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mal, which they have pursued on foot for many days together.
Obs.llence, the prigin of hospitality and social mectings' kept up in civilized lile, for purposes of plea. suire; but originating in siger, when to divide with friends and neiubboors the produce of the chase; was the first and the kindest of dutier - 22. If there are some privations to be horne in society; if the successful emulation of industry and talents, create great inequalities of enjoyment; and if the laws are abused, and sometimes bear oppressively on weak individuals, the worst condition of social and civilized man, is better than the best condition of the untutored savage.
Obs.--Such is man, jy his pative and original state, in all countries : and such are the boundaries of knowledge, among all aboriginal people: let us now consider bim, in a better, in a happier, and a more respectable condition.
III. Of Farming, or Agriculture. 23. The first step, from savage towards civilized life, is the aequirement, protection, and recognition of property. In early ages, this consisted only of what was essential to lie immediate wants of man.
94. The first property consisted of sheep, goats, and oxen; and the first husbandmen were shepherds, who tended their docks, and drove them without restriction from pasture to pasture.
Obs.--- We have a beautiful picture of the pastoral life in the book of Genesis : Abraham, Isanc, Jacob, und chels families, were shepherds or husbanduey of the ear
liest nges. It will be seen, that their wealth consisted to their flocks and their livestock i and that they wamed over the country to find pasture wheresoever they pleased.
25. In the pastoral nges of husbandry, there was no property in land: all the country, was open and cominon to any occupier; and no one assumed to himself a property in the soil, or considered as his own, the produce of any partienlar spot.
20. In Africa, among the native Americans, and in most parts of Asia, there exists to this day, no property in the land ; hence, in those countries, it is but little cultivated ; and subsistence is precarions : notwithstanding the fertility of the soil, and the general character of the climates.
27. The recognition and protection of property in the soil, are the bases of industry, plenty, and social improvement. This is, therefore, one of the most important steps in the progress of man, from the savage, to the civilized state...',
28. As soon as any man could call a spot of ground his own, and could secure to his family the produce of it, he would carefully cultivate, sow, and plant it; knowing that he should reap the reward of bis labour in the season of harvest.
29. Countries, however, in general, lie open; with nothing but banks and ditches to divide the land of every husbandman; but in England, each separate farm is divided from others, by hedges and fences; and the farms themselves are broken into sinall'enclosures.
330). Tu France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and winst other natious, the lands still remain un cuclosed in large open fields and those coutWies, 10 consequence, present a dreary appear. ance to the eye of an Englishman; whose en closures render Joylaud the garden of the world.
31. Euclosures greatly improve the climate of a country, by protecting it from inclement winds; they pleasantly subdivide the labour of the farmer; and, by restraining the exercise of cattle, they occasioni them to get fat moh
32. farmers are called arable farmers, when they are chiefly employed in raising corn; wird pasture or grase farmers, when they are engaged 'n rearing and fattening sleep, and other live stock.
33. Farms vary in size, from fifty to one thousand acres. Arable farms are generally buualler than those employed in pasture, or grazing. Those', trom iwo to four hundred nores, are the most beneficial to the occupiers qud the public.
at, boils are divided into clayey, Jenny, chalky, anily, gravelly, peaty, muid mooty. The clayey and loamy are called stiff or strong soils : and the sandy and gravelly, light soils.
130. Soils are lernen, when they consist of 100 much of one kind of material, do not hold wrote ture, or are 1000 shallow. They are foutile, when they contain a due mixture of sp veral primitive tarihs will vegetable and animal watter,
jser.36. To render a barreri soil fertile, 'it ought to be frequently turned up to the air, and to
have mixed with it matures of animal dings, -decayed vegetables, lime, mard, sweepings of
streets, &c. 1.1111..d... Ini - ». 37. In turning over the soil, the chief imple
ments of the Gardener are the spade, the lioe, and • the mattoek; and those of the Farmer, are the Iplough, the harrow, the roller, the scythe,' and
the sickle. **. 58. As a' succession of the same crop "tends to impoverish the soil, #rotation of different crops is necessary. Potatoes, grain, and white crops, are exhausting; but, after them, the soil His ameliorated by tares, turnips, and green or plant crops. ** 39. On stiff soils, clover, beans, wheat, cabbages, and oats, may be cultivated in succession; and on light soils, potatoes, turnips, pease, oats,' and barley, may succeed each other. The general rule is, one crop for nian,' and one for beast. * OddThis plan of varying the crops, is a new discovery. Formerly, land lay long in fallow; that is to say, was not worked everythird or fourth year, but now, it is usual, by varying the crops, to get two, three, or four crops in a year from the same soil, without its being exhausted ; and Mallowing is, consequently, found to be unnecessary...See Young's Farmer's Kalendar, 6040: Wheat is sown in September or October; but the spring-Wireat is sown in March. It ripens in August and September, when it is reaped,'' ligused, and threshed. After being ground at the mill and sifted, wheat forms flour:
the flour mixed with water and yeast, and baked in an oven, becomes Bread.
41. Barley is sown in April and May: it is made into malt, by being heated to a state of germination, and then broken in a mill. If the malt be infused in hot water, the infusion, with the addition of hops, may be fermented into beer, ale, and porter.
42. Oats are sown in February or March ; when ground, they form oatmeal, and mixed with water the meal becomes oat-bread; but unground, they are favourable food for horses.
43. There are other species of grain cultivated in England, as rye, peas, and beans. The former makes black bread; and the latter are well known as delicious and wholesome food. Rice, a very nutritive grain, is much cultivated in warm climates; and there preferred to other kinds of grain for the food of man.
44. Modern husbandry has subdivided Grass into nearly a hundred several kinds; of wbichi, there are two principal divisions; natural grasses, and artificial grasses. The several sorts are sown and cultivated together, or separately a according to the nature of the soil, or the object of the cultivator.
11 45. The natural grasses are very numerous in their kinds; and are preferred for lands intended to be kept in grass. The artiticialgrassess are ray grass, red clover, trefoil, sanfoil, lueetdi tares, yarrow, turret, xe.
1.lt 46. On many farms, cows are kept for the milk they yield: and for the purpose of making