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As Professor Seeley well says: 'Commerce in itself may 'favour peace, but when commerce is artificially shut out by a * decree of government from some promising territory, then

commerce just as naturally favours war.' He goes on to point out how the conquests which England achieved in the first half of the eighteenth century excited the jealousy of the rest of Europe :

'In this culminating phase England becomes an object of jealousy and dread to all Europe, as Spain and afterwards France had been in the seventeenth century. It was about the time when she won her first victories in the colonial duel with France, that an outcry began to be raised against her as the tyrant of the seas. In 1745, just after the capture of Louisburg, the French Ambassador at St. Petersburg handed in a note, in which he complained of the maritime despotism of the English, and their purpose of destroying the trade and navigation of all other nations. ... From this time till 1815 jealousy of England is one of the great motive forces of European politics.'

It is true that to some extent all success provokes jealousy; but the jealousy is less when the success is used for other than selfish ends. It is also true that no nation can afford to be entirely unselfish; self-preservation comes first, and nations which neglect the duty of defending their own interests sink into oblivion. But if it be possible to build up a great Empire, and secure its safety, without restricting the liberty of other nations, surely it would be a wanton thing to provoke the hostility of the rest of mankind by segregating for our own exclusive use the vast territories covered by the British flag, territories that will be vaster still when the present war is ended. Equally would it be a wanton thing to imperil the unity of the Empire by destroying, under the pretence of imperial preference, the wide imperial freedom of trade that now exists. Upon the policy of freedom we have reared a gigantic empire, prosperous, powerful, united, and tolerant. We have done this less as the result of reason than as the result of instinct. From the earliest days of our history the spirit of freedom has been the pride of our race. It is the instinct thus bred in our bones that has taught us to seek the greatness of Empire by following the path of freedom.


No. 461 will be published in July.


Titles of Articles are printed in heavy type.

Agricultural Production, 343 ; change

in the national view of the im-
portance of the agricultural in
dustry, 343; problem of produc-
tion and the possibility of future
wars, 344; solution of essential
economic difficulties depend upon
the agriculturists, 344; State
assistance, 344 ; agricultural out-
put, 345 et seq. ; cattle, 346–7;
development of fruit and vegetable
farming, 348; reduction of agri-
cultural employment, 349; com-
parative production of British
and German agriculture, 349 et
seq. ; system of production cannot
be judged by one standard alone,
350 ; effect of migration on low
production, 351 ; need for financial
assistance in the form of bounties
or tariffs, 351 ; illustrations of
returns on capital, 351-2 ;
necessity for fixing rents on an
equitable basis, 353; Japan, 354;
comparison of density of stock,
354-5; basic principles with re-
gard to agricultural production,
355-6; condition of self-suf-
ficiency, 356; increased produc-
tion by improvement of internal
management of farms, 356; Law
of Diminishing Returns, 355-6;
employment of steam power, 357;
increased cost of food and its
effect on production, 358 ; necessity
for increase of arable land, 359;
complete control by cultivators,
359; establishment of industrial-
ised farming, 360 ; technical edu-
cation of employees, 361 ; small
holdings, 362 ; need for sound

business organisation, 363
Ashby, A. W., Agricultural Produc-

tion, 343. See Agricultural

Asquith, Rt. Hon. H., quoted, 229
Austria and Europe, 1 ; maintenance

of Hapsburg Monarchy, I, 2;
its destruction would ruin Central
Empires economically, 2 ; its sub-
jection to Prussian Militarism,
3 et seq.; Emperor Francis
Joseph's lack of foresight and
statecraft, 4; his enslavement
to Prussia, 5; its bearing upon
present war, 5; dissension amongst
Magyar nation, 6; Croatian
peasants revolt, 7; their alliance
with the Serb, 7, 8; and its
formation of Southern Slav Coali-
tion, 8; persecution of Coalition
9; universal suffrage granted
by Emperor, 10; Austrian annexa-
tion of Bosnia-Herzegovina, II,
12; its bearing upon the East,
13; aggression towards Serbia,
13; Slav influence grows, 14;
German domination threatened,
14; formation of Southern Slav
Union, 15, 16; reunited Poland,
15; effect on future peace of
Europe, 16, 17; Italian National-
ism, 17, 18; dismemberment of
Austria-Hungary essential, 20, 22;
Germanisation of Austria, 21

Banking, English, 104. See English
Birth-Rate, The, 62; relation of

forces of destruction and repro-
duction, 62; their maintenance
of equilibrium, 62, 63 ; fertility
and care for offspring, 63 et seq.;
necessity for emigration, 64;
limitation of size of families, 65,
66; indifference to parenthood,
66, 67; causes of depopulation,
67; struggle for existence, 68;
influence of Christianity, 68 et
seq.; improved sanitation and
its effect of increase, 70; com-
parison with Continental countries,
71; women workers and the
decline, 72; tendency of superior
race to dwindle, 73; comparison
between British Empire and Ger-
many, 75; restriction of births,
76, 77 ; authority and morals, 77 ;
trade in vice and its effect
on early marriages, 78; nation's
resources organised, 78; each
State self-sufficing. 79; science
of eugenics, 80 ; future restriction
of birth-rate, 81; need for co-

operation with Dominions, 82
Bismarck, 174, 175, 294-5
Bland, J. O. P., Democracy in

Paraguay, 269. Sce Democracy
Borden, Sir Robert, 218
British Effort, France and the, 45.

See France
Burgh, W. G. de, The Peril of

Hubris, 288. See Hubris

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Cambon, M., 48
Cecil, Lord Robert, 36, 37
Chevrillon, André, L'Angleterre et

la Guerre, 45, 50 et seq.
Clarendon, Lord, quoted, 27
Cobden, Richard, quoted, 401
Cox, Harold, Food Prices : A Warn-

ing, 196. See Food; The Two
Paths of Empire, 379. See Paths

Davray, Henry D., Chez les Anglais

pendant la grande Guerre, 45, 46
Democracy in Paraguay, 269; under-

standing of Paraguay and her
people, 269; its earlier life, 270;
ideals and efforts fruitless, 270;
abuse of liberty, 270 ; state of
Society at time of Spanish con-
quest, 271; its gradual decline,
271; productive industry and
politics, 272; social relationship
of sexes, 273 ; Government inter-
ference in navigation, 273 ; philo-
sophy of the people, 274 ; fascina-
tion of Asuncion, 274 ; its dilapi-
dated state, 275-6; insolvency
of Treasury, 277; citizens' im-
provident indolence, 277 ; process
of adaptation to environment,
278; effect of war upon German
merchants, 278-9; mainstay of
country's finances, 279-280 ;
country's future. 280 ; question
of race survival, 281; lack of
progression, 282; preponderance
of women, 283; Paraguayans'
relations with women, 285; their
emotions and morals, 285-6;
suggestions for reorganisation and
betterment of economic conditions,


Dardanelles Report, The, 364; report

of Lord Cromer's Commission,
364; individual responsibility,
364; political preoccupation, 365;
strain of long parliaments, 365;
want of purpose in Government's
foreign policy, 366; unprepared-
ness in Cabinet, 367; tardy
awakening of nation, 368 ; partner-
ship of Lord Kitchener and Mr.
Churchill, 368; divergences of
opinion, 369; want of cohesion
in War Council, 370 ; Mr. Asquith's
dilemma, 370 ; prestige in the
East, 370-1 ; Lord Fisher's silence,

Disabled Soldiers, Re-Education of,

119; tendency of discharged
soldiers to seek good wages, 119;
irrespective of permanent work,
119; change in industrial condi-
tions, 119; unskilled labour, 120 ;
hardship of war on civilian soldier,
120; uncertainty in regard to

pensions, 121, 122 ; duty of State
to those disabled, 123; Royal
National Lifeboat Institution,
123; making fit the inefficient,
124; relation of temperament
to capacity, 124 et seq. ; handicap
of idleness, 125; experiments in
training, 126 et seq.; care of the
blind, 125, 126; St. Dunstan's
Hostel for Blinded Sailors and
Soldiers, 126; good work of
various institutions, 126, 127;
delay in supplying artificial limbs,
127; Lord Roberts' Memorial
Workshops, 127, 128; specialisa-
tion in workshops, 128 ; aptitude
of men for agriculture, 129; effect
of habit in change of occupation,
130 ; French system of re-educa-
tion, 131 et seq.; Belgian system,
132; military discipline while
training, 133; Professor Jules
Amar quoted, 134, 135; efficiency
in industrial production, 136

Compensation Act litigation, 334
et seq. ; question of Divorce Re-
form, 337; its bearing on morality,
340–1; Land Registry of Titles,
341 ; economy should be enforced

in law as a national duty, 342
English Banking, 104; criticism of

English bankers, 104; principles
of management, 105; assistance
for trades, 105, 106; financing of
exports, 107; working methods
of exporters, 107 et seq.; war
and settlement of accounts, 110;
co-operation between manufacturer
and banker, III; its effect upon
world's trade, III; dangers of
foreign trade, 112, 113; com-
petition amongst banks, 114 ;
Accepting Houses of London, 114,
115; banking facilities for home
trade, 115, 116; methods of
financing, 116, 117; policy of

bankers as against critics, 118
English Railways, The Future of,

84; relation of railways to public
authority, 84; Government con-
trol, 84, 85; financial working,
85; Board of Trade Railway
Returns, 86; increase of wages,
87, 88; effect of war upon traffic,
88; State responsibility, 88, 89;
dissatisfaction of railway policy,
89, 90; Royal Commission en-
quiry, 90; comparison between
passenger and goods traffic, 91;
effect of mileage on costs of work-
ing, 92, 93; foreign methods,
93, 94; reforms necessary, 95 ;
Government support, 95, 96;
economy in operating expenses,
96; abolition of competition, 97;
combination of systems, 98; State
ownership, 99; political influence
on management, 99 et seq.;
Government's financial liabilities,
102; comparison with Mexican
system, 102, 103; need for recon-
struction, 103

Economy in Law, 319; necessity

of co-ordination and consolidation
of legal matters, 319; efforts of
Moses to establish courts of law,
320 ; public discontent with exist-
ing laws, 320; Divorce Com-
mission, 320, 326; necessity of
a Minister of Justice, 321-2 ;
Lord Chancellor, 321 ; jurisdiction
of the County Courts, 323-4;
need for business system, 324;
Workmen's Compensation Act,
324, 334 et seq.; overlapping and
reduplication of legal statistics,
324 ; work performed by High
Courts, 325; hardship of poor
people owing to exorbitant cost
of litigation, 326; circuit reform,
327-8; abolition of small Assize
towns, 329; working methods of
County Courts, 330–1; necessity
of a rearrangement of districts,
331 ; principles of reform, 332–3 ;
opposition of local and vested
interests, 333; Report of the
Royal Commission on the Civil
Service, 333; waste of Workmen's

Food Prices : A Warning, 196;
Nantes, 184; its effect upon
English modern literature, 185;
philosophy of English politics,
185, 186; Abbé Prévost, 186; dif-
fusion of English ideas in France,
187, 188; Voltaire as a link be-
tween English and French litera-
ture, 189, 190; controversy be
tween the Deists and apologists,
191; religion and liberty of
thought, 192, 193; success of
English ideas in France, 193;
its relationship to present unity
of the Alliance, 194, 195

economy in consumption of food,
196; increased cost of living, 197;

law of supply and demand,
198; its effect on the price of
food, 199; factors that count,
199; Government interference,
200; administrative help to poor,
201 ; bonus to lower-paid em-
ployees, 201; taxation as a means
of restriction, 202 et seq.; re-
striction of supplies affects the
poor, 202, 203; economic waste
of rationing system, 203 ; difficulty
in labour, 204 ; agricultural work
for women, 205; maximum prices
lessens supply, 206; Mr. Prothero's
scheme, 207; heavy taxation

only remedy, 208
France, M. Anatole, quoted, 179
France and the British Effort, 45;

effect of invasion upon French
literature, 45; lack of under-
standing between nations, 46;
French people's attitude towards
British effort, 47, 48; comrade-
ship between British and French
armies, 48; tribute to British
Fleet, 49; closer relationship be-
tween French and English litera-
ture, 50; English temperament,
52; pessimism and patriotism,
53; disturbing attitude of the
press, 53; English sporting atti-
tude to the war, 54 ; change after
experiences with Germans, 54,
55; people's materialism and in-
difference to higher ideals, 56;
comparison with rest of Europe,
57; disadvantage of individualism,
57; England undisturbed by great
crisis, 58; moral anger gradually
aroused, 58 et seq.; sympathy
of populations to perpetual
alliance, 59, 60; French complete

confidence in Britain, 61
French and English Genius, 178;

race as a factor in constitution of
men, 178; variations of aptitudes,
179; Anglo-French Alliance, 179,
180; similarity of object between
nations, 181; French feeling to-
wards England, 182; appreciation
of English literature, 183; Racine
and Corneille, 183; Edict of

Genius, French and English, 178.

See French
Germany, influence in Austrian

politics, 9; plan to rule Austria,

21 ; organisation in Greece, 25
Gladstone, Rt. Hon. W. E., 6, 7.

Gosse, Edmund, The Life of

Algernon Charles Swinburne, 249.
252 et seq.; France and the British

Effort, 45. See France
Graham, R. B. Cunninghame, A

Vanished Arcadia, 269–272
Greek Monarchy, The End of, 23:

smaller nations' distrust of the
Great Powers, 23, 24; their in-
difference towards present war,
24; German propaganda in
Greece, 24 et seq.; England's
rights of intervention, 26, 27;
policy towards small nations, 28;
King Constantine's defiance of
constitution, 29; maintenance of
neutrality, 29, 30; Venizelos
advocates war, 30; his dismissal,
30; King Constantine's negotia-
tions wth Germany, 30, 31; be-
trayal of Serbia, 31, 32; electorato
suppressed, 32; Allies insulted,
32; civilians terrorised, 33 : King
Constantine's pretence of recon-
ciliation, 33; his contempt for
Allies, 34; Viscount Grey's
caution, 35, 36; British policy,
36, 37; Allied Powers' hesitation,

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