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INDIVIDUAL AND THE STATE
AN ESSAY ON JUSTICE
A THESIS ACCEPTEN, BY THE FACULTY OF CORNELL
UNIVERSITY. FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
THOMAS WARDLAW TAYLOR, Jr., M.A.
BARRISTER AT LAW (MANITOBA) AND
LATE FELLOW OF THE SAGE SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Boston, U.S.A., AND LONDON
Man first awakened to a consciousness of himself, not as an individual of indefinite worth, but simply as a member of a social group. In the earliest stages of his existence the only recognized bond for this union was a metaphysical one. Religion, in the form of mariez worship, was the foundation of all primitive association.io Neither gregarious instinct nor the need of mutual assistance was the social bond of which men were conscious; that was a unity of religious belief. Whether in the household, the clan, or, later, in the State, the acknowledgment of a common Eponym was necessary for union. All those who served the same Lares were members of the same family. The society thus organized consisted not merely of the living ; its membership included both the present and the past, both the living descendant and the deified ancestor. The gods were as truly members of the social group as were their worshippers. The god and his worshippers were bound together by the ties of human relationship; together they made up one family, with reciprocal family duties.2
In such a society mere birth conferred no rights. Relationsin ship was not measured by blood. Its standard was community gof gods. Its proof was subordination to a common authority.4
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1 De Coulanges, La Cité Antique; Hearn, Ancient Household; W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, Lect. II. ? 2 The Religion of the Semites, Lect. II. 3 La Cité Antique; Plato, Laws v. 729. Aryan Household, p. 66.