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It is worthy of remark, that almost the half of tially assisted, in most cases. Assuming this as a these noticed, (and we put down the particulars of fact, it appears that a full pauper, in 1789, cost 37 all that we saw reported, to form the preceding dollars, yearly; in 1797, 64 dollars; in 1807, 65 summary) have rearhed the United States, via Nova dollars; in 1817, 90 dollars; in 1818, 96 dollars. Scotia and New-Brunswick-there is also a great But there must be a great consumption of money influx of people through the Canadas.
in supporting the establishment--the paupers them. The above is certainly short of the real number selves, could not have required such an amount, that arrived in the absence of the whole facts, it still, the facts go strongly to corroborate our calcu« may serve foran estimate. It probably contains about lations, whicb give for the cost of maintaining each three-fourths or four-fifths of the actual amount. individual in the U. States, the sum of seventy-sit
"The editor of an eastern paper, noticing a remark dollars, per annum. See present volume, page 386. made by us, says-Mr. Niles gives it as his opinion that the emigrations to the United States are not Anecdote of Gen. Jackson. less than 400 persons a day-or, 146,000 yearly.” It is well known thai a great part of those who
A gentleman of undoubted veracity, has commucome to us from Europe arrive here in May, June nicated the following anecdotes to the editor of the
When Willisajo, the famous Indian chief, with his about 400 per day; but he never said or supposed it to be British, and was detained, a kind of stocks
companion, came on board our gun-boat supposing that “146,000 arrived yearly.” He hardly believes that 20,000 ever arrived in any one year; and the were put upon his feet to prevent his escape, his average is much less.
daring and adventurous spirit being well known to The Canadian editors have seized upon an arti; then putting his hands upon his shoulders, address
the officer. He looked mournfully upon them, and cle in the Ree19TER, healed “want of employment” ing the officer, said, “The prince regent put epau
-see puge 356, to keep the gettlers" who arrive, lets here--you put stocks there,” pointing to his
It will be recollected, that gen. Jackson ordered tion to our large cities and well peopled districts. to him that they were dead, it was asked, "what
shall we do with the bodies shall they be thrown
into the river?" "No"--said the general indig. Pauper Statistics,
nantly, “they have ceased to be our enemies; let We have taken much pains, at different times, to them be buried as decently as our means will admit ascertain the cost of feeding and clothing indivi- of. See that it is done!" duals, with a view to the establishment of certain data of great importance in the study of political economy. A writer in the Aurorabut for pur. Mitigation of Slavery _No. 8. poses different from those to which we wish to ap. ply it, gives the following table respecting the pau- "That the present emancipation of slaves in the pers maintained in the city and county of Philadel. southern states should not be extensively support phia, for 22 years:
ed, unless efficient provision is made for separating Paupers
the free negroes from those who are not--the
miriure is fatal to the progress of improvement in Paupers in pensioned
both, and at open war with the safety of the perDATES. Alms House. in the city. Poor Tax.
sons and property of the white population; and 17891
must remain so, until the practices recommended 417 Nearly the 22,933 33 1790
in the second proposition have had operation." 416
21,333 33 1791 349
It does not appear necessary to say much on this 1797) 417
proposition, for the facts that belong to it are self1800) 699
evident to evety person who has resided in those 1801 610
districts of our country in which many freed blacks 18021 527
are mixed with numerous slaves. In Baltimore, ese 1803) 544
pecially, we see the mischevious effects of such 1804) 606
mixtures at almost every step that we take. The 1805 653
free negroes, in no respect, as to their standing 1806)
in the opinion of the white people, having pre-emi. 763
nence over the slaves, are necessarily without the 1808 1078
moral force we have spoken of, to elevate their con. 1809 13%)
dition. Slaves are their associates, and the state of 1810 1294
debasement continues in its fullest strength and 1294
vigor. To this is added numerous petty thefts and 837
other crimes to which either party would be less 750
liable, it it were separated from the other. In bis 736
hours of relaxation, the slave seeks the housc of the 18151 729
freed negro as an asylum, and in return for it, too 1816) 778
frequently brings with him the property of his mas.
terio contribute his share to the feast and frolick. 778
This intercourse leads to many other vicious habits.
and whatever of virtuous principles that belonged paupers pensioned out of the alms-house, to either class, are banished by sensualities indulged.
said to be in aniount "nearly the same” as such, indeed, in the present benighted state of his maintained in it, we have reason to believe mind, are the chief things which the negro can en. ant cost more than helf as much, being but par- ljoys a::d most of his actions lead to the gratificatioit
PROPOSITION THE FOURTI.
1811 1812 1813) 1814
The youth thosc
of his passions-be knows of little else worth seek-, the heart will appreciate the motives that influencing after.
ed it. We should thus evade the difficulties im. With the facts before us, that the free negroes posed by local laws against emancipation --we of Baltimore (and we believe it is su every where) should disperse the sources of population and strike bave less virtue than the slaves, and in no other efficiently at its increase, wliere an increase is to leading quality differ from them except in being be dreaded, and place a barrier to the vil, business more impudent in wrong, and less careful of con- of kidnapping, by scattering the subjects of it cealing their evil propensities, we have not view-through the country parts of the non-slave-holding ed the regulations of some of the states for expello states. The chief objection is in the separation of ing the freed blacks with the same horror that children from their parents; but this would cause others have done,-though it is impossible that we only a small degree of affliction, if the blacks were should approve of them; and the spirit and character satisfied as to the purposes for which it took place. they bear are unjust beyond what even the laws of It is, we believe, the only way in which the work se!f-preservation, as applicable to this case, will ad. can be accomplished, according to the existing mit of. llence it is that the condition of the 5th state of our laws, feelings and prejudices, and the proposition naturally comes before us, as follows: undeniably debased condition of the slaves. *“That the states in which slavery is not allowed, We have this passed through the series propos
should offer every reasonable facility and encou-ed and given our sentiments freely on the subject ragement to free people of color wishing to reside of slavery, and the means of mitigating its evils. In therein; and adopt some measures to lessen the some respects, we have, no doubt, differed with prejudices and antipathies of the whites, in qua. the received opinions of some of the friends of lifying the blacks to attain a respectable standing emancipation; but if we have said one word that in society.”
any person can construe into a desire to maintain It is difficult to determine what may be consider-have been further from our intention. But ile nie
the system, we shall always regret it. Nothing could ed “reasonable facilities” in this case. No laws ex- rit of the matter lies in this-slavery does erish, and ist to prevent the emigration of freed blacks to the the slaves are unfitted to take care of themselves, states in which slavery is not tolerated, and in ge. neral, we believe, they possess common political ad-through the policy of their n.aslers, Freedom to live,
without the means of getting a living, is an empty vantages with the white people. Public opinion, musi, perhaps, do all the rest that it cann; and such gift; and we owe much to ourselves as well as to ilie
Our safety and their bap. persons should be treated like rational beings, that degraded African race. they may be encouraged to arrive at respectability. I to yoke balf a dozen unbroken colts to a waggon, if
piness are closely allied. Would it not be cruelly No manner of inconvenience, that we know of, exists in the states north and east of Delaware on acny that might follow the proceeding? Let the n first
we were willing to run the risk of the loss of proper. count of these people, who are useful as laborers, be taught what it is necessary they should do, before and many of them have deserved and obtained the we expect them to do it. The blacks in the United cbaracter of decent and honest persons, - nor is any States are not one jot or tittle more rude or unculdanger to be apprehended from a considerable in- tivated than our own immediate ancestors were, Crease of their numbers. Tbeir effect upon the boastful as we appear of our accomplishments. Let common mass of the population cannot be great, in them have light before we require that they should any respect.
see, instruct them in the moral and civil virtues be. In the present state of the blacks, we think that a fore we call upon them to exercise their reason regard as well for them as for ourselves, should in- about them. The moral force which alike constiduce persons disposed to liberate them in the south- tutes the strength of nations and secures the safety crn states, to confine their solicitude chiefly to the of individuals, comes from thinking upon the neces. females, including a provision for the removal of the sity of exerting it. The negroes know little of this. girls to the northern states, where they should be if they reason at all in respect to themselves as Lound out in respectable families. The simple ii- slaves, it is natural that the worst passions should beration of the person of the negro does little for only prevail in their minds—it is nearly impossible hiin-in many cases, we seriously believe, that he that they can love the hand that smites them to the is injured by emancipation, and the condition of so-earth, and imposes burthens upon them beyond their ciety is not advantaged the least. Suppose that strength to bear. Vengeance is the master spirit any one holding slaves, were disposed to bear a tes- that operates. Ind why shoudd it not be so? Here is tiniony against the practice, and to benefit his ne- the question! What would we do, what wouil we groes thus—the males to be sold to humane masters, think, in the like circuinstances? Certainly, we would on reasonable terms, conditioned that they should rebel," in respect to our own favorite dogma, that not be disposal of out of the new family they enter rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God"-a dogma ed into, &c. The unmarried females of 10 years old whichi, with less than a millioneth part of the provoand upwards, to be immediately free and all the cation, we have acted upon, and glory in it. But rest of the stock of females then existing to become the wrong of slavery is not doubted. It is agreed so at 10 years of age; --the proceeds of the males that it ought to be abolished--the how is what has sold being appropriated, under the care of some perplexed us, beset as we are by avarice and prehonest person who should be paid for his trouble, judice. We agree also, that slavery must some duy to the remorul, education, &c. of such females, on end, and generally look to its accomplislıment by the plan proposed? We ask, whether the great pur. acts of vivence.' Is it not seriously demanded of poses ained at, in emancipating the negroes at all, us to guard against that period-and, in obedience would not be better attained and more surely ac- to all that is honorable, all that is just, all that is hucomplished by such a scheme as this, than by the mane, tó endeavor to do away the causes that must rindistinguished l.beration of all the slaves on an and will inevitable produce scenes of havoc and co(state? Sorne may think that this would be to solation to our people, such as the locusts of Asis sconipronisc will iniquity"-but its merits will inflict on the herbage, as though the country had det ui on the good hoped for, and Hs who judges been burned with fire?
Banks and Banking.
lation was to be ascribed the high price of provi. “The book!"--Soinething is still said in Philadel- sions, which continued even to this day without diphia about the book found in the office of the bank munition or abatement. He suggested a restriction of the United States at Baltimore. It is probable, confining the issue to notes not exceeding the sum
of five pounds." that the eminent appellation of this thing will be lost, by finding three or four similar books at other
The Farmers' and Mechanics' bank of Cincinnati places! We have good reason to believe that at- suspended specie payments on the 29tń ult. for the tempts have been made to rival Baltimore in
second time, and probably for the last. The ar. *peculation
rangement, by which it received the treasury deGlorious conflagration! Bank notes, to the amount posites from the land office in that city, was not able
to save the institution. of 80,000,000 of roubles, were burnt in St. Petersburg, on the 26th of May, by tbe commissioners of
Kentucky. The friends of the paper system are the sinking fund.-But ihere is a great deal of this setting up some meetings in that state to encourage sort of work to do in Russia. The above is as a drop the bank of Kentucky to suspend specie pay. in a bucket.
as the term is for the bankruptcy of hanks. V. States' bank stock at London, June 23—23 to
Specie. It is triumphantly noticed that several 231. 108. with dividend from January last. They had vessels have lately arrived from foreign places with not learned that no dividend would be made.
specie. It will always come to us when, as a reWilson Cary Nicholas, esq. has resigned the pre
mittance, it is no more valuable to us than foreign sidency of the office of discount and deposit of the goods. bank of the United States, at Richmond.
North Carolina state bank. We learn by way of City Bank of Baltimore.-The board of directors Petersburg, that this bank has resolved upon an elected since the "blow up" of this bank, have, at entire suspension of specie payments. There is a length, appointed a day for laying a statement of very large amount of its notes in circulation. the affairs of the institution before the stockholders
The šilton bank, of Pennsylvania, has stopped -riz. The 20th of October next. This distant date, after payment. Its notes in circulation are said to be 55,000 50 long a delay, has excited no little surprise; but dollars, and the debts due to the institution to
amount to 190,000. we are told by those we have a right to believe, that the books and accounts of this bank were in
BAD TIMES! Honesty has fled from the world, and · such a state of confusion, that an earlier period and Justice cannot find the way-the Helper is not
Sincerity is fallen asleep-Piety has hidden herself, could not be fixed upon, though the new cashier and clerks, (well skilled in accounts) had la- at home, and Charity lies sick; Benevolence is under bored and were yet laboring excessively, to ascer-arrest, and Faith is nearly extinguished; the Virtues tain the true state of the bank!!!
go a begging, and T uth has long since been buried; The stock of this bank is quoted by the brokers Credit is turned crazy, and Conscience is nailed on
the wall.--Freeman's Journal. át 87 for 15 paid. Farmers' bank of Virginia.A number of the
A question for lawyers.--[ 4 communication in the stockholders in the farmers bank of Virginia, have, Aurora. ?--Suppose a bank, which refuses to pay its had a meeting in Winchester, at which they passed holds the promissory note of an individual
notes in the lawful currency of the United States, resolutions censuring the mother board of directors for not publishing the reasons for a failure of the stops payment--suppose the bank brings an action last dividend, requiring a reduction of the salaries against the individual for the recorery of the of the bank officers, and expressing their sense that amount of his note, and when the cause comes on no one individual or firm ought to have an accomo matter where he got it) a promissory note drawn
before a court, the defendant should produce, (no modation in bank exceeding 20,000 dollars.
Jacob Barker has published a pamphlet of fifty by the bank for the same amount, accompanied by pages about his banking matters, &c. We under a regular protest for non payment. Could the arstand, by an extract from it, that he has reinstated bitrators or judges refuse to allow the sel off? Could the credit of the Washington and Warren bank,
but they compel the parties to cancel or exchange the that hie cannot yet fix a time when be will pay the notes on the spot: Could they oblige the defendant notes of his “Exchange bank,” though he says that subsequent negociability should be destroçed? Or he will pay them. In this pamphlet he announces would the bank be obliged to advertise and caution himself as a candidate for the slate senate!
the public against receiving it, as their only remedy The Silver Lake bank has stopped ment. The against being obliged to pay it to a third person directors say that they will pay its debts promptly. into whose hands it should afterwards fall? The editor of a Philadelphia paper offers to take its A case of this kind would make a good deal of bonotes for debts due to him at 50 per cent, discount. theration in the wigwam.
The bank of Washington, Pa.is preparing to close From the National Intelligencer.-We understand its concerns. A meeting of the stockholders for that the directors of the bank of Washington, of this this purpose is called for the 20th of next month. place, influenced by the unpleasant incidents which
Bank of St. Louis. The stockholders of this insti- have recently occurred in some of the banks of a tution are invited to meet on the 15th of Sept. neighboring city, as well as by general principles, next, to take into consideration the propriety of have adopted the following rule: continuing, or closing the concerns of the institution. -No officer, other than the president, shall deal, May the latter be resolved upon!
either for himself or for any other, excepting this Paper money. We accidently met with the follow- bank, in money, bills of exchange, merchandise, ing extract from the proceedings of the British stock of the United States, or stock of any company, house of lords, on the 1st of June 1801—"The incorporated or unincorporated: providel, that this earl of Suffolk called the attention of the house to resolution shall not prevent such officer from sel. the subject of paper currency, which, he said, was ling any such articles as he may now possess, or 30 immense through every part of the nation, as to prohibit any purchase thereof, which the board! Sill it with the most serious apprehensions for the may sanction by express authority, giver and enter rate of the public credit. To this immense circu-ed on the journals."
A rule similar to that above recited, and, in some Adjt, and insp. general's departmentrespects, even more rigorous, has been adopted by Pay
14,028 the bank of the United States, for the government Subsistence
6,354 of the'institution and its branches. It is presumed Forage
4,704 the rule will become general, as to all banking in. Clothing, (25 servants)
26,016 (If a recent failure of the president of a cen | Quarler master generaldepartmenttain bank had been known at the time the preced Pay
9,708 ing resolution was passed, the president might also Subsistence
4,015 have been restrained, and real property been added Forage
2,400 to the list of things prohibited. A man may get as Clothing, (14 servants)
520 mad in buying lands as in buying stocks.)
16,646 Paymaster generals department Pay
7,154 Army of the United States.
Clothing, (34 servants) 1,264 Abstract of the returns laid before congress at its last
22,242 sassion, shewing the force and distribution of the Commissary general of purchases' depl.army of the United States, &c. January, 1819:
25,600 Major generals 2Colonels
5,840 Brigadier generals 4|Lieut. colonels
744 Aicis de camp
Clothing, (20 servants)
32,184 Adjt. and Inspec. gen. 1 Adjutants
Commissary general of subsistence's dept.Quarter master general 1 Quarter masters 12
12,000 Adjutant generals 2 Paymasters
584 Inspector generals 2Surgeons
192 Assistant Adj. gen. 4 Surgeon's mates
Clothing, (2 servants)
74 Assistant Inspec. gen. 4Captains
12,850 Deputy Q. M. gen. 2 First lieutentants 61
Ordnance departmentAssistant do, 16 Second lieutenants 55
115,460 Topographical engin'rs 6 Third lieutenants 4
13,551 Assistant do. 4 Sergeant majors 8 Forage
480 Paymaster general 11Q. Master sergeants? 21 Clothing, (18 servants) 2,785 Judge advocates 2 Master mechanics }22
151,576 Surgeon general 1 and armourers
Medical departmentAssistant do.
17,447 Apothecary general 1 Musicians
7,008 Assistant do, 2 Mechanics & artificers 216
Clothing, (75 servants) 2,790 Com.gen, of purchases 1 Matross, privates,
70,005 Deputy do. 2 and laborers,
Corps of engineers Assist.com, of issues 6 Sick, aggregate, 524
74,690 Store keepers
47,523 Con. gen. of supplies 1 On extra duty, do. 177
125,064 Amount of gen, staff, 134/Total pres, and abs. 7676 Regiment of light artilleryT'he troops are stationed at a great number of Pay
76,740 posts and places, along the maritime and inland Subsistence
14,527 frontiers, &c.
Clothing, (24 servants)
892 Return of ordnance on hand at the malitary posts and
92,543 depois of the United States, from returns received Corps of artilleryut the war department, up to the 30th Dec. 1818: Pay .
313,824 Mounted. Dismounted Subsistence
43,508 10 inch mortars
768 Battering cannon, 42's, 32's, 24's
Clothing, (80 servants) 2,976 and 18's.
361,076 Field cannon, 12's and 6's
Eight regiments of infantryHowitzers, 38 and 5 8-10 inches, . 80 116
515,760 Columbiads, 100's, 50's, 42's, 15 45
69,204 32's, 24's, and 18's,
Regiment of riflemen-
384 39,574 Clothing, (14 servants) * The subsistence in the particular corps or depart- Miscellaneous ments, does not include that of the privates, which Retained bounty, travelling alnoticed separately, below.
On account of double rations, 32,000 professional characters, in my humble estimation, Pensions to widows & orphans 200,000
not from the most meritorious class of the commu.
324,500 nity, but too much like the class through whose Subsistence of the non-commissioned offi.
hands we are continually cursed with a wickedly cers and privates
728,280 depreciated "paper currency." Our laws, our me. Clothing of do.
572,937 dicines, our literary and religious instructions are Camp equipage
17,120 likely to be managed, if not already so, too much 590,057 by men not duly acquainted with and tender of
the rights and feelings of the middling and lower
classes of the people. I mean the middling Literary studies of Youth.
and lower classes of the people, not in the qualities DIR. NILES.
of good citizens, but in property and shew. Ilong to Observing that some writer in the Albany Re- see other men than these wholly from rich families, gister was sorry to find in your Register, the piece enabled by their priviliges to have a due influence you lately published, which proposed "a salutary, in the affairs of this country. The farmers, mereformation in the system of classical education, chanics and manufacturers of moderate estates are who also had the boldness to denounce the senti- often required to patronize our colleges by their ments of the excellent Dr. Rush, as inconclusive bounty, bestowed through legislative acts, whilst a reasonings and erroneous opinions," I hope you system is pursued to carry the primary benefits of will grant me the favor to insert this reply. these colleges entirely beyond the reach of their
This writer expresses his surprise and regret sons. What, I again ask, are the benign ciñects osthat a gentleman from the land of scholars, should of the study of Latin and Greek classics? Where endeavor to check this taste for elegant letters, are the men produced in these times more distinwhen the study of the Latin and Greek classics is guished as benefactors, or indeed more truly learnso deservedly popularin all our literary institutions, ed, than were our Washington, Franklin, Ritten. and its benign effects are daily becoming more and house, Sullivan, Fulton and a host of others who Inore visible in every section of the United States."
never experienced the "benign effects” of Latin and The proposal was expected to meet powerful oppo Greek classics: or than our Rush, who siscards sition from those who live by the employment of these classics; or than our Dickinson, Jefferson, the teaching Greek and Latin, or who, perhups, may Adamses, llenry, Hamilton, Madison, Munroe, and acquire the reputation of scholars by merely ad numerous others, who obtained collegiate honors vocating the study of these languages, for, indeed, when much less knowledge of the Latin and Greek pretensions to these have a sort of magical influence classics was required, than is now required? There is, at this moment, a great number of gentle.
The writer in the Albany Register tells us, “there men in the United States, as well as in other coun- is no exercise which brings into play so many facul. tries, supported as professors and teachers of these ties of the mind as the study of language." I sup. languages. In them these gentlemen naturally feel pose he means the Latin or Greek lang age. “The a lively interest, «sirs, ye know that by this craft, attention, judgment, reasoning, memory, imagi
, yè have your wealth.”
nation and taste, are simultaneously exercised and But that the study of Latin and Greek is de improved." I would ask if there are not studies in servedly popular, and its benign effects are daily our own language to exereise all these powers of becoming more and more visible in every section the mind, even to greater advantage than any Laof the United States,” are assertions, in my view, tin or Greek author? If there is no siiperior aptuess wholly indefensible. What are the proofs of in the Latin or Greek language to perfect the poire these benign effects? Within twenty or thirty ers of the mind, then I ask why we should study years colleges and universities have nearly or quite Demosthenes, Cicero, Livy, or Plato as superior to doubled their demands upon our youth, requiring the rest of mankind? I know of no evidence that them both for admission to a college-standing and they owed their superiority as writers or orators to for a degree twice as much study of Latin and the study of any other than their own language: Greek as was formerly requisite, or rather twice as Admitting there are important ideas contained in much time and labor to be sacrificed at the shrines the writings of Demosthenes or Cicero, which can. of heathen gods and goddesses, with which these not be expressed by our translations, I would ask «elegant letters,” except the Greek testament, whether we can have any practical use for sucha greatly abound. With boldness i repeat that the ideas? If all practical benefit can be derived from the Latin and Greek classics abound with fictious, friv. translations of these authors, then the study of the olous and obscene stories, and with extravagant translations must save great expense of time, labor rhapsodies, and I am ready to adduce proots of this and money. Dryden, Pope and others, have furassertion. 'Alas! that our instructors, physicians, nished excellent translations of a number of the lawyers, judges, statesmen and divines should waste Latin and Greek classios, the reading of whicle so much precious time upon such studies, to the neo would give the scholar much more knowledge of glect of weightier matters. Such requisitions of the authors than he can acquire by realing the ori. Latin and Greek made upon our youth must tend ginal. After all, the best translations of the Latin to esclude those belonging to families of moderate and Greek classics lie upon the shelves of our librin fortune from the benefits of college education, and to ries as useless lumber 'Strange that works of suc?) create a combined literary and monicd aristocracy. superior merit lave no communicable excellence lo Young men of talents without fortunes, can scarce. attract the aitention of more readers! ly hope to obtain by their own exertions, college That, “in all countries and in all ages, these anbenefits, as were many of our most valuable pro.cient authors have been admired and imitated, is fessional men who were graduated forty or fifty furnishing the finest specimens of elevated senti. years since, and who were the wornaments” of the ments, elegance of style, and refinement of taste," age.
is but a poor argument in their favor. It may This management operates to cause a great de- be said of idolatry and of monarchical and tyran, ficiency of professional men throughout this ra- nical governments, that in all countries and in pidly growing republic. This operates to furnish all ages, these have been admired and imitated,