers.

Mr. Johnson's bills should sufficiently warn the steamship companies.

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TIIE CIIRISTMAS AMNESTY
VIIE President on December 25 com-

muted the sentences of a number of men convicted for violation of laws designed for the protection of the country during the progress of the war. Apparently in each instance the cases have been carefully reviewed and the decision rendered with the desire in view of protecting the interests of the country and serving justice. To disagree in certain instances with these decisions is not to criticise the motives which led to them.

The release of all prisoners convicted under war law is something which extreme radicals, pacifists, and sentimentalists regard as highly desirable. The normal-minded citizen is not inclined to take so generous a position, for he realizes that there are some things which no self-governing and self-perpetuating country can afford to give away. One of these things is the right and duty to protect itself from destruction. The law regards the deliberate taking of a human life as he most serious offense that the individual can commit. What can be said, therefore, in the case of the man or woman who attempts to take the life of a whole nation and who commits this act when that nation is in a life-and-death struggle with a foreign foe? Some of those who committed acts during the war tending toward such a consummation were undoubtedly of unsound mind. Some of them were ignorant men and women who were led astray by cleverer and more vicious associates. Still others were active sympathizers with Germany and her aim of world conquest.

It is perhaps time that the more ignorant of those who were convicted of war crimes—the instigators of these crimes only too often escaped-should be released. Perhaps it is time to release those whose mental disabilities do not render them a menace to the coun

try in time of peace. Perhaps it is time to release those whose physical infirmities likewise limit the danger that might arise from their release from control. But in each instance the test should be the good of the country and not the desire to turn the way of the transgressor into a bed of roses.

Among the criminals recently released by the President there seemed to be some whom it was the plain duty of the Executive authority to release. There are others the propriety of whose release will seem to many to be doubtful. One of these is Eugene V. Debs. On the list there is at least one name of a man whose release is an affront to every soldier. On his behalf it cannot be maintained that he was actuated by a mistaken idealism or moral convictions of any sort. One can understand how a man might honestly oppose the draft even to the point of martyrdom, but no man can honestly accept bribes for the issuance of fictitious exemptions from the draft. The fact that this convict served as a Government witness in other cases will not be accepted by ex-service men as a satisfactory explanation of his release. It is such cases as this which make the veterans of the world war feel that their services have been forgotten and in vain. If it were possible, we would not release from prison a man who sold exemptions from the draft until fifty years after the last veterans of the war were dead. Even then it might make some of them turn in their graves.

THE NEW PATRIARCH OF
THE GREEK CHURCH
THE Most Rev. Meletios Metaxakis,

Archbishop of Athens, in the Greek Church, has been elected Patriarch by the Holy Synod sitting at Constantinople. It is the highest ecclesiastical authority and corresponds to the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church.

The election, however, has not been received with favor either in Constantinople or in Athens. It has been objected to by certain Constantinople authorities, who, not unmindful that Meletios is the first Patriarch to be elected in many centuries without political intervention, allege that a majority of the members of the Synod were absent from that body at the time of the election. The objection from Athens (it may have possibly inspired that froni Constantinople) is what perhaps might have been expected from King Constan tine. Meletios is a friend and supporter of ex-Premier Venizelos, and when Constantine returned to the throne was 02 of those marked for royal vengeance. As soon as Constantine found himse!! secure in his place he ousted Meletios from the Archbishopric. The King's present attitude, which he has made the attitude of the Greek Government, if not a spiteful political trick, is at least another attempt again to interfere with ecclesiastical order and procedure.

Though evidence of the strength of the Patriarch-Elect's position may be wanting in Constantinople and Athens, it is

Kadel & Herbert

was

the country during each month of the year, the total forming, of course, three per cent of the Poles already resident in America. Now the Poles in Europe who want to come here may embark from Dantsic, as the one Polish port, or from any other port, may take passage on any ship, and may arrive at New York, Boston, Philadelphia, or other Atlantic ports. Not until the vessels containing these Poles have docked is it finally possible to decide how many incoming Poles have a right to remain here.

Suppose the immigrant is deported. What then? Many families have sold their homes and have spent practically all that they had in getting to ports and paying steamship fares. Now they must return in this winter-time to their own impoverished countries, with no home to go to and probably without the opportunity of taking up again the work they

had abandoned. There may be even AIRPLANE VIEW OF ELLIS ISLAND, WHERE IMMIGRANTS ARE EXAMINED BEFORE something worse. The story is told of ENTERING THE UNITED STATES

some Armenian women and children

who three months ago came to the Hohenzollerns.” Of a leader in his own that theoretically Watterson made im- United States seeking safety, who were party, namely, William Jennings Bryan, placable enemies, but practically he did deported because the Armenian quota he said as long ago as 1900: "He has not, because, though his temper was hot, had been exceeded, and who returned to had his fling and has failed. He should his nature was kindly. He hated emo- meet, not only death, but a still more yield leadership to other hands and de- tionalism and hysteria, but he

terrible fate. vote himself to healing the breaches.” always ready to fight for his political And after Theodore Roosevelt's death, principles, even though at times he THE ATLANTIC CARRIERS Watterson said, “Our differences cut no skirmished outside party lines.

T is not unnatural that the transatfigure in our personal relations."

By Colonel Watterson's death the lantic steamship companies should If sometimes excessively outspoken, country loses a brilliant writer, a nota- wish to take as many emigrant passenColonel Watterson was not at all irre- ble public figure, a man of marked indi- gers as they think they can land. They sponsible. In a review of his autobiog. viduality, and one of surprising vitality. have been exasperatingly exceeding raphy, published in 1920, we quoted his

their monthly immigrant quotas, despite serious view of newspaper duty: “I LO, THE POOR IMMIGRANT! the fact that they had before them fig. truly believe that next after business HRISTMAS on Ellis Island, in New ures showing the exact status of the

York Harbor, was different from quotas from each country. No less than comes disinterestedness in the public any preceding Christmas there.

three thousand aliens in excess of these service, and next after disinterestedness Heretofore those who have been com- quotas have been disembarked at our come moderation and intelligence, clean- pelled to spend that day on that island ports. Some immigrants, by executive liness and good feeling in dealing with had at least the pleasant anticipation clemency, have been temporarily adaffairs and its readers.” Speaking to a of entering a new and prosperous life mitted under bond, where it has been gathering of newspaper men on the day in America. But on Christmas day, shown that deportation would be an exof Colonel Watterson's death, a Wash- 1921, Ellis Island held more immigrants treme offense against humanity, and in ington correspondent who as a younger than it had capacity for, and very many addition, the eleven hundred inimiman served under Colonel Watterson on of them were deprived of any anticipa- grants at Ellis Island under orders to the “Courier-Journal” quoted him as tion of a new and prosperous life in be deported have now been admitted for saying: "A 'Courier-Journal reporter al- America.

ninety days. More than twelve hundred ways gets the news, and always gets it They were facing deportation. The aliens have been returned to their forfirst; but he always remembers in get- transatlantic steamship companies have mer homes because of excess of quotas. ting it that the 'Courier-Journal is a delivered aliens in excess of the quotas At present over two thousand aliens in gentleman."

established under the Immigration Law New York Harbor await an opportunity It would be hard to say whether Wat- passed last May. That law limits the to be landed. terson was the more striking and salient annual number of incoming immigrants Hence, at the Secretary of Labor's in figure in journalistic life or in political to three per cent of the number of stance, Representative Johnson, of the life. Both sides are brought out in the foreign-born persons of any nationality State of Washington, Chairman of the autobiography, and we strongly recom- in the United States—a mechanical and House Immigration Committee, has inmend Americans generally to read that mediæval provision, as The Outlook has troduced a bill empowering the Secrebook, which is one of the most illumi- said. It deprives us of aliens whom we tary of Labor to penalize steamship nating and entertaining of American want and gives us aliens whom we do lines by withdrawing immigration privibiographies. not want.

leges from them for continued violation A keen and just characterization is It provides that a fixed number of of the quota law. Nor is this all. As that of one writer, who says, in effect, Poles, for instance, may be admitted to the result of that law shows, in too

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integrity in thewspaper a management C"

many cases efforts to get immigrants into this country amount to fraud, Mr. Johnson has also introduced a bill by which he would suspend the immigration of aliens to the United States for three years, the bill not applying to Government officials, to travelers or temporary sojo ers for pleasure or business, to students who may enter the United States solely for the purpose of study in educational institutions particularly designated by them, to ministers of any religious denomination, or to husbands, wives, and minor children of naturalized citizens or of persons who have taken out their first papers.

Mr. Johnson's bills should sufficiently warn the steamship companies.

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International

PRELATES OF THE GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE PROCLA

MATION OF ARCHBISHOP MELETIOS METAXAKIS AS PATRIARCH

Left to right: Bishop Alexander, of Rodostolou; Metropolitan Platon, of Odessa and
Kherson; Patriarch Meletios; Russian Archibishop Alexander; Bishop Oftimios, of Brooklyn

T.

re

TIJE CIIRISTMAS AMNESTY
THE President on December 25 com-

muted the sentences of a number of men convicted for violation of laws designed for the protection of the country during the progress of the war, Apparently in each instance the cases have been carefully reviewed and the decision rendered with the desire in view of protecting the interests of the country and serving justice. To disagree in certain instances with these decisions is not to criticise the motives which led to them.

The release of all prisoners convicted under war law is something which extreme radicals, pacifists, and sentimentalists regard as highly desirable. The normal-minded citizen is not inclined to take so generous a position, for he realizes that there are some things which no self-governing and self-perpetuating country can afford to give away. One of these things is the right and duty to protect itself from destruction. The law regards the deliberate taking of a human life as the most serious offense that the individual can com What can be said, therefore, in the man or woman who attem the life of a whole nation an mits this act wh nat life-and-death st

b foe? Some of th

ni during the war consummation w sound mind. So norant men and v astray by cleverer associates. Still sympathizers with aim o conquest It

timet norar

vhow war

instig crimes

Yen be relea

it lease tho not render

try in time of peace. Perhaps it is time THE NEW PATRIARCH OF
to release those whose physical infirmi- THE GREEK CHURCH
ties likewise limit the danger that HE Most Rev. Meletios Metaxakis,
might arise from their release from con- Archbishop of Athens, in the Greek
trol. But in each instance the test Church, has been elected Patriarch by
should be the good of the country and the Holy Synod sitting at Constantino-
not the desire to turn the way of the ple. It is the highest ecclesiastical
transgressor into a bed of roses.

authority and corresponds to the College
Among the criminals recently of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic
leased by the President there seemed to Church,
be some whom it was the plain duty of The election, however, has not been
the Executive authority to release. received with favor either in Constan-
There are others the propriety of whose tinople or in Athens. It has been ob
release will seem to many to be doubt- jected to by certain Constantinople
ful. One of these is Eugene V. Debs. authorities, who, not unmindful that
On the list there is at least one name Meletios is the first Patriarch to be
of a man whose release is an affront elected in many centuries without politi-
to every soldi In his behalf it can- cal intervention, allege that a majority
not be maint he was actuated of the members of the Synod were ab-
by a mistak

1 or moral con- sent from that body at the time of the victions of

One can under- election. The objection from Athens (it stand how a

onestly oppose may have possibly inspired that from the draft ev

nt of martyr. Constantinople) is what perhaps might om, but no

nestly accept have been expected from King Constan bes for the

fictitious ex- tine. Meletios is a friend and supporter tions fron

'he fact that of ex-Premier Venizelos, and when Conconvict

Government stantine returned to the throne was one s in otl

not be ac- of those marked for royal vengeance. by ex-se

a satisfac- As soon as Constantine found himsel! anati

It is secure in his place he ousted Meletios e the vet- from the Archbishopric. The King's

hat their present attitude, which he has made the ve

and in attitude of the Greek Government, if not ver

rould not a spiteful political trick, is at least an-
ho sold other attempt again to interfere with
til fifty ecclesiastical order and procedure.
the war Though evidence of these
t make Patriarch-Elect's posi
res. ing in Constantip

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