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lines that an industrial court should

liament of the self-styled Irish Republic largely act. Nevertheless it has very

by a vote of 64 to 57 ratified the peace large powers of legal action under the

agreement with Great Britain. Later Kansas Industrial Law, and it is quite

Arthur Griffith was elected President of probable that in an extension of this

the Dail Eireann and is expected to ormethod of dealing with industrial mat

ganize a provisional government under ters other States may find an open road

the treaty. leading toward industrial peace.

Just what will follow De Valera's Mr. Gompers has lately been reported

resignation as President of the Irish Reas calling the Kansas plan involuntary

public, his summoning of those who servitude and as announcing that or

followed him in the bitter contest before ganized labor would not obey the man

the Dail Eireann to a new conference, dates of such courts as that in Kansas

and his open refusal to accept anything or the laws as laid down by those courts

but absolute independence for Irelandif other States follow Kansas's example.

all this remains to be seen. Nor must We hope that Mr. Gompers has been

it be forgotten that in the heat of debate misquoted. He is not generally re

Michael Collins, a leader of the Sinn garded as a Bolshevik, but a more ex

Fein faction which urged ratification, pressly Bolshevistic utterance we rarely

declared in response to a question from see. Whether such a statute and such a

De Valera that the present agreement court as those established in Kansas are

would not end the Irish struggle for Constitutional will ultimately be estab

independence. As for Ulster's reluclished by the United States Supreme

tance to enter the Irish Free State, it is Court, not by the President of the

admitted that the situation is a difficult American Federation of Labor.

one for the northern Protestant popula

tion. But Ulster should remember that (C) Dorr THE ROOSEVELT PILGRIMAGE

the desperate struggle of the last three

BUST OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT N the initiative of E. H. Van Valk

years drew much of its bitterness from This portrait bust, by James Earle Fraser, of enburg, of the Philadelphia “North New York, is to be placed in the Lafayette

the extreme action and threats of the

Museum, in Paris. American," a group of Theodore Roose

A replica was unveiled

Unionist party in the days just before

recently at New Rochelle, New York, by Mrs. velt's intimate friends and associates, Corinne Roosevelt Robinson, a sister of the

the Great War. How far Carson and

late President especially those who worked with him

his followers went is told in the pages

on Ireland in Mr. H. G. Wells's "Outin the organization and campaigns of simple luncheon they gathered in the the Progressive party, have formed an great North Room. Dr. Lyman Abbott,

line of History." association called The Roosevelt Pil. permanent Chairman of the group, pre

The best and the only true view is grimage. The purpose of this associa- sided. Mr. Roosevelt's daughter Ethel

that the Irish people, apart from faction was expressed last year by a resolu- (Mrs. Richard Derby) read from her

tions and theorists and past bitterness, tion proposed at a meeting of the group father's handwriting the call for the

realize that what is offered is substanby Gifford Pinchot: creation of the Progressive party; Mr.

tial liberty and justice. The old acri. We, who were privileged to stand Hermann Hagedorn read a poem which

mony and the old sorrow should fade beside Theodore Roosevelt in the was discovered after Roosevelt's death

before this genuine offer of self-governmemorable April days of 1912, resolve to have made a great impression upon

ment. We believe that Ireland is enterto return in annual pilgrimage to his him; and after an hour of fellowship

ing upon a new, peaceful, and prospergrave upon the anniversary of his the meeting adjourned.

ous existence. death; and we resolve:

The agreement with That we invite all who love the It is not the purpose of this group to

Great Britain repeatedly declares that man and honor the leader to join create a formal organization, but to af

Ireland's status shall be that of Canada, with us in this recurring testimony ford a means for the friends of Roose

and to assert that Canada is subject to of our devotion to his teaching and his example; and velt to renew their old friendships and

tyranny or oppression would be preThat we take such further action fellowships annually on the day of his

posterous. as will provide for the annual pil- death.

In the words of the compact, Ireland grimage and will serve to keep alive

enters "the community of nations a vital interest in the principles and

known as the British Empire." personality of Theodore Roosevelt.

IRELAND A FREE The outcome of what must have at The first gathering of the Roosevelt

times seemed a hopeless undertaking is

STATE Pilgrimage was held on January 6, 1921.

a welcome proof that the arts of conOn that occasion nine men journeyed to

PLEASING and peaceful cartoon ciliation may prevail over the art of Oyster Bay. This year on the anniver

in the New York "World" shows

It is hard for the average Anglosary of Roosevelt's death about sixty

John Bull at the door of an Saxon's logical brain to understand how men and women made the pilgrimage to Irish cottage politely saying to the men like De Valera could bring them. the grave, where a very simple cere- peasant woman, Ireland, “Well, peace selves to enter into a conference when mony was held, which consisted of a and good luck to you, ma'am.” To make they were determined to die rather than reading of Roosevelt's Nobel Prize the picture absolutely complete it should to accept anything less than that interspeech of 1910 by James R. Garfield, have De Valera at one side sharpening national independence which had been who was in his Cabinet. A wreath was his knife and Ulster in the distance positively refused consideration before laid upon the grave by one of the pil. muttering discontent.

the conference began. Having agreed to grims, Mrs. Thomas Robbins, of Phila- Yet, if Ireland's troubles are not surely negotiate outside that basis, it was delphia. The company then, on the in- all passed, the seventh day of January wildly unreasonable to insist on that vitation of Mrs. Roosevelt, went to the will be a memorable anniversary in basis as the only one possible. home at Sagamore Hill, where after a Irish history, for on that day the Par- Ireland is now to be self-governed, to



Kirby in the New York World

be a free state, to be a nation for that word is used in the agreement, and the limitations of national power named in the agreement do not indicate that Ireland is less than a nation in the same broad sense that the word may be used (and often is used) in the case of Canada.

The civilized world is to-day congratulating Ireland on entering the family of sef-governed peoples. It may also well congratulate the English Prime Minister and his colleagues for their patience, good temper, and persistence in dealing with this difficult and delicate question. Ireland has been a backwater in the stream of democratic advance for centuries; hereafter she will form a part of that stream and will help in carrying the prosperity of the world at large as well as Ireland's flag and Ireland's national pride.



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HE creation of what is known as the "Agricultural Bloc" in Con

gress has at least served to bring before the city dwellers of the country a renewed realization of the pressing importance of the problems of American agriculture. If it has done no more than this, it has performed at least one

"WELL, PEACE AND GOOD LUCK TO YOU, MA'AM" valuable service.

It is a very trite thing to say, but, like the Ten Commandments, a thing

the consumer that the producer should tion thereof, to be done by impartial which will bear frequent repetition, not be able, through organization, to

and disinterested public inspectors that agriculture is the fundamental incontrol his sales. “Divide and rule" has

(this is already accomplished to some

extent by the Federal licensing of dustry of the country. Save in spobeen the policy of the middleman. "Di

weighers and graders), to eliminate radic instances, it has never had the rec

vided we fall” has been too often the underpaying, overcharging, and unognition which it deserved in and from fate of farm organizations which have fair grading, and to facilitate the

utilization of the stored products as our Federal Government. Read, for inattempted to better market conditions

the basis of credit.

So far as scientific stance, the roll of the House of Repre- for our farmers.

Third: a certainty of credit suffisentatives and note the comparatively production is concerned, the farmer has cient to enable the marketing of small number of men who have made a kept abreast of the times. But, as Mr.

products in an orderly manner. profession of farming on that list. Bernard M. Baruch pointed out in a re

Fourth: the Department of Agri

culture should collect, tabulate, sumWe do not believe that neglect of cent article in the "Atlantic Monthly,"

marize, and regularly and frequently our farm problems, as some of our cor

so far as integration of his business is publish and distribute to the farmers, respondents apparently think, has been

concerned, the farmer has been working full information from all the markets due to any general conspiracy on the under the handicap of a system which is

of the world, so that they shall be as

well informed of their selling position part of those who dwell in towns and at least half a century behind the times.

as buyers now are of their buying cities. It may have been due largely to It is in this same article that Mr.

position. the ignorance of urbanites, but in Baruch sums up as briefly and

Fifth: freedom to integrate the greater part it has been due to the very clearly as we have seen them stated

business of agriculture by means of

consolidated selling agencies, co-ordinature of the neglected industry. Our anywhere the demands of those farmers

nating and co-operating in such way farming has been carried on by the

who are seeking a relief from present as to put the farmer on an equal most individualistic citizens of our Na

conditions. We quote Mr. Baruch's sum- footing with the large buyers of his tion. Their individualistic frame of mary in full:

products, and with commercial rela

tions in other industries. mind is a natural product of that physi- First: storage warehouses for cotcal and industrial isolation in which

ton, wool, and tobacco, and elevators

Certainly most of these aims seem

for grain, of sufficient capacity to farming has moved and had its being.

meet the maximum demand on them

reasonable both from the point of view This individualistic attitude has been

at the peak of the marketing period.

of the producer and the consumer. That encouraged in large measure by those The farmer thinks that either private the financial authorities are coming to who stand between the farmer and the

capital must furnish these facilities

see the need for development along

or the State must erect and own the consuming public. It is to the material

these lines is indicated by Mr. Baruch's

elevators and warehouses. advantage of the middleman and to the

Second: weighing and grading of

sane and discriminating comment. Pracmaterial disadvantaze of the farmer and agricultural products, and certifica- tical evidence to this fact is given by





such a development of the spirit of co- mote sectarian theology; there is no rea- against religion but to promote their operation as has been shown by the son to suppose that in any of these acquaintance with one another's form of Chamber of Commerce of St. Louis in States sectarian conflicts have been em- religious expression and phases of reits relations to the farmers in the ter- bittered or intensified. It is my im- ligious experience. Ignorance is never ritory surrounding that city. An arti- pression, though I have no figures to a cure for anything. Misunderstanding cle on this development from the pen of confirm that impression, that the most is never a means of promoting peace. Sherman Rogers, our industrial corre- bitter anti-Catholic and anti-Jewish Good will between Jew, Christian, and spondent, will appear in an early issue journals have their largest circulation Pagan, between Roman Catholic, Protesof The Outlook.

in those States in which the Bible is not tant, and Agnostic, will not be promoted read in the schools.

by keeping them in ignorance of one an

In our public schools it is, so far as I other's faith, but bị making them acIS IT SAFE TO TEACH know, only read in the opening exer- quainted with one another's faith.

cises, but in a great majority of private In two respects I differ with my corTHE BIBLE ?

schools and in nearly all endowed col- respondents. I think that a study of

leges it is systematically taught. In the life, laws, and literature of the anEVERAL correspondents have writ

few, if any, of these schools and col- cient Hebrews is peculiarly desirable in ten to me in reply to an editorial

leges, except those which are professedly this country, and I covet for the boys bearing the above title published

denominational, is the teaching con- and girls who depend on the State for in The Outlook for December 14. They

ducted for the purpose of promoting their schools an education as broad, as think that if the Bible were taught in scholastic theology.

generous, and as spiritual as the men of our public schools the result would be

In many of the colleges this teaching wealth can obtain for their children in the teaching of sectarian theology and

is supplemented by volunteer classes private schools. And I am more demothat would be neither safe nor just.

organized by the students themselves. cratic than my correspondents; I believe Two paragraphs from two of these cor

And these Bible classes, instead of pro- that the plain people of America can disrespondents must suffice here to put

moting "strife, quarrels, fights, malig- criminate between religion and sectarian their view before my readers:

nant opposition, and war," are found to theology and can create and maintain Your plea for religious teaching in

be a means of encouraging and increas- schools which will promote the one the schools—for such the reading of ing fellowship.

without teaching the other. One of my the Bible becomes-is thing; what this teaching would degenerate In many colleges there are systematic correspondents asks me, "Is it wise to into is quite another. Is there any courses in the study, not only of the trust teachers who, like most Ameridoubt that it would become theologi

Bible, but of comparative religions. In cans, are theology-infected?" I reply: cal teaching? Is it not true that

these classes are afforded advantages Whenever a State covets for its chil“religion" as defined in the Epistle of

for the study of the sacred books of dren schools able to give them all forms James and as defined by Jesus in his digest of the "laws and command- pagan peoples and an opportunity to of knowledge and fearing none, it can ments" is as different from the aver

compare their teachings with those of find or create the teachers. age American conception of religion the Old and New Testaments. Colum

LYMAN ABBOTT. as "zenith and nadir"?

W. S.

bia University has, I believe, the largest While the Bible is all that Dr. student body of any university in AmerAbbott says it is, what assurance

ica, and probably there is no university THE BOY AND THE have we that it will be taught as he

which has a more heterogeneous stusees it? If it would be taught only as a historical, political, and literary dent population.


The study of religion subject, there could be little objection. is required during the first year of the NE of the best ways for a journal What people object to is the different academic course; different professors

to start a fight is to publish a dogmatic interpretations injected into take part in the courses of instruction.

controversial article on the subthe religious part of the instruction. That is where the danger lies.

Not only do members of all the various ject of education, for every one knows L. M. Christian denominations unite in study- how to bring up verybody else's chil

ing this course, but with them, pursuing dren. When some authority puts forExactly what this danger is neither

the same study under the same instruc- ward a theory of 'boy or girl training, of my correspondents states explicitly. But it was stated some years ago by a

tors, are Agnostics, Protestants, Roman he is watched quite as critically by all Catholics, Jews, and Pagans.

observers as Wisconsin judge in the following terms:

a man who attempts to The Young Men's Christian Associa- poke up an open fire in a room full of There is no such source and cause

tion is a Nation-wide educational insti- people. There are almost many of strife, quarrels, fights, malignant


It conducts classes, gives lec- theories in regard to the building of opposition, and war and all evil in the State as religion. Let it once en- tures, publishes text-books. Bible study fires and the raising of children as there ter into our civil affairs and our Gov- is an important part of its educational are fires and children. ernment would soon be destroyed.

work. The classes are often large; the So when Mr. C. K. Taylor, who, by the Let it once enter our common schools

students always eager. No ecclesiasti- way, has studied at close hand a whole and they would soon be destroyed.

cal conditions are required for admis- army of boys in their formative years, The answer to these apprehensions is sion to these classes. It would violate attempted in The Outlook for October 26 found in the facts of American history. the fundamental principles of the Asso- to point out the error which the Gov. The latest official reports are not at ciation if they were used for sectarian ernment was making in putting boys of hand, but it is authoritatively and, I propaganda. They do not harden sec- sixteen and seventeen in military trainpresume, accurately reported that in tarian prejudice; their influence is to ing camps which contained older men, thirty-eight States of the Union the dissolve it.

he quite naturally brought down reading of the Bible in the public Thus the facts of American life do not shower of both praise and denunciation. schools is by law permitted, in three of justify my correspondents' fears. It is He was commended by army officers and these required, in the others permitted. true that historically religion has been condemned by army officers.

He reIt is not recorded that in any of these a prolific source of strife. But the ceived letters which showed understand. States the Bible has been used to pro- remedy is not to guard our youth ing and discrimination, and letters, like

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one from a certain general, which be- scribes a camp for boys under the age is the whole problem of unemploygan, "I was so indignant at your article of eighteen which, in his view and ours,

ment. I know of nothing that more

filled the mind of the recent Conferthat I refused to read it." would meet the physical and mental

ence, while dealing mainly with Perhaps the most careful letter of needs of those critical years.

emergency matters, than the necescriticism came from Chaplain Harry C. Kipling's “Army of a Dream” was a sity to develop further remedy, first, Fraser, U. S. A. We wish we had space graphic picture of an imaginary mili

for the vast calamities of unemployto publish it in full. Chaplain Fraser tary system designed to create a nation

ment in the cyclic periods of depres

sion, and, second, some assurance to points out in his letter that the officers trained and accustomed to arms. It was

the individual of reasonable economic chosen for handling the camps where he a brilliant, imaginative picture of a security-to remove the fear of total was stationed were hand-picked young plan for the future that could never be

family disaster in loss of the job. men, eager to assume the rôle of in- and never ought to be. We do not think

It is because the Conference has apstructors and friends of the youths in- that Mr. Taylor has attempted to enter

proached the problem of unemployment trusted to their care. He points out into a literary rivalry with Rudyard

from this angle that it has had the that the pace was set, not for the older Kipling, but his imaginative vision has

vision, not only to attempt to relieve men, but for the youngest lads in the at least one thing which the great Kip

present conditions, but also to plan camp, that the camp was isolated from ling's dream lacks. Mr. Taylor's vision

largely · and broadly for the future. town and from the Regulars and Guards- of the future not only can be, but

Cycles of industrial depression have men in the vicinity, that church and ought to be.

been regarded in the past as necessary recreation facilities were afforded to all,

attributes of our industrial system. that not a single or untoward incident

66 WHATZA MATTER ? Again to quote Mr. Hoover: marred the camp, and that parents, press, and boys were enthusiastic over


I am not one who regards these

matters as incalculable. Thirty years the work and its results. Chaplain

borrow the title of this edi- ago our business community considFraser quotes as a typical comment

torial from the article on un

ered the cyclic financial panic as infrom a parent a set of observations

evitable. We know now we have employment by Charles R.

cured it through the Federal Reserve made by a Boston lawyer on the effect

Walker, Jr., in this issue. It was to System. The problem requires study, of the camp upon his son:

answer this question that the President It, like our banking system, requires 1. My boy came back more manly, last September called a Conference at

a solution consonant with American

institutions and thought. Many with a broader vision and a capacity Washington of many notable men in the

American industries are themselves for making friends.

world of labor and industry. The final finding solutions. There is a solution 2. It took him out of himself, and,

report of this Conference lies before us somewhere, and its working out will instead of saying "I did it," he now says “We." in the form of a pamphlet 178 pages in

be the greatest blessing yet given to

our economic system, both to the em3. He had been doing a man's job length.

ployer and the employee. with men whose devotion to their This Federal Conference on Unemwork won his respect and admiration. ployment has to its credit some very

Mr. Edward Eyre Hunt, in The 4. I feel that, instead of installing in him a desire to fight, he learned

real accomplishments in the stimulus Outlook for January 4, described the loyalty, obedience, and a respect for which it has given to private, municipal, Kenyon Bill for the long-range planning authority. This to my lad, in the

and State activity. As a direct result of public works, a bill which is a realiprocess of becoming a man, is invalu

of the Conference, Secretary Hoover, zation of one of the most important conable. 5. Most important of all, he was

who was its Chairman, believes that clusions of the Unemployment Confertaught that service well performed is more than a million and a half men and ence. The principle of this bill involves the best stepping-stone to success in

women to-day have employment who the creation of a financial reserve in any line of activity. My boy could


would otherwise still be idle. have gotten that training in no other

time of prosperity for the deliberate purinstitution with which I am familiar.

worthy among the achievements of the pose of improvement and expansion in

Conference has been the increased sale time of depression. This bill, if it beChaplain Fraser's letter deals with of bonds for the construction of public comes law, may be the starting-point for the camp at Devens, Massachusetts, but works. Over $60,000,000 worth have the elimination of much of the suffering we have no doubt that in almost every been recently sold in 13 States, and which has been caused by cycles of departicular it is equally applicable to $34,000,000 more have been offered for pression in the past. It establishes a other camps conducted by the War De- sale. These bonds were for enterprises principle which, if faithfully adhered to partment. Nor do we doubt the ac- to be constructed by municipalities and by States, municipalities, and industrial curacy of the facts stated by Chaplain townships; $20,000,000 more of State concerns, would practically iron out our Fraser. We believe that Mr. Taylor will bonds for similar purposes have been present fluctuations in employment. Our agree with us in this acknowledgment. sold or are offered for sale.

present system of building and improvWe are quite certain, however, that The problem of unemployment is one ing plant equipment when material the statements of Chaplain Fraser do which cannot be summarized in figures costs are at a peak and labor is at a not vitiate in the least the main conclu- or realized solely by means of graphs. premium reacts to the profound disadsion in Mr. Taylor's previous article, In the end it comes down, as Mr. Walker vantage of both manufacturer and conand that was that a military camp shows, to Joe Renick's bank account and sumer. If we can arrive at such a state which contains boys below the age of Racinski's babies. It is a problem the of intelligent organization of industry eighteen and boys and men above that measure of which cannot be understood that we build when costs are low and age does not offer a proper solution of unless it is looked at against a back- men are in need of employment, the the problem of adolescent training. The ground of suffering human beings. This radicals will lose one of their best argunatural question is, Well, if you don't is what Mr. Hoover meant when he ments against society as it is now orlike this kind of a camp, what kind do spoke before the Academy of Political ganized. If such a development occurs, you like? In reply to such a query we Science and said:

the recent Conference on Unemployment will refer the questioner to Mr. Taylor's One of the causes of ill will that

will be looked back to as a historic occaarticle in this issue, in which he de- weighs heavily upon the community sion.




NY one who has built a house there were occasions of friction and mis- between all the nations engaged in conknows despair. As the day for understanding. In particular, the Japa- ferring together here in Washington has

moving in approaches the impos- nese people and the Japanese Govern- been evident. In spite of one or two sibility of ever living in that house ment were increasingly suspicious of episodes during which delegates spoke seems more and more evident. The America's purposes and in fear of sharply, the whole course of the Conferwalls are up, the roof is shingled, the America's power.

On the other side, ence has been marked by good feeling. windows are in, the doors are hung; but America was becoming more and more Indeed, the very frankness and pubthe house looks as if it were never going doubtful about the alliance between licity distinctive of this Conference to be habitable. There is still that Britain and Japan. While the Japanese which led to these episodes-breezes drain to be finished. The kitchen closet were wondering what country. America that ruffled the surface of the waters, as is in the wrong place, and has to be torn was building her great navy against one delegate termed them-may fairly down and rebuilt. The painters are Americans were wondering what coun- be held accountable for the good feeling ready to begin, but have to wait till the try the Anglo-Japanese Alliance was and friendliness. There have been discarpenters get through. What with this directed against. Japan was sure that cussions and compromises, but even the delay about the plumbing and that about the United States, had no prospect of most assiduous sleuths among the corthe electric-light fixtures and others war with Great Britain or any other respondents have not been able to bring that are unexpectedly announced each European Power, and consequently felt to light any identifiable case of intrigue. morning-delays that are explicable and that she must be the Power which the Far more important than any limitation indeed unavoidable--the exhilaration United States was viewing with hos- in naval armament has been the effect that began with the planning and rose tility. On the other side, America, of this Conference in moral disarmawhen the foundations were laid and con- knowing that the original object of the ment. tinued as the main structure took shape Anglo-Japanese Alliance had vanished It is not the naval ratio or the Four has oozed, and in its place there is only with Japan's defeat of Russia and its Power Treaty or the Root Resolutions the wish that the whole process were secondary object had been removed by on China, or the new rules about subover and done with.

the defeat of Germany in the World marines, or any decision about poison That is about the way it is with the War, was.coming to the conclusion that

gas, or Shantung, or Manchuria, or Armament Conference at the close of Japan must have been holding fast to Siberia, that may come out of this Conthe first week of the new year.

it with a view to possible hostilities ference, or all of them put together, that In building such a structure there are with America. Neutral observers were constitute the main structure which has bound to be disappointments. We had coming to the conclusion that war was been erected here; it is rather this new no idea the chimneys were going to look brewing in the Pacific.

relationship between nations, this like that-they didn't look like that to Now that mutual suspicion has been newly established habit of dealing with us in the architect's sketch. Do they dissipated.

international questions, this practice of draw? Oh, yes; they draw beautifully. When at the very beginning of this co-operation. It is too bad that we had to abandon the Conference America laid her plans Nobody can intelligently claim that wing we had planned; but the day may openly on the table, offering to abandon the structure is perfect. English and come when we can add that. There is

her naval programme and render her- French, Chinese and Japanese, elements a good deal of grading to be done, and self impotent to start a naval war by in the architecture do not yet quite harthat will take a long time. True; but in an attack in the western Pacific, asking monize; but these are subject to modifithe meantime we can live in the house only that Japan respond in kind, Japan cation. As a whole, however, the strucquite comfortably. Besides, the house received proof of America's friendliness. ture is a great improvement upon what is much larger and better than any of And when by the substitution of the has served the nations for a habitable us expected--if we only take the trouble Four Power Treaty, a non-military dwelling and seems to be substantial. to recall how modest our expectations agreement of mutual respect and confi- Having surveyed the building as a were. Of course some of us fancied a dence, the way was opened for scrap- whole, let us examine now some of the palace--in fact, a gimcrack affair that ping the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, Amer- doors and windows that have just been would not have answered for a dwelling ica received assurance of Japan's friend- put in and some of the fixtures that are at all. Disappointment that follows un- liness.

ready for installation. reasonable expectation is itself

Even when groundless, fear of war One of the most important features reasonable. In fact, it is a form of has an evil effect. In America it has that have been decided upon is the tribute to real success.

been of aid to the demagogue; in Japan limitation of airplane carriers. When the Conference was called, the it has lent strength to the power of the der to understand this, it is necessary tension between Japan and the United militarists. Now such fear not only is to consider the purpose of a navy. If States was a cause for some anxiety. groundless but manifestly appears naval vessels are to be anything more The relation between the two countries groundless. War in the Pacific would than mere raiders, harassing commerce was not such as to portend conflict, but have been senseless in any case; equally or coasts, they must be strong enough it was not such as one lilies to see be- senseless now is the fear of it.

to seize and hold strategic positions. tween friends. The situation was sufii- A comparison of the relation between Vessels that can do this are capital ciently unpleasant to lead students of these two countries alone as it was be- ships. They are the vessels, and the international relations to examine it to fore the Conference and that relation as only vessels, that can win naval wars. see if it contained any elements that it is now serves thus as a measure of Among the ancients they were biremes might become causes of war; and, the Conference's achievement. But it is or triremes, vessels propelled by banks though there was nothing which would only one measure. A change of like of oars. To-day they are the huge floatlead a government not bereft of its kind (though there may not have been ing fortresses known, according to their senses to begin hostilities on either side, occasion for a change in like degree) armor and speed, as battleships or


In or

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