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this type of Communist warfare, in which timed so that a number of them go off Soviet and satellite embassies in Latin each well-trained guerrilla soldier can pin simultaneously.
America. down 10 or 15 defenders.
And the Communists make no secret of In 1962, Ecuador broke relations with Even on the scale on which it is now be their intent.
Czechoslovakia when it was found that the ing fought, the war in Vietnam is taxing our The record is full of comments by lead- Czech Embassy was selling Skoda industrial resources and our capabilities.
ing figures in Castro's government to the products in Ecuador and turning over the It is frightening, therefore, to think of effect that Cuba is indeed the North Viet- proceeds to Castroites in that country. what would happen if we were ever con- nam of this hemisphere.
Only last fall the Bolivian Government fronted with a hemispheric Vietnam, with Castro's guerrilla chieftain, Maj. Ernesto also broke relations with Czechoslovakia. guerrilla uprisings occurring simultaneously "Che" Guevara, has publicly embraced Latin Riots which overthrew the Government were in Brazil and Venezuela and Colombia, and American guerrilla leaders in training in traced to the Czech Embassy and to the Panama and Nicaragua and Guatemala, and Cuba-Jose Cardona, and Tiro-Fijo from Co- military and financial support that it gave then spreading out to other countries. lombia; German Layret of Venezuela, and to Castroite terrorists in that country. This prospect is neither a pipedream nor others.
Moscow itself publicly issued a communia nightmare.
Cuban broadcasts blanket Latin America que which targeted seven nations in this On the contrary, there are official pro- with propaganda, inciting riots and encour- hemisphere to be overthrown by Cuban exnouncements by Castro Cuba and by other aging terrorism.
ported subversion. It went so far as to line Communist sources which make it clear that Havana radio openly broadcasts instruc- up all Communist parties in this hemisphere the Communists are even today organizing tions to guerrilla bands in other Latin Amer- in support of Castro. for the objective of a hemispheric Vietnam. ican countries.
The huge Soviet Embassy in Uruguay acts In this plan, Castro Cuba plays the role of For example, in a broadcast to Haiti on as one of the several direction centers of North Vietnam. And, as Castro's official August 9 of this year, the Havana radio car- subversion in Latin America, while the role newspaper Revolucion has spelled out the ried a lecture by "a guerrilla of the Vene- played by the Chinese Embassy in Brazil next stage of Communist policy in Latin zuelan Armed Forces of National Liberation.” prior to the overthrow of the Goulart govAmerica, “Colombia and Venezuela form “The lecture,” said the announcer, "deals ernment is a matter of documentary record. the nucleus of a vast South Vietnam of with his experiences in northern Venezuela Despite the differences which divide them Latin America."
and it will serve as valuable orientation for as nations, a Communist consortium appears
revolutionaries. CASTRO'S RECORD OF AGGRESSION
To the people of Haiti, to be biding its time in Latin America until
Latin America, and the whole world the lecIn January 1964, a tremendous cache of ture will show that they must conduct their
its trained guerrilla forces are ready to strike.
If they strike simultaneously in a number of arms was discovered on the coast of Veneown revolutionary processes.”
Latin American countries, I am afraid that zuela.
The lecturer then proceeded to describe we may be confronted by a "continental A special commission of the Organization
how the urban and suburban detachments war," as it is described by Moscow, which of American States which was set up to in; of the Venezuelan rebels had been organized; will make the Dominican uprising and even vestigate this cache unanimously reported how they had sought to win the support of the Vietcong insurgency appear minor affairs that the arms originated in Cuba and that
workers and peasants with reform slogans; by comparison. they were surreptitiously landed on the Venezuelan coast "for the purpose of being influence, instructed the peasants in the use how they had extended the guerrilla area of
THE ANDES—"THE SIERRA MAESTRA OF SOUTH used in subversive operations to overthrow
AMERICA” of arms and explosives, and given them pothe constitutional government of Venezuela."
litical indoctrination; established operation I have already spoken about the danger in On the heels of this report, the OAS, with
centers for guerrillas in the towns; and Central America-in Guatemala, Honduras, the single exception of Mexico, decided to finally how they had proceeded to establish Panama, and Nicaragua—and of the danger sever diplomatic relations with Cuba.
a combined command for the various sectors in the southern Caribbean countries of VeneThis was held up at the time as a major of the guerrilla movement.
zuela and Colombia. victory in isolating Castro from his Latin
The lecture on guerrilla warfare even in- There is, in addition, evidence that Castro American neighbors, and as a death blow to cluded a passage inciting its listeners to the is setting up a series of headquarters and subversion.
kind of terrorist murders that have charac- way stations in the Andes Mountain. But 1 year later we find that Castro sub
terized the Vietcong insurgency in Vietnam. Shortly before taking power in Cuba, version has been intensified and that it is “There is another kind of influence,” said the Castro boasted that he would convert the being carried out more and more openly and broadcast. “For example, in a village where Andes into “the Sierra Maestra” of South with even greater success.
there is an enemy of both the peasants and America. We have witnessed the overthrow of gove the guerrillas, he is tried and executed. There are increasing indications that ernments in Bolivia, Ecuador, and the Do- There have been many cases in which the Castro is on the way to achieving this goal. minican Republic.
results of this kind of influence had been From Bolivia comes reports that La Paz Riots and terrorism threaten the founda- extraordinary."
has become a center of Communist arms runtions of the governments of Panama, Guate- The incitations to violence are not confined ning and subversion throughout the Andes, mala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru. to Latin America. I do not think that it is in with the Cuban Embassy in La Paz acting
And, in every case, Castro-trained plotters any exaggeration to suggest that the broad- as a de facto headquarters. are identified with these disturbances and casts over Castro's Radio Free Dixie by the From Chile comes the report that the capiinsurrections.
renegade American Negro, Robert F. Williams, tal city of Santiago is the seat of a CastroIn July of 1963, the OAS issued a report have played a role of some importance in Communist headquarters headed by two vetdealing with Soviet activities in Cuba. inciting extremist elements in the American eran Bulgarian Reds, Ivan Tenev and Kon
In this report it named 10 major guerrilla Negro community to the kind of violence that stantin Telalov. warfare training centers.
we have witnessed in recent weeks in Los From Peru there comes a report that, when But, despite this exposure, Castro has Angeles and Chicago and other centers. several Communist youths were captured in stepped up his training program for Latin I do not mean to minimize the injustices the course of a guerrilla attack on May 20, American guerrillas so that Castro today which the American Negroes have suffered, they confessed that they were part of a operates no fewer than 30 guerrilla camps in the poverty, the discrimination, the lack of larger Castroite operation intended to bring which Latin American cadres are trained in opportunity, the overcrowding in ghettos. terror and guerrilla warfare to key areas of the art of subversion.
But no one can tell me that it does not have the country. After they are trained, they are reinfil- some impact on the extremist minority in
THE WAY OUT trated into their homelands, where they are the Negro community when day after day
26, skillfully working to overthrow the legiti- they listen to broadcasts like the following nization of American States emphatically mate governments. over Radio Free Dixie. I quote Robert F.
condemned the Government of Cuba for its The Dominican crisis is eloquent testiWilliams' words verbatim:
acts of aggression and intervention against mony to the effectiveness of these trained “We are injured by racial injustice. Let
Venezuela. infiltrators. the thug cop and the racist savages view our
In addition to voting to sever all diploGuerrilla training
camps have been indignation through the razor, the lye can, matic connections and suspend all trade and recently located in the Panamanian province the gas bomb, and the bullet *
transportation between their countries and of Chiriqui and in the capital of Guatemala. who despise us and brutally oppress our peo
Cuba, they warned the Castro government In the latter case, troops captured a large ple be prepared to kill or be killed * * * let
that, if it persists in its acts of aggression cache of Cuban weapons. our people take to the streets in fierce num
and intervention, the member states of the bers and let their battle cry be heard around The grave implications of these discovthe world: Freedom, freedom, freedom now either individually or collectively, not ex
OAS reserve the right to defend themselves, eries are that we may soon face self-propa
or death." gating armies of Communist guerrillas in
cluding the resort to armed force. this hemisphere-armies which will no THE ROLE OF THE OTHER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES I believe that the time has come to relonger be completely dependent on their But it is not just a matter of Cuba.
examine, on an emergency basis, our entire Cuban base.
Those who talk about a détente with the policy toward Cuba and Latin America. When that happens, Cuban-sown time Soviet Union or about the so-called “de- We cannot afford the luxury of waiting and bombs will explode one by one throughout satellization" of the European satellites, doing nothing until the flames of a VietLatin America, or conceivably they will be would do well to examine the activities of namese or Dominican-type insurrection erupt
at a dozen different points in the troubled As for Castro, the time has come to accept I do not pretend to have worked out a countries of Latin America.
the simple unescapable fact that Castro must solution in all its details. There is no single solution for the sick- go-that we must embark on a crash pro- These are only some of the things that ness of Latin America.
gram to help the Cuban people liberate can and must be done. Those who believe that all of our Latin themselves from the tyranny of this alien But the essential thing is that Castro American troubles would disappear over- despot.
must go and Cuba must be liberated so that night if we simply sent in the marines to To those who say that Castro cannot be the countries of the Americas can together unseat Castro have woefully oversimplified overthrown, my answer is the example of the embark on that true democratic revolution the situation. Hungarian revolution.
which we in our country have pioneered, and For the fact is that, with only a few coun- True, the Soviet Red Army succeeded in which points the way to the future for all tries excepted, the masses of the people in crushing the Hungarian rebels. But Castro mankind. the Latin American countries are abysmally will not be able to count on the intervention poor; the propertied classes-apart from an of 5,000 Soviet tanks when the Cuban people
EXHIBIT I enlightened minority-are narrow-minded rise against him, as the people of Hungary [From Havana Radio Free Dixie in English and grasping, and opposed to social progress; rose to a man against their own quisling
0300] and their social structures remain virtually communist tyrants.
0300 GMT, Aug. 21, 1965) untouched by the vast reforms that have There is today in Cuba a state of disenswept through most of the civilized world in chantment and open rebellion against the ROBERT F. WILLIAMS URGES MORE RIOTS IN recent decades. Castro regime that bears a striking similarity
UNITED STATES If Castro were removed by the marines to- to the situation that existed in Hungary be- (Excerpts): Greetings my brothers and sismorrow and if nothing were done to improve fore the great popular revolution of October ters. We are witnessing the beginning of a social and economic conditions in the Amer- 1956.
ferocious and devastating fire storm. We are icas, then, as surely as night follows day, it There have been six major demonstrations living in an age of great upheaval. We are could be predicted that we would be con- and revolts against the Castro regime over living in an age of violence and revolution. fronted with another half dozen Castros in the past 2 years.
We are living in an age where the angry cry various parts of the hemisphere over the The last revolt took place only several of freedom rises from every quarter as the coming decade.
weeks ago when a village of some 300 fami- slave rises to challenge the enslaver. We But those do-gooders who urge that we lies went on a hunger strike.
see passions pent up for centuries burst from push reforms in Latin America, and simply The army was sent in and the entire pop- the miserable heart of the bondmen and ignore the menace of Castroism, are just as ulation was taken by truck to the nearby set the streets aflame with insurrection. Yes, blind and just as wrong as those who urge city of Sancti Spiritus.
we see mighty racist America quiver from the that we send in the marines tomorrow.
And all of these uprisings and demonstra- impact of a terrifying shock wave of freeThe mere existence of the Castro regime tions, I want to emphasize, took place with- dom. and its subversive network makes social re- out the slightest encouragement or support Yes, Los Angeles, Los Angeles. The gloriform and economic progress virtually im- from the United States.
ous spirit of our brutally dehumanized peopossible.
Guerrilla bands, too, are operating against ple of the ghetto has restored our selfIt makes chaos and violence an epidemic the Castro regime, with no support or public respect, our human dignity. Los Angeles is a condition throughout the Americas; and it encouragement from outside.
warning to oppressive racists who know they produces an outpouring of frightened capital Just over a month ago, the Castro regime can no longer enjoy immunity from retributhat far exceeds the intake of new capital made the revealing admission that the offi- tion for their brutal crimes of violence and through the Alliance for Progress and private cial antiguerrilla forces, which are called the oppression of our people. investment.
fighters against bandits, had liquidated over Our shining hour is fast approaching, and The problem of Latin America will never
1,000 civilians and guerrillas in just three of let us prepare to make the most of it. We be solved and we will have no security in Cuba's six Provinces.
are not alone. Our friends are many, and this hemisphere unless we embark on Fidel Castro himself said on July 26 that they are daily becoming even more powerful. simultaneous program, without delay and his soldiers had wiped out "counterrevolu- My brothers and sisters, the Afro-American with all possible urgency, to put an end to tionary bands," with the exception of three has no enemy any place in the world other the menace of Castroism and to bring the unidentified groups. Castro upped the figure than in racist America. Look about you. American Revolution to the suffering and of civilians and guerrillas killed to 2,005. Take a good look. There you will see the only impoverished and freedom-hungry peoples
It is significant that Castro has claimed enemy you have on this earth. He is the one of the hemisphere.
the extinction of guerrillas on three previous who hates you. He is the one who abuses For it is we, and not the Communists, who occasions, but they always pop up again, you. He is the one who blows the heads off are the true revolutionaries,
Obviously, he is beset with more problems little black girls praying in Sunday school. It is we who stand for freedom and justice than meet the eye.
His hands are the ones stained with the and human equality, we who have found the key to a better life for the masses of the
If the Cuban people can accomplish this
blood of Emmet Till, Mack Charles Parker, much without any assistance from the out
Medgar Evers, and countless others. people while the Communists, in every side, then I say that we have every reason to
My brothers and sisters, times are critical. country where they have seized power, have be confident that, given the assistance to
They are going to become ever more critical. coupled the total slavery of the mind with which they are entitled, the Cuban people
We are facing a future wherein the streets an infallible genius for reducing agriculwill prove to the world that they are capable
shall become like rivers of blood. Let us tural production and stultifying progress in of making their own Hungarian revolution.
be prepared to fight to the death, organize, general I would like to see the OAS or the Alliance
We must put an end to the folly of re
arm, learn to shoot and to handle explosives. for Progress commit itself at their next meet
When the impending showdown comes, use straining and handicapping those patriotic Cubans who seek to bring aid to the freedom
the match and the torch unsparingly. The ing to the goal of a hemispheric revolution.
flame of retribution must not be limited to I would like to see a hemispheric attack
fighters in their homeland.
urban buildings and centers, but the counon the problems of illiteracy and disease and
tryside must go up in smoke also. Rememhousing and poverty. freedom of action that we accorded the fol
ber the forests, the fields, and the crops. ReI would also like to see the kind of sweeplowers of Castro when they were working
member the pipelines and oil storage tanks. ing land reform program that the Chinese for the overthrow of the Batista regime
Yes, let it be known to the world that we Nationalist Government has carried out in without any interference of any kind from
shall meet their sophisticated weapons of vioTaiwan put into effect in the many Latin the American authorities.
lence with the crude and simple flame of a American countries where the majority of
Basing ourselves upon the recognized facts
match. We cannot escape our historical the peasants still do not own their own that the Castro regime is guilty of aggres
mission of destiny any more than our oppresland. sion and intervention against its neighbors,
sors can escape the destiny of retribution. I would like to see a massive program of we must, as a measure of legitimate selfassistance to the institutes of higher educa- defense, publicly commit ourselves to the tion in the Americas so that they can turn liberation of the hemisphere from the menout more graduates in business and public ace of Castro subversion and aggression.
THE MOUNTING REFUGEE CRISIS IN administration, in agriculture and geology We must put teeth into our embargo on
SOUTH VIETNAM and marine biology and all the fields related trade with Cuba. And here I would like to to the expansion of social resources and the suggest a declaration that if a ship of any
Mr. TYDINGS. Mr. President, today's proper management of society.
company discharges or takes on cargo in New York Times carries an article akt. Needless to say, no such hemispheric pro- Cuba, all the ships of this company should the work of the Refugees and Escapees gram can be carried out without massive be barred from entering American ports for Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary support from our own country. & period of 1 year thereafter,
Committee chaired by the able and disI, as one Senator, would be prepared to I would also like to urge that we bring tinguished junior Senator from Massavote for such massive support because I be- more pressure to bear on our allies than we lieve that we could make no better invest- have heretofore brought, to put an end to chusetts, EDWARD M. KENNEDY. ment from the standpoint of our own secu- this traffic which undermines the security of
For the past 2 months, the subcomrity.
the hemisphere and our own security, mittee has been holding extensive hear
ings on the mounting refugee crisis in many there are, where they are and how they will now take an active part in recommendSouth Vietnam. The hearings have are living, and in just what ways they are ing measures and in providing money, per
sonnel, and political pressure. probed deeply into the problems and being helped now. dilemmas involved in the humanitarian
ESTIMATES ARE TENTATIVE effort to help these hundreds of thou- The U.S. Government does not now know sands of homeless men, women and chil- how many refugees there are. South Viet- TRIBUTE TO MRS. GENIE MCGLAS
SON OF LINCOLN, NEBR., FOUNDdren fleeing from their war-torn villages namese Government figures, which are not
considered accurate, give rise to tentative and rice fields.
ER OF THE AMERICAN LEGION As a member of Senator KENNEDY'S an equal number crowded into urban slums.
estimates that there are 200,000 in camps and POPPY DAY subcommittee, I am delighted to note Virtually all of these came in during the
Mr. CURTIS. Mr. President, a disthat the subcommittee's work has ap- Vietcong Offensive in February and March, tinguished Nebraska lady who, over a parently resulted in a significant change and during the monsoon fighting of May, long period of years, gave in vast measin administration policy toward the ref- June, and July. In recent weeks the influx ure the efforts of her heart and hands to ugee problem in South Vietnam. For appears to have tapered off somewhat. the welfare of the Nation's disabled vetthe first time, a major portion of our AID in 1964 and earlier have been resettled.
Still another 200,000 who fled their homes
erans has passed from the mortal scene. program in South Vietnam will be di
On July 28, 1965, Mrs. Genie McGlas
Aid administered rectly devoted to the health and proper which was to run at $8.5 million this year,
by private agencies,
son died at Lincoln, Nebr., at the age of settlement of these needy and hapless is expected to rise considerably. Further- 87. Mrs. McGlasson long will be revered refugees. The problems are substantial. more, the private agencies are expected to as the founder of the American Legion There is much to be done but it is heart- work out a program for closer cooperation Poppy Day, an event which has done so ening that we are taking important steps with each other and with the U.S. program. much to further the rehabilitation and in the right direction.
The Senate hearings disclosed a lack of child welfare work carried on by the Great credit is due to the distin- proper coordination. A coordinating com- American Legion. Although originated guished junior Senator from Massachu- mittee set up in Saigon has been rather in
by Mrs. McGlasson as a local effort, active, the hearings showed. setts for under his effective leadership
Poppy Day since has spread across the
Today President Johnson announced that the work of the subcommittee has been he would send Dr. Howard A. Rusk, director land and is nationally recognized as one constructive and productive. I am sure of the Institute of Physical Medicine and of the American Legion's major prothat under his able chairmanship, the Rehabilitation of the New York University grams. subcommittee will continue to explore Medical Center, to study the private agen- Indicative of the place of affection and and recommend further improvements cies' work in Vietnam.
esteem she occupied is the fact that the and solutions in our programs toward Dr. Rusk, who helped to organize a program funeral service for Mrs. McGlasson was refugees.
of relief for refugees from the Korean war, the first ever held at the Veterans AdI ask unanimous consent, Mr. Presi- is expected to survey the opportunities for
ministration hospital at Lincoln. dent, that today's article from the New private relief work, as well as the means of
I ask unanimous consent, Mr. PresiYork Times, written by their able cor- use by the agencies of available U.S. logistic dent, that two articles be inserted in the respondent, Richard Eder, be reprinted support.
RECORD at this point. They are taken at this point in the RECORD.
In Vietnam, the United States has had the from the August 1965 issue of the Legion There being no objection, the article Government send teams around to provincial Auxiliary Star, department of Nebraska. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, governments to spur their programs. Some There being no objection, the articles as follows:
$12 million is available to the provincial were ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
authorities, but little has been spent. U.S. REFUGEE PLAN FOR VIETNAM SET-SEN
as follows: ATE HEARINGS DISCLOSED INCOHERENCE OF
In part, according to officials here, this PRIVATE AND PUBLIC PROGRAMS stems from the fact that many provincial offi
SHE LEAVES A SPOT THAT WILL BE HARD cials are unfamiliar with the rules for using
Mrs. Genie McGlasson, rehabilitation WASHINGTON, August 30.—The United
do not want to spend the money for fear of chairman and hospital director for the States, reversing a previous policy, is setting being accused of favoritism by the residents American Legion Auxiliary, department of up a full-scale program to assist the 400,000 of the area.
Nebraska for 36 years, died July 28, 1965 in refugees made homeless by the Vietnam
ESTIMATES ARE DIFFICULT
Lincoln, Nebr., at the age of 87. fighting
Mrs. McGlasson had spent all day Friday The decision to make refugee assistance a Since many details are still being worked of the previous week at her regular duties, principal concern of the U.S. aid mission in out, officials here are unable to give a close
volunteer hospital director of the Lincoln Vietnam was in large part a result of recent
estimate of how much the program will cost. Veterans' Hospital; and was returned there hearings on the refugee problem conducted One rough estimate was $20 million. Any on Saturday, July 31, to receive final honors by Senator EDWARD KENNEDY of Massachu
calculations are complicated, however, by the from statewide friends. For the first time, a setts, according to U.S. officials.
fact that much of the aid will be a rechan- funeral was held at the 35-year-old hospital. Eight hearings held by a Senate subcom- neling of existing programs.
The 10 a.m. service took place on the lawn mittee on refugees of which Mr. KENNEDY For example, the major part of U.S. health, before the open west porch where Mrs. Mcis chairman brought out, as one high official education, and possibly housing programs in Glasson and patients years ago listened to of the Agency for International Development Vietnam will now be specifically aimed at band concerts. Salvation Army Maj. Charles said, that "in effect we have had no refugee the refugees.
Duskin officiated, assisted by the Reverends program as such.”
Until now, according to AID officials, the Thomas Holoman and Loren Pretty, hospital SEVERAL STEPS TAKEN
United States has not had specific programs chaplains. A poppy blanket made by Lincoln Over the last 3 weeks the State Department for the refugees. They received without members of the American Legion Auxiliary and the Agency have taken a number of special emphasis, a portion of the assistance covered the casket and paid tribute to Mrs. steps to set one up. Among them are the
under regular programs. Former Ambassa- McGlasson as the originator of the American
dor Maxwell D. Taylor and his aid chief, following:
Legion poppy. In 1921 Mrs. McGlasson Approximately 40 officials of the Agency
James S. Killen, believed that refugee as- taught a small group of disabled veterans for International Development in Vietnam
sistance should be an initiative of the Saigon to make crepe paper poppies and sell them have been put to work full time on refugee
authorities with the United States providing on street corners, with the proceeds going problems. A great many other members of help as requested.
to the Legion's rehabilitation and child welthe 700-man AID mission will spend a major
Partly because of a lack of interest and fare committees. The poppy program has part of their time dealing with refugees. competence and partly because of the mas- been adopted by the national organization. For example, according to one AID official sive increase of refugees, this formula was A charter member of the Lincoln American here, 80 percent of the public health team not working.
Legion Auxiliary, Mrs. McGlasson had given will be assigned to refugees.
According to AID officials, this was brought unselfishly of her time, talent and self to proThe administration is looking for a can
home by a series of alarming reports from mote and carry on the many phases of the didate to fill a new high-level job coordinat- the interior. Henry Cabot Lodge, the new
rehabilitation and hospital program for the ing refugee programs. On one hand, he will Ambassador, told the Senate subcommittee
American Legion Auxiliary. act as an adviser to the Saigon Government. earlier this month that the situation was During her years with the auxiliary she On the other, he will be able to draw on all gravely unsatisfactory.
served on the first unit welfare committee; the resources of the AID mission for assist- According to officials here, the new pro- was elected to the first department executive ance.
gram will still be designed to work through committee; attended the first national conThe first thorough studies of the refugees the Saigon government as much as possible. vention in Kansas City in 1921 and was are now being made. These will include how The difference will be that the United States elected president of Lincoln unit 3 in 1923. She also was named national committee- begun similar data processing instruc- hours in classes and approximately 1,600 woman from Nebraska in 1926; was appointed tion and the first graduation of inmates hours working on center computer projects national chairman of the convention held in from this training program has been
or completing homework behind locked cell Omaha in 1926; traveled to the Paris, France, held.
doors. convention and was elected national chap
To give the convicts a nodding acquaintlain; and also served as national community
Recently the magazine published by
ance with industry methods, the inmate service chairman, and member for the na
the employees of the Indianapolis Works supervisors invite computer expects from intional rehabilitation committee.
employees of the Western Electric Co., dustry to visit and instruct. Two of those The feelings of a multitude of friends and described in some detail the excellent giving time to the program were Western associates in the State of Nebraska as well results achieved in helping to train pris- Electric's Dave Johnston, Jr., data processing as members of the National American Legion
oners for this important new field. Be- department chief, and Blaine Flick, head of Auxiliary, are summed up in the words given
cause it has national significance, I ask the plant's computer development departby Dr. J. Melvin Boykin, hospital director of
ment. the Lincoln VA hospital, “She leaves a spot the August 1965 issue of Dial Tone be diana chapter of the Data Processing Manunanimous consent that this article in
Johnston, as president of the central Inthat will be hard to fill.”
printed at the conclusion of my remarks. agement Association at the time, was also A DOER OF GOOD
There being no objection, the article instrumental in getting DPMA endorsement Mrs. Genie McGlasson, 87, longtime resi- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, of the three-phase training program in 1962. dent of Lincoln, is dead. as follows:
WHAT TRAINING DOES She will be remembered for a long while CONVICTS, COMPUTERS, AND THE NUMBERS GAME William L. Perrin, Indiana Department of as the woman who started Poppy Day. But we are sure that this national institution was
Behind the high prison walls that once held Corrections official who's been closest to the not started for her personal aggrandizement. budding badman John Dillinger, inmates of program since its start in 1961, explained
Indiana's maximum-security reformatory at what the training does for inmates. She was too sincere for that.
"Jail is the most degrading experience a Mrs. McGlasson was of the World War I Pendleton have figuratively shed their blue generation who found her great life interest
collars to learn data processing, one of Amer- man can ever go through,” Perrin explained.
ica's fastest growing white-collar professions. in veterans affairs, and, especially, the wel
"The one thing an inmate loses is his Not far from where other convicts are learn- self-respect. Brought here,” he said in a fare and comfort of the men whose lives
tour at Pendleton, “stripped of his civilian were wrecked by war. The Lincoln Veterans ing more conventional semiskilled repair or Hospital was more to her than a community young prisoners staff the first data processing he's at his lowest ebb."
service trades, a carefully screened group of clothes, quarantined and slapped in a cell, asset. It was the place where disabled veterans would be required to spend their lives.
training school ever set up inside a prison. Progressive-minded rehabilitation officials They could not go out into the world, but
Reformatory inmate No. 46252 (names will feel that the exacting work of data processhe brought the world to them—a very good families, though they're used universally in
not be used to avoid embarrassment to their sing, properly taught, helps the man develop world.
a characteristic lacking in so many prison There is not much a disabled veteran can
conversations here) characterizes the elite populations-precise analytical thought
inmate staff that operates this unique cendo, and the days hang heavy for them.
processes and a measure of self-confidence. ter. Mrs. McGlasson taught them how to take a
Underlying the entire program is the hope little wire and a little crepe paper and make
Bright, with an aptitude for data process- of employment for trained poppies. Then it naturally
followed that the ing work, he has survived one of the toughest analysts, statisticians, and repairmen once poppies would be sold to the public and the inmate screening boards and the most rigor- the graduates leave prison. Yet only 7 returns dedicated to the American Legion's Chances are he'll be a low-risk parole violator
ous training course in the institution. of 17 parolees who've received certificates rehabilitation and child welfare committee.
of graduation have landed computer jobs. An infinite amount of comfort to a great when he gets out.
DROPOUTS NUMEROUS many resulted from her plain idea. A little
And the success of the program in the past wire, a little crepe paper, some willing dis
If getting a computer job on the outside 4 years has led skeptical prison officials to abled veterans developed enormous power for consider this one of the most promising, is difficult, being accepted into the training
is more so. Last year, of 127 who applied good. It is something that science has not progressive self-rehabilitation efforts ever
for the program, only 53 were accepted. been able to match, nor ever will because it undertaken.
Only 14 of that 53 were issued the DPMAincludes the precious element of humani
endorsed data processing diploma. tarianism as it exists in people.
One role of the center is to train fellow What kind of prisoner is selected for the Mrs. McGlasson's work succeeded beyond inmates; another is to process data for the program? “We're looking for an individmeasure but she exemplified the good that institution. During his 15-hour-long day, ual who's trying to help himself,” explained human compassion and interest can do and No. 46252 teaches computer classes for new a long-term inmate supervisor, “but who she heads the list of the many who with students and handles his share of the bur
can also produce something for us.” less acknowledgment and smaller effect do
geoning workload. He earns between 8 and The philosophy established by the center's the same. We call that kind blessed. 18 cents a day.
inmate founders is that once a man com
In the 4 years of its existence, the data pletes training, he is expected to train CONVICTS, COMPUTERS, AND THE
center has expanded from a dingy three-room others. “We want to perpetuate this pro
basement suite to more spacious, and color- gram," another inmate earnestly declared. NUMBERS GAME fully decorated, quarters covering some 6,000
Once skeptical reformatory officials have Mr. BAYH. Mr. President, an age-old square feet. The inmate-computer expert allowed the program to expand, and now problem confronting those who admin- is proud to point to what is considered one heartily endorse this type of white-collar ister penal institutions is how best to of the largest data processing libraries in the rehabilitation. Center inmates have re
Midwest, jammed with books donated by sponded to this confidence by compiling train and rehabilitate inmates for the
sympathetic companies and individuals. time they will be able to resume a nor
more than 300,000 man-hours free of super
Donations have kept the program alive vision with only one violation of prison regumal life in society. In the State of In
during its existence. "The interest and sup- lations. diana much progress has been made in port from individuals, companies, and organi
SPREAD TO PRISONS developing meaningful and useful pro- zations has been overwhelming," wrote the center's inmate director in his latest annual
From its start at Pendleton, data training grams to instruct prisoners how to become skilled members of trades or pro- report. Thus far, the center has received in one form or another has spread to classes fessions.
equipment, books, and training materials by inmates of the Indiana State Prison in valued at more than $250,000.
Michigan City, the Women's Prison in IndiIn the last few years the Indiana Re
Some of the equipment-obsolete forms, anapolis, and the State Farm at Putnamville. formatory at Pendleton has pioneered in surplus IBM wiring boards, and miscellane
The first graduation of inmates of all four providing specialized training in the op
ous accessory equipment has come from institutions was held in May at Pendleeration of electronic computers and has
ton. Western Electric's data processing departestablished the first data processing ment. ment. In all, some 2 tons of equipment
Cost of the program to the State has thus school in the United States which is in- were trucked from Shadeland to the reforma- far been a meager $500, largely in stationery
supplies, in the 4-year history of the proside a prison. Most of the equipment tory.
BOAST HUGE COMPUTER
gram. Yet careful inventory controls proand materials used for this data processing center has been donated by vari- Together with donations from other large vided by data processing have led to savings ous private companies while several ex
companies the center now boasts 25 key- in purchases, although exact figures are hard
to pin down. perts have generously given their time punches, 4 sorters, 4 tabulators,
producing punch, an interfiling reproducing Despite the careful, rigorous training, and to help prisoners acquire the necessary
punch, and the most recent prize acquisi- the strong desire of the inmate graduates, knowledge and techniques. The experi- tion-a huge Univac 60 computer.
there are few jobs awaiting them. Willingment has proved so successful that three Training in the three-step program takes ness to hire ex-convicts is tempered by bondother penal institutions in Indiana have 6 months. Convict 46252 spent some 406 ing requirements and other restrictions.
"As far as business acceptance is con- beach in a small inlet known as Macama. But never before had the FALN been cerned,” says Bill Perrin, “the same thing Half a mile from this beach, in a two-room equipped with mortars and bazookas. Obwe're fighting now, mental health fought 30 stucco hut, lives 24-year-old Lino Gerardo viously something special was afoot. years ago." Amaya, a wiry, quiet campesino. On the
A NEW LEAD morning of November 1, 1963, Lino and his
At the heavily protected Caracas head18-year-old brother, Pedro, set out along the CUBA'S BLUEPRINT FOR beach in search of a lost goat. They came
quarters of Venezuela's state security police
(Digepol), Chief of Investigation Orlando SUBVERSION upon two men in bathing suits, standing on
Garcia Vázquez studied a surveillance report the shore looking out to sea. Beside them Mr. DODD. Mr. President, in the Au- was a shiny 16-foot aluminum boat with a Monday afternoon November 3, exactly 48
that had just come to his desk. It was late gust 1965 edition of the Reader's Digest, handsome outboard motor. The taller of the
hours after Lino had looked under the canI found an article of exceptional merit, two calmly waved his hand. "Hello, Frank,
vas. The report disclosed that at 10:30 a.m. which I would like to call to the atten- how are you? Don't you work for the Creole
that day a young woman known to have company?" tion of my colleagues. It is written by
Communist connections was seen near the
"I'm not Frank," replied Lino, "and I never Kenneth O. Gilmore, and it is entitled worked for Creole.”
home of Eduardo Machado, a Venezuelan “Cuba's Brazen Blueprint for Subver- Lino didn't find his goat that day. But
Communist Party boss. She was followed sion.” shortly before 5 p.m. he and his brother
to a cafe on Negín Street, where she sat chatting with three men Fifty minutes
. The article presents, in damning de- headed back to the beach, fishing poles in
later all four drove to a complex of four tail, the role Castro's Communist agents hand. All that day a thundercloud of sus
housing units known as Urbanización Siare playing in fomenting guerrilla and picion had been building up in his mind.
món Rodriguez. What were those two strangers up to? terrorist activities in Venezuela, Guate
The woman strolled to building No. 1 and
At the beach the brothers found the boat mala, Panama, the Dominican Republic, and outboard motor. And more. The coarse
took the outside elevator to a fourth-floor and other Latin American countries. dark sand was scuffed with footprints-lots
apartment, No. 49. Her companions loitered
in the area, making sure she was not being It tells of "bibles of terror,” that Castro of footprints now etched by the lengthening
followed. Two hours later she came back to exports along with his so-called revolu- shadows. And something else. A rope mark, tionaries.
the car and sped to the old section of the its coils clearly imprinted in the sand, led from the water toward a tree.
city, where she was observed talking with The article relates how heavy weap
several leaders of Central University's Com
Lino followed the mark, Pedro behind him. ons, clandestinely placed in Venezuela, At its end they spotted the corner of a piece
munist-controlled student federation, some were traced through their factory mark- of canvas. They pulled it up. Underneath
of whom had recently returned from Cuba. ings to purchases Castro made in Bel- lay a large dark bag. They dragged it out
Inspector Garcia was sure apartment No.
49 was "hot.” Too many precautions had gium. and loosened a thick drawstring. Four auto
been taken. "I think we had better hit this Let me quote what the article said matic rifles. And layers of bulging cartridge belts.
place as soon as possible,” he told his boss. about this arms cache:
On hands and knees they pawed away more
Shortly after midnight five Digepol agents Several of the weapons were rushed to sand and found more sacks of rifles, more
in two groups sauntered toward building No. Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre at cartridge belts. And now that they looked
1, chatting and laughing as if returning from Herstal-Uz-Liege Belgium, whose trademark harder, it was apparent that a large section
a party. Garcia and two agents took the had been left on: Fabrique Nationale, the
elevator to the fourth floor, while the others of sand was loose and soft ahead of them. largest private arms manufacturer in the
climbed the stairs, the only other exit.
Lino sprang up. "We've got to tell the Western World, had filled an order by the police,” he said.
Garcia knocked gently at apartment 49. Cuban Army for 22,500 automatic rifles on
There was a shuffling of slippers. The door
BURIED TREASURE March 23, 1959. Now company experts exam
opened a crack, revealing a middle-aged ined the rifles, dug up at Macama and re
Shortly before 10 p.m. Lino arrived at the woman in a nightgown. ported that “the coat of arms of Cuba was Jadacaquiva police station. He told his "We've come with a search warrant,” said stamped in the place where a cut has been story to the prefect, Antonio Lugo, who im- Garcia, shouldering his way in. "Is anyone made.
mediately relayed the news to Police Com- else here?"
mandant Eusebio Olivares Navarrate, at "No," she replied. On February 24, 1964, the OAS Com- Punto Fijo, the largest town on the penin- In a bedroom they found a young man in mission presented its verdict on the sula. Olivares roared off for the lonely beach bed. “Stay very still,” warned Garcia. Cuban arms cache found in Venezuela: with five jeeploads of policemen.
"Who are you?” The shipment was made up of arms orig- like pirates seeking lost treasure, grunting, Soon the police were digging into the sand
"Germán López Méndez," the man replied, inating in Cuba that were surreptitiously heaving, hauling. In 15 minutes, Olivares
and handed over his identification card.
No. 618945—Germán López Méndez-born landed at a solitary spot on the coast for had seen enough. He switched on the radio
November 27, 1941–5 feet 6 inches-hair the purpose of being used in subversive operations to overthrow the constitutional in his patrol car, gave the stunning news to
brown_eyes brown. On the left-hand corGovernment of Venezuela. The objective of the State Governor, Pablo Saher.
ner was pasted a small mug shot: a slim the Caracas plan, was to capture the city of
It took 4 hours to hoist the entire deposit
face, placid eyes, thin mustache, wavy hair.
It matched the man. Caracas, to prevent the holding of elections from its temporary grave. The
hole in the
"What's your occupation?" Garcia asked. on December 1, 1963, and to seize control ground was 8 feet deep, 6 feet wide, and 90 of the country. feet long. The cache-automatic rifles, ma
"I'm a teacher. Just visiting here for a chineguns, antitank guns, mortars, bazoo
couple of days."
"OK, don't move while we search,” GarIn his concluding remarks, Mr. Gil- kas, demolition charges and thousands of
cia said. more cites a warning by Secretary of rounds of ammunition—weighed 3 tons. State Dean Rusk: In Caracas, the Venezuelan capital, Presi
BIBLE ON TERROR dent Rómulo Betancourt was awakened at The men began to hunt, opening closets, When Secretary of State Dean Rusk called
home and briefed by phone. He ordered a pulling out drawers, looking under beds and for sanctions against Cuba last summer, he naval patrol of the peninsula and sent a spe
in toilet tanks. Under one corner of the pointed out that "subversion supported by cial alert to every security and military suspect's bed two objects were extracted: the terror, sabotage and guerrilla action is as
agency in the country. For 2 years Fidel first, a small light-blue airline traveling bag dangerous a form of aggression as an armed
Castro had boasted that he would export full of drawing equipment and materialsattack.” And he added these significant his Cuban revolution to the mainland of ink pens, tracing paper, rulers, compasses, words: “Today it is Venezuela which is unSouth America. Oil-rich Venezuela was his
crayons. der attack. Is there any one of us who can prime target. “With victory in Venezuela,” "What are you doing with these?” Garcia say with assurance, 'It cannot be my coun- cried Cuba's old-line Communist boss Blas asked López. try tomorrow'?”
Roca, "we shall not longer be a solitary island "I've never seen them before,” López anMr. President, I ask unanimous con
in the Caribbean confronting the Yankee swered, as if bored. sent that the article entitled “Cuba's Venezuela's Communist Armed Forces of Naimperialists." Castro-trained guerrillas of At first, Garcia thought the second item
was a Bible. Book-size, it was enclosed in Brazen Blueprint for Subversion" be
tional Liberation (FALN) had terrorized the a dark-brown leather case with a zipper on printed in the RECORD at this point.
countryside in an attempt to paralyze the three sides, the kind of covering often used There being no objection, the article nation. They had dynamited oil pipelines for a Bible. Inside was a looseleaf notebook. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, and bridges, burned stores and warehouses, Garcia flipped through some 70 pages. He as follows:
robbed banks, raided police stations, kid- found that he was holding an instructor's CUBA'S BRAZEN BLUEPRINT FOR SUBVERSION
naped and murdered officials and blasted manual on the handling of arms and ex
the streets with sniper and machinegun plosives—an FALN "bible.” (By Kenneth 0. Gilmore)
fire. More than 50 policemen had been cut Garcia glanced at the man on the bed. On the northern coast of Venezuela's Para- down in the streets of Caracas alone, and "This belong to you?” guaná Peninsula, there is a lonely stretch of twice as many civilians.