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of all kinds of game twenty-seven years ago. But,ple of the nation, have still bunted for game, and it seems now to be getting dark here, and we are they have, in a manner, come to be in want. But, told that the Cherokees will find plenty of the old I know that your wish is pure and love, and good, light and game, by going seven bundred miles over for this nation: and, therefore, I have been talking into the Arkansas country. Besides numbers of to my people, and have advised them for the best, families (especially females) are alarmed, and turn their attention to industry, and farming, and thunderstruck at the thoughts of going over on the lay our hunting aside. And here is one point of west of the Mississippi; especially the alarm set up great work, is just come to hand, before us, which by the emigrant Cherokees and other emissarios, is the establishment of a school; and the Choctaws beating for general removal, or reserves to those appear to be well pleased. that stay-from these, and other accounts, receiv. I thank you for the good, and love you have, and ed lately from the Arkansas country, of the deaths what you have already done for my nation. of four children out of one family, that left this I wish you great happiness. country last fall, which indeed cannot be otherwise

I am your true friend, till death, than from the badness of the water, in comparison

DAVID FOLSOM. to which they had been used bere. Besides these N. B. You will excuse my bad writing, as I did which have been mentioned last, it makes it still inform you, ibat I had only six months schooling. more alarming to the female who wishes to stay here, as the emigrant Cherokees are trying to force 'In the year 1809, col. R. J. Meigs completed å their relative females from their husbands, who do statistical table for the Cherokee nation, exhibiting not wish to go over the Mississippi with them. a view of their population, and of their improveSuch proceedings as is stated, is calculated to ments in the useful arts, and of their property ac. afflict the mind whether of the white* or red peo- quired under the fostering hand of government, ple.

which has principally been done since the year Having endeavored to give a sketch of the ont. 1796. lines of the first progress of the Cherokees towards The following gives the result of that table civilization, and their habits and pursuits to the Cherokee males

6,116 present period, although it is imperfectly done, yet

Do. females

0.279 the circumstances leading to them may be relied on, as facts. But the writer dare not meddle with

Total Cherokees 12,395 the future, which belongs to the God of power and Negro slaves

583 • wisdom, to direct the destinies of nations.

White inbabitants

341 By Aboriginal Cherokee. In connexion with the above letter another was

13,319 written by the game hand, to a friend, from whicb Horses

6,519, Grist mills

13 the following extract is taken.

Black cattle 19,165 Sawmills

3 "My Friend and Brother:


1,037 Saltpetre works 2 “Although separated by far distant and distinct Swine

19.778 Powder mill family of the human race, yet, but one Aesh. It Spinning-wheels 1,572 Silver smiths

49 will be the greatest comfort and joy of my life, to Looms

429 Schools

5 hear of your welfare in the service of the all-atoning Ploughs

567 Children at school 94 master, who will prosper thy labors among the red Waggons men of America, that they may come to the tree And may be added the school at Brainerd, begun of life, and drink the healing stream when thirsty, by the rev. Cyrus Kingsbury, containing sixty child. and that they may

the song of redeeming love ren. of God their Saviour."

ACCOUNT OF THE CHEROKEE SCHOOLS. Extract of a letter written to the same person by Communicated by sen. Calvin Jones, lo the editor of David Folsom, a distinguished half breed chief,

the Raleigh Register. of the Choctaw nation, dated

As the notice which you have published of the Cooctaw natiON, PIGEON ROOST, JULY 16, 1818. schools in the Cherokee nation, from the imperfect My Deur Friend:

hints furnished in conversation, seems to have been I have no news to inform you at present, in the well received and to have excited interest, I very regard of my nation, as we have had no council readily comply with your request to give a niore since you left here. But I know, and all I can say circumstantial accouni of those schools, and of the for my nation, they are a people much in need for prospect they afford of civilization to a nation that belp and instruction; and we look up to the govern- has enlisted all my sympathies in its favor: and ! ment of the United States for instruction, and an mich gratified to learn that your views and which I do know, the establishment of this school sentiments on this subject are so entirely in ac. will be the raeans of the greatest work ver been cordance with my own. done for this nation. Our hunting are done for I most premise, that when I visited the Cherokee this many years back; and for wanting good father nation lately I had no predilections in its favor. I and good council, that the general run of the peo. bad known something of two tribes of Indians, and

that all attempts to civilize one of them had been * Alluding to such white persons as have married unavailing, and had every where seen the various into the tribe. The obligation to filial obedience tribes recede and melt away at the approach of the is considered, among the Cherokees, as paramount white people. I had always believed the enthusiastic to every other. So, whenever the parenis remove, zeal of good men led them to expect human means their children must follow, whether married or un would effect what had been denied by an interdict married. Of course, the difference of senti ent of nature; that there were physical as well as moral and feeling among the Cherokees, on the subject causes wlich weuld for ever prevent the civilizaof emigrating to the east of the Mississippi, must/tion of these savages until the cap:bilities of their be attended with many distressing circumstances mindy were improved, matured and perfected by of this kind.

libe long continued existence pf their race and Sur. To Vol. XVI,



species. But I have seen the nation, and havet Theschool is conducted on the Lancasterian plan witnessed the success of the attempts which are and consists of 53 scholars, of whom 49 are Indians making to instruct and humanize them, and am no I spent a day in the school, taught and beard every longer sceptical. I renounce my Darwinian error. one of the classes myself, and I declare that I never I firmly believe, if the efforts now making are duly saw a better regulated school, or scholars of more geconded, the little that remains of a brave and promising dispositions and inlenis. They were unfortunate nation will be rescued from barbarism, quick of apprehension, retentive in memory, docile suffering, and utter annihilation.

and affectionate. The greater number of the Heretofore there seems to have been more zeal scholars were between 8 and 12 years of age: a few for Christianity than knowledge of the constitution were 16, and one, I think, was 18. This last was of the human mind, employed in missionary labors. a young woman of mucb merit; she read well, con. Little is to be expected from preaching abstruse versed sensibly, was grave, dignified and graceful doctrines to men who have never been taught the in her manners, bandsome in ber person, and would exercise of their thinking faculties. The Ameri be an ornament to almost any society. I was told can board of foreign missions have profited by past that at their female society meetings, when asked experience; they have anatomised the mind, and to pray, she always unhesitatingly did so, and in a know its properties and structure; they have learn. manner peculiarly fervid and eloquent; ber asme ed, (to borrow the expression of the poet) that is Katharine Brown. Not four years ago ste vore the twig must be bent to give fashion to the tree. the dress, spoke the language, and had the man

The first school in the Cherokee nation was ners of her nation. Lydia Lowry, Alice Wilson, founded by the Moravian society, of Salem, in and Peggy Wolf, three other Indian girls that I North Carolina, about twenty years ago, and has recollect, of less mature age, were good scholars. been continued without interruption, but on a fand genteel and agreeable in their manners. Ed. limited scale, ever since. The Rev. Mr. Gambold ard, a brother of Katharine Brown's, and too many is the present missionary. He is a plain, worthy other boy's to be enumerated, would for their open, man, and supports his family chiefly by the labor manly countenances, correct manners, and decent of his own hands, while his wife instructs ten or school acquirements, obtain respect and considera. twelve Indian children. On the Sabbath Mr. G. tion in any community, preaches. Charles Hicks, the second man nominaliy The school is opened and closed by prayer, and in the nation, but in influence the first, is a member all the scholars join in singing hymns. Those who of his church, and is reputed an enlightened and merit them receive, as rewards, daily and twice & devout Christian, who does honor to bis profession day, for "Punctual attendance," "Behaviour," and

But the most considerable school is at Chick-Diligence" cards or tickets, with the initial lettera amaugh under the superintendance of the Ameri of tbose words printed on them, which are valued can board of foreign missions. Its first instructor at half a cent. & cent, and three half cents. These was the Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury, who went into the are current money, and are received in payment nation three years ago, and left it last winter to for knives, books, or whatever else they wish to found a school among the Choctaws. It is due, purchase. Fur damaging slates, losing pencils however, to the distinguished merit of the Revilnegligencies, &c. &c. they are sometimes fined in Gideon Blackburn, of Tennessee, to state here, that ickets. The children value these tickets highly, be was the pioneer in this business, having, by his both for the honor which the number of them conindividual exertions, maintained a school laughi fers, and the substantial profit they afford. by hiraself, in that part of the nation, many years All the scholars live at the mission house, where ago; which, however, the difficulty of subsisting, they are both clothed and fed gratuitously, unless and much unfounded obloqúy thrown upon his con- their parents choose to pay the expense, which is duct and motives, made it expedient for him to not often the case. Besides the literary, religious, abandon.

and moral instruction which they receive, they are The present head of the mission is the Rev. taught practical farming, and are initiated into Hard Hoyt, a venerable, pious, sensible, and dis. habits of industry, an art and virtue unknown among creet man, who with his wife and six interesting suvages. They all eat in a spacious ball attached children, left the pieusant valley of Wyoming, in to the rear of the mansion house, the girls at one Pennsylvania, to encounter the difficulties and table and the boys at another, at which the pastor, endure the privations of a wilderness, with the teacher, and the ladies of the family preside. The single view of extending the blessings of civiliza. order and decency observed at their meals equally tion and Christianity among the Cherokees. The surprised and pleased me. The boys occupy several teacher of the school is Mr. William Chamberlain, detached cabins as lodging rooms, which form the of Vermont. The steward and manager, Mr. Moody right wing of the mission house. The girls a spacious Hall, of New.York, and there are iwo young men one on the left, where they are accompanied by a learning the Cherokee language with a view lo in- daughter of Mr. Hoyt. They sit and work in the crease the utility of their labors, Daniel S. Beatrick main building, where they form busy, interesting, and L Long

and pleasing groups, around some of the ladies of This institution is very creditably patronized by the family. government. The expenses of the buildings for What is learned in the school room is not the the accommodation of the families attached to the most considerable, nor, considering the situation mission, of the Indian pupils and of the school, are of the nation, the most important part of their defrayed by col. Meigs, the Indian agent, who education. They are made practical farmers under furnishes, at the charge of the government, all the the direction of an excellent manager by which requisite implements of husbandry. A fertile iract means they give direct support to the institution, of land is loaned to the missionaries so long as and procure important advantages to themselves. their institution exists, which serves ihe double Every Monday morning the labors for the week purpose of lessening the burthen of expe se upon are assigned to each, the boys being mustered be ile board of missions, and of initiating the Indian fore the house, and the girls assembled within it. youth into the principles and practice of agricul. The former, according to their employments, are ture.

denominated hoe boys, axe boys, plough boys, 6C.

and among the latter are divided the duties of, of the good man: and some profess to love to hear carding, spinning, cooking, and house, work, and the good book talk, as they term reading the bible. making and mending the carments of the scholars. Every where the mission family are treated by the Every morning of the week afterwards the boys are Irdians with great respect and affection, and they summoned into line by the sound of a whistle will rarely receive pay from them for what they After the roll is called, the classes are designated "re accustomed to consider as sources of profit, and by naming their avocations, when the members of subjects of charge upon travellers. This is not each break out of the ranks at once, and enter up: the unmeaning politeness with which Indians have on their second employments with great spirit and been charged. It is a very emphatic expression of alacrity. They rerasin in school six hours a day, their sense of the disinterested and useful labor's and work four or five. I went round to visit their f the missionaries. At a late national council, iwo a: their several lahors in the wood and in the field, nen were appointed, as special safeguards of the and found them every where busy and cheerfilrsons and properties of the missionaries. A little They seemed by their manner to require no other circumstance which took place a few days before recreation. A prudent, well regulated system of I was at the school, speaks very distincily the sentimoral discipline appeared completely to supersedements which prevail. An old Indian woman, who the necessity of every kind of corporeal punish. seemed not to have a vestige of civilization, brought ment or play'sical coercion. The uimost harmony a little savage, her grandson, to place at the school. reigned throughout. Neither idleneșs nor games When the former was about to depart, she'wept so gave them occasion for feuds or slissentions. Their much over her child, who cried to accompany her, affection for their teachers seemed to be unbound hat Mr. Hoyt apprehended she would not leave ed. I have seen the boys, by half dozens, surround him, and through an interpreter assured her that Nr. Chamberlain when he came in fatigued, clasp he would in a few days be reconciled to his situa. him round the neck and arms, all eager to tell or tion. She replied that she had no intention but to ask something and engage his attention; and when leave him; that the parting was very painful to her, be bad good humoredly shaken off one set, he but she too well knew what was for the child's good. would be immediately surrounded by anoiher, An Indian who had once been to visit the president clamorous as blackbirds. A command, however, at Washington, told me that civilization had made would always reduce them instantly to order and the white people great, but ignorance had made place. Play is occasionally allowed. One boy will the Indians dwindle away to nothing. Most of those ihrow up a gourd or shingle, which will come 10 with whom ! conversed seemed to feel the senti. the ground with a dozen arro:vs sticking to it. inent of patriotism strong in their bosoms, to de. Bathing in the fine clear stream of Chicka maugh is plore the fall of their once wide extended and permitted twice a week. Indeed an Indian would powerful nation, and to be anxious that the little not dispeise with this, for they are scrupulously of it which remained should be saved from annihila. attentive to cleanliness. An Indian child runs into tion.-Who that binself enjoys the comforts of the water as naturally as a duck. I have seen the civilized life, and the consulation of religion, and (particularly in the Chickasaw country) scarce six knows the wants and capabilities of these people, years old, up to their chins in the stream of a bold would withhold a contribution to a purpose so creek Col. Meigs, the Indian agent, asked a beneficent and full of merit? Cherokee girl why she did not marry a white man One or two facts will enable all to judge for who paid his addresses to ber. She replied, that themselves of the teschabieness of their disposishe could not endnre white men, they were so dirty, tions, and their capacities for acquirement. A dever, as she understoed, bathing in creeks as the wild naked-legged boy, eight years old, named red people did.

Chees quan-eetah, or A Young Bird, who could I have seen the girls at their several employ- speak nothing but Cherokee, came for the first time men's, forming circles round some of the ladies into the school on the day on which I visited it, and of the family, beguiling the time by singing and I taught bim the letters of the alphabet but three conversation, and seeming, as no doubt they really or four times over, using some device to impress were, very happy. The white children of the them more strongly on the memory, in one of which mission family are treated in all respects as the I was assisted by a beautiful and sprightly little girl, Indian children are. Indeed, an exemption from who told me she was the black warrior's daughter. any part of the routine of duiy and labor would be This was, to place the letters 0 C U together, the no favor. To the Indians this course is indispens pronounciation of which, in the Cherokee tongue, ably necessary to their civilization and future wel- signifies good, which I made him understand was fare, and I am not sure but the plan of the Chicka- applicable to him. The little girl, who spoke Eig. maugh school, in all its details, is the best that lish tolerably, in a playful manner, with a look fuil could be devised for children in any community. of arch simplicity, told me ber mother seldom apDuring the week of my visit it fell to the lot of a plied it to her, bui much oftener a word, of which girl (a young lady I might with perfect propriety I have now forgotten the Indian, that signified bad. siyle her) to wait at table, as a part of the house. At nigbt the boy distinctly remembered seven let. bold labors, and she perforined the duties with ters of the alphabet. equal propriety, cheerfulness and grace. It was A little girl by the name of Jenny Reece had felt to be, as it really was, perfectly proper, and been six weeks in the school, and could spell very bonorable, because it was a place that each one in weil in words of three letters and yet had never turn was destined to fill, and no ideas of servitude in conversation been beard to utter a word of Eng. could of course be attached to it. This young wo. lish. It is remarkable of the Indians that when man was the daughter of a wealthy, high minded they commence expressing their ideus and wante chief, who kept a good table and servants, at whose in English, they in a time surprisingly short speak house I have been handsomely entertained, and who it very distinctly. But they cannot be persuaded spoke of the economy of this school in terms of high to speak, until conscious of their ability to do it commendation.

well; afraid, I suppose, of drawing upon themselves The Indians are mostly favorable to the mission. ridicule; and indeed their first essays are calculat. Mr. Hoyt is knowa among them by the appellation led to excite laughter in many, when the ardor of

their anxiety to be understood prompts them tm'si emed very industrious in various domestic ene premature efforts. Like the Greeks and Romans, ployments, and the men much more so in their they place the object before the agent. I hear! "gricultural pursuits than in any Indian nation I this from a boy anxious to go to the store on mail ad ever visited. Many of them had considerable day.-"Store go to who? Want some to me." It plantations, and two at whose houses I was, owned was predicted, from their usual progress, that this several negroes, and employed white men as over. boy would spek correctly in a month.

seers; and all had horses and cattle. Every thing, The mention of Jenny Reece brings her father's I ihought, manifested the progress of civilization name and merit before me, and I hope to be pardon and the practicability of its soon attaining the ed for a passing notice of him, though apparently ordinary degrees of perfection. very remotely, if at all in connection with the Possibly this brief exposition of facts and cirschool. This man, Charly Reece, was a very dis. cumstances, new to most of the readers of the tinguished warrior, and one of the three Indians Raleigh Register, will excite in the benevolent & who at the battle of the Horse Shoe swam the river desire to strengthen the hands of those employed in sight of the contending armies, under showers in this works of instruction and of giving them ibe of arrows and bullets and brought over the canoes means of more extended and genera usefulness. which contributed so essentially to the dislodge. The education of the Cherokees will only be limited ment and defeat of the Creek Indians. Gen Jackson by the ability to found and support schools. I bave mentioned him most honorably in his despatches no correspondence with the board of missions, bu and general orders, and president Madison wrote presume donations to their treasurer in Boston, him a letter, and presented him with a superbly Jeremiah Evarts, will be acceptable. It is equally mounted rifle, with suitable inscriptions. This likely that the Moravian society of Salem would once his boast, is his pride no longer. I had some not refuse benefactions, though they have never conversation with him, and he spoke of his mili- asked contributions. The good they have done tary exploits with evident reluctance. This once has been their own, and it has been done without haughty warrior is now a humble and devout pro- ostentation. I was told that plain ready made fessor of the religion of Jesus.-The wild hunter, clothing for boys, particularly trowsers and bunt. who could not endure the restraints of home and ing shirts, was wanted. Dr. Strong, of Knoxville, but one wife, is now the industrious and prosperous A. J. Huntingdon, of Augusta, S. C. Dunning, of farmer, and the respectable head of a happy family. Savannah, Doge and Sayre, of New-York, and the This man's example, the happiness he has con superintendant of Indian affairs, Washington city, ferred on a wife and amiable children, is surely will remit any thing to the mission house at enough to overturn infidelity in the heart of Caickamaugh that is committed to their care. [ obstinacy itself, and make the most heedless anxi- add this paragraph at the suggestion of traveller ous to promote the diffusion of principles, capable now confined in this city by sickness, who observed of such happy influence. I belong to no churck to me yesterday, that the good deeds of mun fell short or sect, but I have seen too much of the benign of their beneficent wishes from ngt knowing how and eflects of religion, to withhold from it this testi- where to dispense of their liberalities. monial in iis favor I am convinced of the very August 24, 1818. great and essential importance of its principles and doctrines to civilization. The Chinese can make pots and the Turks carpets, but they are barbarians;

From the Raleigh Register. and neither science nor manners will ever obtain MR. Gales—The articles of intelligence I gave there, until the domestic fireside becomes the place you some weeks ago respecting the Cherokee In. where confidence can repose itself, where the best dians seem to have been so well received by the and holiest affections of our nature can find their public, that I am led to expect a further account solace, and where the infant mind will be formed of that nation would not now be unacceptable. under the influence of precept and example. The interest which appears to have been excited Polygamy is at eternal and irreconcilable war with bears honorable testimony to the liberal and charit, civilization.

able feelings of our countrymen. I now send you I had almost forgotten to say that there is one a notice of some of the peculiar manners and cuscertainly, and I believe two schools in the nation toms of the Cherokees, drawn up a few months supported and patronized exclusively by the In- ago by Charles Hicks, a chief of the nation, at the dians. I visited one of the patrons. He complained request of Mr. Hoyt, the missionary, and by me much of the moral character of the master, and copied, in June last, from the mission diary. The said he had seen him drunk even on the Sabbath, original was the diction and hand writing of the and threatened to dismiss him. This teacher, achief, and was recorded nearly in his own words. native of Europe, had the common stipend of coun. Charles Hicks is a half blooded Cherokee, has a try schoolmasters allowed him, was allowed to tolerable education, is a man of intelligence and cultivate as much land as he pleased, and had a piety, and has long filled the office next in rank to good number of scholars, but the Indians were the king. The latter is a full-blooded ludian, who scandalized at his irregularities, and I expect, if has no acquaintance with our language. At a late they failed to civilize him, they would, as they national council, it was enacted that no order of threatened, discharge him. I 'neither saw the the king should take effect until approved and teacher nor his school. It would swell this article concurred in by Charles Hicks, This virtually to a size too great for a newspaper, were I to speak makes him equal to the king, but in influence and of the character and manners of the Indians; and real authority he is greatly his superior. He is a it would besides be foreign to the object for which staunch friend to the whites, a zeulous promoter I commenced it. I will therefore only say in a few of the measures now in progress to educate and words, that I found them every where kind and civilize his nation, and at this moment has a san at obliging in their deportment and correct in their a public school in Connecticut. The insured co. conduct; that in their houses, and I entered not a operation of x chief so endowed and so influential few, I observed a general appearance of order and should strengthen the hands and animate the exer neatness that indicated comfort, The women tions of those benevolent and liberal minded meet




who are laboring to enlighten and bumanize an un-y to boil ihe physic, and when boiled, to carry happy but very interesting portion of our species. the people, for old and young to drink. But the The Indians will become at once civilized when never drink of it until the singer has proclaimed, ever the numbers of the educated shall be so con with his song, on the top of the Town House, BA siderable as to give respect and confidence to each yan wah, Yauth-caunu" (repeating the same several o:ber and a fasħion to manners. Mr. Boudirot, i. times) and pajuted all the posts of the house white -late work, has undertaken to show that the Ame with clay, and danced two of the nights in seven, rican Indians are a remnant of tbe ten lost tribes of and in the morning after the last night bathed them Israel. One of their customs, it will be seen, shows selves in the water. some analogy to those of the ancient Israelites, as "They have a similar plan of choosing one or recorded in the books of the old Testament. two men to represent the clans in what is called,

CALVIN JONES, making rain. Raleigh, Oct. 13, 1818.

“In making rain, seven men or women are chosen

to represent the clan, who keeps a fast during the MANNERS, CUSTOMS, &c.

time the conjurer is about to obtain rain, and whers “The Cherokee people are divided into seven the rain comes he sacrifices the tongue of a deer different clans, each having a distinct name.* No that is procured for that purpose. The conjurer one is permitted to marry within bis own clan. The himself observes a strict fast with frequent bathings children are always considered as belonging to during the time he is making rain. On such oc tbe clan of the mother. Murder committed by casions the conjurer speaks a language different. a person of one clan on one of another is always from the present language of the nation, and which, punished with death; but if both belong to the same few understand. They who design to follow the clan, it frequently happens that the clan intercedes practices are taught by those who understand it. with the chief bead of the naiion, and obtains a "The Eagle-lail dance is still in use among the pardon, which pardon is published in the national Cherokees. The design of this dance is 10 stimulace council when convened.

in the minds of the young growing people the spirit "The national council is composed of chiefs from of war. The old warriors rehearsing in the dance each clan, some sending more some less, regard the dangers they have passed through in attacking being bad to the population of each-though the their enemies, ihe distance they have travelled, the number is not very definitely fixed

Each clan has time they have been out, &c. &c. Some victuals are its separate portion of land, wbich it holds in com usually set apart for the boys to eat at day break, mon right-the poorest men having the same right and when the boys bate eaten they go out of the as the greatest.

town house and are met in the entry by the young “Before eating the geen corn when in the milk, .nen, who have a battle with mud collected for the the people collect in the different towns and villages purpose. at nigh", and when thetcomes, the conjurer

"It is also customary to give Eagle feathers as takes some of the grains of seven ears of corn and pledges of friendship in taking peace among red feeds the fire with them, i. e. burns them. After people. th is each family is allowed to cook aod eat their

“The doctors among the Cherokees suppose that roasting ears, but not before they drink a tea of cures are to be made in 7 nights of the different vild horehound. In like manner they observe the disorders, which the human body is subject to. same custom before eating the bean when it fills Daring these cures the doctors are remarkably in the bull

strict io keep out of the liouse where the patient The geen corn dance, so called, has been highly lies such persons as have liandled, a dead body, esteemed formerly. This is beld when the corn women, &c. for it is held among the Cherokees that is getting hard and lasts four days, and when the these persons are impure until bathing in the water national council sits—a quantity of venison being of the seventh night in the morning. Some changes procured to supply the dance. 1: is said that have of late taken place-instead of seven, four person was formerly chosen to speak to the peo nights are now deemed sufficient." ple on each day in a language that is parıly lostat least there is very little of it known now. At

OF THE CREEK INDIANS. such times as the above, a piece of ground is laid

From the Fianklin Gazette. off and persons appointed to occupy it-no others being allowed to use it while the feast continues. The extracts from the journal written in the

“There is a custom, which still prevails, of mak Creek nation of Indians, convey information at ing a new fire every year, generally in the month once important and agreeable. Though we every of March. The fire is made by drilling in a dried day hear of our souidern and western savages, we grape vine, which begins in the morning after an have never had a sufficiently ample and minute all night dance. Seven persons are appointed to delineation of their babils, their traditions, their perform this with the conjurer. After the fire is laws and their sentiments; and we receive witti made, each family in the town comes and procures pleasure every additionai effort to enlighten our the new fire, putting out all the old fires in their ignorance upon the sunject. Recent events have houses.

rendered the Creek and Seminole Indians, in par“The physic dance was very much in use for- ticular, ohjects of great curiosity and interest. merly, but partly neglected now. This belongs to Extract from a journal written in the Creek na:ion the women in particular, except seven men who

of Indiuns. are chosen, one out of each clan, to carry the water "The government of the Creeks is in form re

publican; each town or village elect a chief or kins, The Powhatan nation of Indians in Virginia, ac. whose authority is never disputed so long as he cording to Mr. Jefferson, was divided into seven, remains in office, and who represents his town in tribes or clans. This Hebrew cabalistic number the great council at which the business of the na. appears to have been in common use among the tion is transacted, and where a speaker or head Indians.

man of the whole is elected. The military authority This word not understood in Mr. Hick's original. 'is distinct and subordinate to the civil. McIntosh,

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