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stated in the memorials, are made of inferior mate. needy artists and manufacturers, to enable them to rials, and as we possess a boundless capacity of sup- establish their various branches of business. He ply, every principal of sound policy, regard for the purchased large quantities of raw materials and fil. vital interests of our country, as well as the para- led magazines with them to be sold at reasonable mount claim on them from so useful a body of citi- rates. He offered and gave liberal rewards to arzens, for protection, ought to have insured compli- tists and manufacturers for excellence in their variance with the request. To all these considerations ous branches. He moreover exempted them in va. no attention was paid.

rious places from military service. In a word, he de Policy of Frederick II, of Prussia, voted all the powers of his great mind, and made From the view which we have given of the poli- most liberal drafts on his treasury for the accomplishcy of Russia, we invite attention to that of Frederick ment of this mighty object, which has attracted so Il. Of his integrity and his regard for the rights of small a share of attention in this country from those his neighbors, there may be more than doubts en- whose peculiar duty it was to promote its success. tertained. But on his profound wisdom and saga Here the calm and candid observer, who casts his city as a statesman the world is agreed. A dissent- eye on the system of Frederick, and contrasts it with ing voice is no where heard. On these points he that of the United States, cannot fail to feel the would stand comparison with any monarch of an- same degree of mortification and deep regret, that cient or modern times, and would rise paramount the contrast with that of Russia produced. He will over ninety-nine out of a hundred. His system of behold on the one side a grand, liberal, and magnapolitical economy is therefore worthy of the most nimous policy, which disregarded expense in sowserious consideration, and cannot fail to shed strong ing prolific seed, that sprouted forth abundantly, light on the important subject we are discussing. and repaid the cultivator tenfold, nay, a hundred

To the promotion of the industry of his subjects, fold. Loans, bounties, premiums and important he bestowed the most unremitting attention, well immunities, as we have stated, were freely and liknowing that it was the most certain means of in. berally awarded. creasing the population of his dominions, and of In the United States the seed was sown by indicourse the wealth and happiness of his subjects, as vidual exertion and enterprise. It required but litwell as his own power. From this grand and para- tle care to foster and make it strike deep root. mount object he was never a moment diverted by There was no demand of loans-of bounties-of prehis ambitious wars; and notwithstanding the desola- miums-or of immunities. All that was asked-all tion they caused, he doubled the population of his that was necessary, was mere protection from fopaternal estates during reign, 10 foster and reign interference-a protection that would have protect arts and manufactures, he spared neither cost the government nothing, and would have enpains nor expense;* and was so completely success-riched the nation. It was fatally withheld, and a ful that he not only doubled and trebled the num. large portion of the seed so plentifully sown and so ber of artists and manufacturers in those branches promising of a fertile harvest, has perished! and already established, but introduced a great variety those who withheld, as well as those who besought, formerly not practised by his subjects:† and thus, the protection, are now in common, suffering the instead of being tributary to other nations, as she most serious injury from that mistaken policy. had formerly been, Prussia was enabled to exporther manufactures to an immense extent to distant coun **If the king has greatly increased population tries. I

by his encouragement of agriculture, he has advancThe measures he adopted for attaining these ed it as much, and perhaps more, by the great number great ends, were worthy of the high character he of manufactures and trades of all kinds, which he has enjoys as a statesman. He made large loans to caused to be established, or to which he has given en

couragement at Berlin, at Potsdam, and in almost are*«The king protects and encourages manufacturers ry city and town in his dominions." —Hertzberg, 23. in every possible manner, especially by advancing large t“It is with a view to encourage trade that the insums of money to assist them in carrying on their ma- habitants of Berlin and Potsdam are exempted from nufactures, animating them by rewards, and establish-military service; and his majesty grants nearly the ing magazines of wool in all the little towns, for the be-same indulgence to the inhabitants of the circles of nefit of the small woolen manufacturers."--Hertzberg's the mountains of Silesia, where the poor, but indusdiscourses delivered at Berlin, 1786, p. 25. trious and sober weavers, and who are settled in a

+ Before the commencement of this reign, Prussia narrow and barren district, carry on those flourishing had but few silk manufacturers, and those of little im- linen manufactures, which produce us an exportation portarice. But the present king has establisheıl and of so many millions; and to the little city of Hirchberg given liberal encouragement to so great a number, that only, a trade of two millions of crowns annually The they employ more than five thousand workmen; and king has in this district a canton for his foot-guards, the annual value of the goods manufactured by them but from his unwillingness to disturb the population is two millions of crowns, In the course of the last of the district, he seldom draws from thence any year 1,200,250 ells of silk stuffs have been manufac. recruits.”—Idem 25. tured at Berlin, and 400,000 of gauze.”.- Idem 26. #“As national industry forms the second basis of

“The cotton manufacture alone employs nearly the felicity and power of a state, I shall endeavor to tive thousand workmen.”—Idem 25.

prove here, in a summary manner, that the Prussiar f“We are in possession of almost every possible monarchy possesses it in an eminent degree; and, kind of manufacture; and we can, not only exclusive, perhaps, immediately after France, England, and ly supply the Prussian dominions, but also furnish the Holland; those powers which, for two centuries, remote countries of Spain and Haly with linen and have had the almost exclusive monopoly of manufac. woolen cloths;

ir il our manufactures go even to China, tures, of commerce, and of navigation; of which the where some of sur Silesian cloths are conveyed by the Prussians have had no part, but since the close ofthe

We export every year linen cloth last century, and the beginning of the present. This to the amount of six MILLIONS OF CHowns, and wool. is not the place to make an exact and general table en cloths and wool to the amount of FOUI MILE1oxs.

." of the Prussian manufactures: I shall, therefore, condem 23.

fine myself to giving a general idea, and some parti

way of Russia.

the manu.

Manu. factorers.


lar examples. We have almost all the trades and | Forincreasing the magazines of wool in the manufactures that can be conceived, as well for small towns

4,000 things of absolute necessity, as for the conveniencies For establishing a manufactory of beaver and luxuries of life. Some of them have attained to stockings at Lawenberg

2,000 a great degree of perfection, as those of woolen For establishing a cotton manufactory at New cloth, linen, porcelain, and others. The greater


2,400 part are in a state of mediocrity, and may be brought For a magazine of cotton for the benefit of the by degrees to perfection, if there is continued to manufacturers of Pomerania

6,000 be given to them the same attention, assistance, and

East and West Prussia. support, which the Prussian government has lither. For repairing the damage occasioned by the to most liberally bestowed; and especially when to burning of woolen cloths near Preusch Ei. these are added the motives and inducements of lau.

3,500 emulation, which are absolutely necessary for bring. For establishing a manufacture of muslin at ing manufactures and works of art to perfection. Koningsburg

1,000 Our manufactures exclusively supply all the Prussain For a manufactory of leather at Preusch Ei. dominions; and, with a very favorable rivalshup, espe


5,000 cially for cloths, linens, and woolens, Poland, Russia, For a dye house at Gastrow

2,600 Germany, lialy, and especially Spain and America. For magazines of wool in the little towns of In order to afford a more strong and clear convic

West Prussia

6,000 tion, I shall here add a compendious table of the For a manufactory of press boards

6,000 principal trades and manufactures, which exist in

Silesia. the Prussian monarchy, of their produce, and of the For the establishment of forty weavers at number of traders and manufacturers who are em Striegaw and in the neighborhood 17,368 ployed in them.”Hertzberg's Discourses, p. 101. For premiums relative to manufactures 2,000 The Prussian dominions had in the course of the

Brandenburgh. year 1785,*

For establishing work shops for carding wool 1,360 Produce of For rewards, intended for the encouragement

of spinning in the country factures in

2,000 rix dollars. For the erection of silk mills at Berlin 24,000 In linens

51,000 80,000 9,000,000 For purchasing the cods of silk worms, and In cloths and woolen 18,000 58,000 8,000,000 causing them to be well spun

10,000 In silk.

4,200 6,000 3,000,000 For machines for carrying on the Manchester In cotton 2,600 7,000 1,200,000 manufacture

10,000 In leather

4,000 2,000,000 ANNO 1786. In Bradenburg. In iron, steel, copper, &c. 3,000 2,000,000 For procuring Spanish sheep

22,000 In tobacco, of which 140,000 quin

For increasing the magazines of wool 17,000 tals are the growth of the coun.

For improvements relative to the spinning of try 2,000 1,000,000 wool

4,000 Sugar

1,000 2,000,000 For a manufactory of woolen cloths at Zinna 3,000 Percelain and earthen-ware

700 200,000 For a plantation of mulberry trees at Nowawest 2,000 Paper

800 200,000 For the purchase of cods of silk worms and Tallow and soap

300 400,000 establishing a magazine of them • 20,000 Glass, looking-glasses


In the New March. Manufacturers in gold, silver, lace,

For several small manufactures of wool and embroidery, &c.

1,000 400,000 leather, and for fulling mills in Custrin, NeSilesia madder

300,000 wedel, Falckenburg, and Sommerfeldt, Oil 600 300,000 towns of the New March

4,021 Yellow amber 600 50,000

Im Pomeraniaa

For increas'ng the magazines of wool 6,000 165,000 30,250,000 for a manufactory of cotton stockings at


4,000 Anso 1785.7

For a manufactory of leather at Anclam 3,000 In New March.

For a manufactory of leather at Treptow 1,500

Crowns. For a manufactory of sail cloth at Rugenwalde 5,000 For establishtng a manufactory of leather, For a manufactory of cables in the same city 4,000 and for tanning at Landsberg

3,500 For a manufactory of cloth for Aags at Stettin 3,000 For a similar manufactory at Drisen


In East Prussia.
Ditto ditto at Cottbus

1,000 For a manufactory of morocco leather at Ko. For erecting a fulling mill at Drambourg 200 nigsberg

3,000 For increasing the magazines of wool for the For a manufactory of English earthenware in manufacturers of small towns 3,000 the same city

4,000 In Pomerania. For a manufactory of leather

1,000 For enlarging the manufactory of leather at For a manufactory of ribands and bags

600 Anclam

3,000 For a cotton manufactory at Gumbinnen 1,000 For establishing a manufactory of leather at

In West Prussia. Treptow 1,500 For a dye-house at Darkhenen

2,600 For establishing a manufactory at Griffenha For a dye-house at Bromberg

2,600 gen

1,500 For a manufactory of fine cloth at Culm 7,200 For establishing a manufactory of fustians

In Silesia, and cottons at Frederickshold

1,000 Premiums for manufacturers and for encou-
raging and supporting' weavers

17,000 * Hertzberg': Discourses, p, 103. fldem 41.




Roads and Canals.

the part of wisdom to profit by experience, so it is of the utmost importance to prevent a recurrence

of a similar state of things, by the application of a Report of the secretary of war to congress.

portion of our means to the construction of such DEPARTMENT OF WAR, JAN. 7TH, 1819. Sin--In compliance with a resolution of the house roads and canals as are required with a view to mi. of representatives of the 4th of April, 1818, instruct- litary operations in time of war, the transportation ing the secretary of war to report to that house, at of the munitions of war, and more complete defence their next session, “a plan for the application of such of the United States."

In all questions of military preparations, three of means as are within the power of congress for the

our frontiers require special attention, the eastern purpose of opening and constructing such roads and

or Atlantic frontier; the northern, or the Canadian canals as may deserve and require the aid of go frontier; and the southern, or the frontier of the vernment, with a view to military operations in time Gulf of Mexico. On the west and north-west we of war; the transportation of munitions of war; and

are secure, except against Indian hostilities; and also a statement of the works of the nature above the only military preparations required in that quarmentioned which have been commenced, the pro- ter, are such as are necessary to keep the Indian gress which has been made, and the means and pros-tribes in awe, and to protect the frontier from their pect of their completion; together with such infor-ravages. All of our great military efforts, growing mation as, in the opinion of the secretary, shall be out of a war with an European power, must, for the material in relation to the objects of the resolu- present, be directed towards our eastern, northern, tion," I have the honor to make the following re

or southern frontier; and the roads and canals which port:

will enable the government to concentrate its means A judicious system of roads and canals, construct- for defence, promptly and cheaply, on the vulneraed for the convenience of commerce and the trans- ble points of either of those frontiers, are those portation of the mail only, without any reference to which, in a military point of view, require the aid of military operations, is itself among the most effici

government. propose to consider each of those ent means for the more complete defence of the frontiers separately, beginning with the Atlantic, United States." Without adverting to the fact that which, in many respects, is the weakest and most the roads and canals which such a system would re-exposed. quire are, with few exceptions, precisely those From the mouth of St. Croix to that of St. Marys, which would be required for the operations of war, the two extremes of this frontier, is a distance, such a system, by consolidating our union, increas- along the line of the coast and principal bays, withing our wealth and fiscal capacity, would add great. out following their sinuosities, of about two thou. ly to our resources in war. It is in a state of war sand one hundred miles, On this line, including when a nation is compelled to put all of its resour-its navigable rivers and bays, are situated our most ces, in men, money, skill, and devotion to country, populous cities, the great depots of the wealth and into requisition, that its government realizes, in its commerce of the country. That portion of it which security, the beneficial effects from a people made extends to the south of the Chesapeake, has, with prosperous and happy by a wise direction of its re- the exceptions of the cities and their immediate sources in peace. But I forbear to pursue this sub- neighborhood, a sparse population, with a low ject, though so interesting, and which, the farther marshy country, extending back from 100 to 150 it is purstied, will the more clearly establish the in-miles. To the north of the Chesapeake, inclusive, timate connection between the defence and safety it affords, every where, deep and bold navigable of the country and its improvement and prosperity, bays and rivers, which readily admit vessels of any as I do not conceive that it constitutes the immedi. size. Against a line so long, so weak, so exposed, ate object of this report.

and presenting such strong motives for depreciaThere is no country to which a good system of tions, hostilities the most harassing and exhaust. military roads and canals is more indispensable than ing may be carried on by a naval power; and should to the United States. As great as our military ca- the subjugation of the country ever be attempted, pacity is, when compared with the number of our it is probable that against this frontier, facing Eupeople, yet, when considered in relation to the vast rope, the seat of the great powers of the world, the extent of our country, it is very small; and, if so principal efforts would be turned. Thus circumgreat an extent of territory renders it very difficult stanced, it is the duty of the government to render it io conquer us, as has frequently been observed, as secure as possible. For much of this security we it ought not to be forgotten that it renders it no less ought to look to a navy, and a judicious and strong difficult for the government to afford protection to system of fortifications: but not to the neglect of every portion of the community. In the very na- such roads and canals as will enable the government ture of things, he difficulty of protecting every part, to concentrate, promptly and cheaply, at any point so long as our population bears so small a propor- which may be menaced, the necessary force and tion to the extent of the country, cannot be entire means for defence. ly overcome; but it may be very greatly diminished To resist ordinary hostilities, having for their ob. by a good system of military roads and canals. The ject the destruction of our towns and the exhausnecessity of such a system is still more apparent iftion of our means, the force ought to be drawn from we take into consideration the character of our po- the country lying between the coasts and the sour. litical maxims and institutions. Opposed in princi- ces of the principal rivers which discharge through ple to a large standing army, our main reliance for it into the ocean; but, to resist greater efforts, aimdefence must be on the militia, to be called out fre- ing at conquest, should it ever be attempted, the quently from a great distance, and under the pres- force and resources of the whole community must sure of an actual invasion. The experience of the be brought into resistance. To concentrate, then, late war amply proves, in the present state of our a sufficient force, on any point of this frontier which internal improvements, the delay, the uncertainty, may be invaded, troops must be marched, and mu. the anxiety, and exhausting effects of such calls. nitions of war transported, either along the line of The facts are too recent to require details, and the the coast or from the interior of the Atlantic states, impression too deep to be soon forgotten. As it is to the coast, or, should the invading force be of such

magnitude as to require it, from the western states; 1 measure lost to him. In fact, the capacity for rapid and the roads and canals necessary for the defence and prompt movements and concentration, would of this frontier are those which will render these be, to the full, as much in our power. We would operations prompt, certain, and economical.

have, in most of the points of attack, a shorter line From he coast to the Alleglany mountains, and to move over, in order to concentrate our means; the high land separating the streains which enter and, aided by steam boats, would have the capacity into the St. Lawrence from those of the Atlantic, to pass it in a shorter time, and with greater certainin which the principal Atlantic rivers take their ty, that what an enemy, even with a naval superioririse, the distance may be averaged at about 250 ty, would have to attack us. Suppose the feet of miles; and the whole extent, from the St Mary's to such an enemy should appear off the Capes of Delathe St. Croix, is intersected, at short intervals

, by ware; before it could possibly approach and attack large navigable rivers and the principal roads of this Philadelphia, information, by telegraphic communiportion of our country, through which its great com- cation, might be given to Baltimore and New York, mercial operations are carried on. These, aided by and the forces stationed there thrown in for its rethe steam boats, now introduced on almost all our lief. The same might take place if Baltimore or New great rivers, present great facilities to collect the York should be invaded; and, should an attack be militia from the interior, and to transport the ne- made on any of our cities, the militia and regular cessary supplies and munitions of war.

forces, at a great distance along the coast, could, in a Much undoubtedly remains to be done to perfect short time, be thrown in for its relief. By this spec. the roads and improve the navigation of the rivers: dy communication, the regular forces, with the mibut this, for the most part, may be safely left to the litia of the cities and their neighborhood, would be states and the commercial cities particularly inte. sufficient to repel ordinary invasions, and would rested, as the appropriate objects of their care and either prevent, or greatly diminish, the harassing exertions. The attention of both have recently calls upon the militia of the interior. If to these been much turned towards these objects, and a few considerations we add the character of the climate Fears will probably add much to facilitate the inter- of the southern position of the Atlantic frontier, so course between the coast and the interior of the At- fatal to those whose constitutions are not inured to fantic states. Very different is the case with the it, the value of this system of defence, by the regular great and important line of communication, extend troops and the inilitia accustomed to the climate, ing along the coast, through the Atlantic states. No will be greatly enhanced. Should this line of inobject of the kind is more important; and there is land navigation be constructed, to enjoy its benefits none to which state or individual capacity is more fully, it will be necessary to coverit against the nainadequate. It must be perfected by the general val operations of an enemy. It it thought that this government, or not perfected at all, at least for ma. may be easily effected, to the south of the Chesany years. No one or two states have a sufficient peake, by land and steam batteries. The bay is itinterest. It is immediately beneficial to more than self one of the most important links in this line of half of the states of the union, and without the aid communication; and its defence againt a naval force of the general government, would require their cou ought, if practicalle, to be rendered complete. It operation. It is, at all times, a most important object was carefully surveyed, the last summer, by skilful to the nation; and, in a war with a naval power, is officers, for this purpose in part, and it is expected almost indispensable to our military, commercial and that their report will throw much light upon this financial operations. It may, in a single view, be important subject. Long Island Sound, another part considered the great artery of the country; and, of the line which is exposed, can be fully defended when the coasting trade is suspended by war, the by a naval force only. vast intercourse between the north and south, which It remains, in relation to the defence of the Atannually requires five hundred thousand tons of lantic frontier, to consider the means of communicashipping, and which is necessary to the coinmerce, tion between it and the western states, which rethe agriculture and manufacture of more than half quire the aid of the government. Most of the obof the union, seeks this channel of communication. servations made relative to the increased strength If it were thoroughly opened by land and water; if and capacity of the country to bear up under the Louisiana were connected, by a durable and well pressure of war, from the coast wise communication, finished road, with Maine; and Boston with Savan- are applicable in a high degree at present, and are nah, by a well established line of inland navigation, daily becoming more so, to those with the western for which so many facilities are presented, more states; and should a war for conquest cver be wathan half of the pressure of war would be removed. ged against us, an event not probable, but not to be A country so vast in its means, and abounding, in laid entirely out of view, the roads and canals necesits various latitudes, with almost all the products of sary to complete the communication with that porthe globc, is a world of itself; and, with that facility tion of our country, would be of the utmost imporof intercourse, to perfect which the disposable tance. means of the country is adequate, would flourish Theinterest of commerce, and the spirit of rival. and prosper under the pressure of a war with any ry between the great Atlantic cities, will do much power. But, dropping this more elevated view, to perfect the means of intercourse with the west. and considering the subject only as it regards “mi. The most important lines of communication appear litary operations in time of war, and the transporta- to be from Albany to the lakes; from Philadelphia, tion of the munitions of war," what could contri- Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond, to the Olio bite so much as this communication to the effec- river; and from Charleston and Augusta, to the Tentual and cheap defence of our Atlantic frontier? nessee; all of which are now commanding the attenTake the line of inland navigation along the coast, tion, in a greater or less degree, of the sections of the whole of which, it is estimated, could be com- the country immediately interested. But in such pleted, for sea vessels, by digging one hundred great undertakings, so interesting in every point of nides, and at the expense of $3,000,000, the advan- view to the whole union, and which may ultimately tage which an enemy with a naval force now has, becoine necessary to its defence, the expense ought be rapidly moving along the coast, and harassing not to fall wholly on the portions of the country and exhausting the country, would be in a great more immediately interested. As the government

has a deep stake in them, and as the system of de- completion of the road which has already beencom. fence will not be perfect without their completion, menced from Tennessee river to the same place, it ought at least to bear a proportional share of the with the inland navigation through the canal of Ca. expense of their construction.

rondelet, Lake Ponchartrain, and the islands along i proceed next to consider the roads and canals the coast of Mobile, covered against the operations connected with the defence of our northern frontier. of a naval force, every facility required for the transThat portion of it which extends to the east of Lake portation of munitions of war, and movements and Champlain has not heretofore been the scene of ex- concentration of troops, to protect this distant and tensive military operations; and I am not sufficient. important frontier, would be afforded. ly acquainted with the nature of the country, to Such are the roads and canals which military ope. venture an opinion whether we may hereafter berations in time of war, the transportations of the mu. called on to nake considerable military efforts in nitions of war, and the more complete defence of the that quarter. Without, then, designating any mili- U. States, require. tary improvements, as connected with this portion Many of the roads and canals which have been of our northern frontier, I would suggest the pro- suggested, are no doubt of the first importance to priety, should congress approve of the plan for a mi- the commerce, the manufactures, the agriculture, Îitary survey of the country to be hereafter propos- and political prosperity of the country; but are not, ed, to make a survey of it the duty of the engineers for that reason, less useful or necessary for military who may be designated for that purpose.

purposes. It is, in fact, one of the great advantages of For the defence of the other part of this line of our country, enjoying so many others, that, whether frontier, the most important objects are, a canal of we regard its internal improvements in relation to water communication between Albany and Lake military, civil, or political purposes, very nearly the George, and Lake Ontario, and between Pittsburg same system, in all its parts, is required. The road and Lake Erie. The two former have been com- or canal can scarcely be designated, which is highly menced by the state of New York, and will, when useful for military operations, which is not equally completed, connected with the great inland naviga- required for the industry or political prosperity of tion along the coast, enable the government, at a the community. If those roads or canals had been moderate expense, and in a short time, to transport pointed out, which are necessary for military purmunitions of war, and to concentrate its troops from poses only, the list would have been small indeed. any portion of the Atlantic states, fresh and unex. I have, therefore, presented all, without regarding hausted by the fatigue of marching on the inland the fact that they might be employed for other uses, frontier of the state of New York. The road com- which, in the event of war, would be necessary to menced, by order of the executive, from Plattsburg give economy, certainty, and success to our military to sackett's Harbor, is essentially connected with operations; and which, if they had been completed military operations on this portion of the northern before the late war, would, by their saving in that frontier. A water communication from Pittsburg single contest, in inen, money, and reputation, more to Lake Erie would greatly increase our power than indemnified the country for the expense of their on the upper lakes. The Alleghany river, by its construction, I have not prepared an estimate of main branch, is said to be navigable within seven expenses, nor pointed out the particular routes for miles of Lake Erie, and by French creek, within the roads or canals recommended, as I conceive that sixteen miles. Pitisburg is the great military de- this can be ascertained with satisfaction only by able pot of the country to the west of the Alleghany, and skilful engineers, after a careful survey and exand, if it were connected by a canal with Lake amination, Erie, would furnish military supplies with facility I would, therefore, respectfully suggest, as the to the upper lakes, as well as to the country water. basis of the system, and the first measure in the “plan ed by the Mississippi. If to these communications for the application of such means as are in the powwe add a road from Detroit to Ohio, which has al- er of congress,” that congress should direct such a ready been commenced, and a canal from the Illi- survey and estimate to be made, and the result to be noise river to Lake Michigan, which the growing laid before them as soon as practicable. The oro population of the state of Illinois renders very im- pense would be inconsiderable; for as the army can portant, all the facilities which would be essential furnish able military and topographical engineers, it sto carry on military operations in the time of war, would principally be confined to the employment of and the transportation of the munitions of war” for one or more skilful civil engineers, to be associated the defence of the western portion of our northern with them. By their combined skill, an efficient frontier, would be afforded.

ystem of military roads and canals would be preIt only remains to consider the system of roads sented in detail, accompanied with such estimates and canals connected with the defence of our soutli. of expenses as may be relied on. Thus, full and saern frontier, or that on the Gulf of Mexico. For the tisfactory information would be had; and though defence of this portion of our country, thoug! at some time might be lost in the commencement of present weak of itself, nature has done much. The the system, it would be more than compensated by bay of Mobile, and the entrance into the Mississip.its assured efficiency when completed. pi through all of its channels, are highly capable of For the construction of the roads and canals, defence. A military survey has been made, and the which congress muy choose to direct, the army, to a necessary fortifications have been commenced, and certain extent, may be brought in aid of the monied will be in a few years completed. But the real resources of the country. The propriety of employ. strength of this frontier is the Mississ ppi, which is ing the army on works of public utility, cannot be no less the cause of its security, than that of its condoubted. Labor adds to its usefulness and health. merce and wealth. Its rapid stream, aided by the A mere garrison life is equally hostile toits vigorand force of steam, can, in the hour of danger, concen- discipline. Both officers and men become the sub. trate at once an irresistible force. Made strong by jects of deletcrious effects. But when the vast ex. this noble river, little remains to be done by roads tent of our country is compared with the extent of and canals, for the defence of our southern frontier. our military establishments, and taking into consiThe continuation of the road along the Atlantic deration the necessity of employing the soldiers on coast, froin Milledgville to New Orleans, and the fortifications, barracks, and roads, connected with

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