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23) degrees wide, is called the Torrid Zone, from its extreme heat; the spaces within 231 degrees of each pole are called the Frozea Zones, from the length and frigid nature of their winters; and the two spaces between the hot and cold zones, are called the Temperate Zones.

298. Such are the divisions of the earth, arising from the phenomena and effects of the Sun, the source of Light, Heat, and Life. They give rise to all the varieties of climates, productions, colour, and habits of man; and are, therefore, the key to a further and more correct knowledge of his habitation, the Globe of the Earth.

GEOGRAPHY. 299. The natural divisions of the earth into lands and waters have already been noticed. The other great divisions, founded on local views only, are called EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, and AMERICA, commonly called the four quarters of the globe; each quarter is divided into kingdoms; and each kingdom into provinces, principalities, or counties.

300. This last division gives national denominations to men; but the climates or zones fix their colour' or character. These divide man into at least six varieties, produced by habit, aud the effects of heat and cold during a series

of ages.

1. The dwarfish inhabitants of the polar regions,

11. The flat-nosed, olive-coloured tawny race;

III. The blacks of Asia, with European features ;

IV. The rooolly-haired negroes of Africa ;

V. The copper-coloured native Americans, with black hair and flat noses ;

VI. The white European nations.

301. Man is at the head of the animated creation; and unites all the advantages of strength, beauty, and structure, which are but partially possessed by other animals. His Creator has also endowed him with the faculty of reasoning, and with the power and will to adapt all the single contrivances of other animals, to his own wants and luxuries.

302. Man supports his body crect; and his face turned towards the heavens, displays the dignity of his nature. His soul is painted in his visage; and his majestic and resolute step aunounces the nobleness of his rank. His arms and hands were not given him for support, but to second the intentions of his will, and to adapt to his purposes all the gifts of nature, 1

303. What animals effect by natural instinct, man effects by invention and by combined power. Birds build their nests, bees frame their cells, and beavers construct their habitations, with unvarying uniformity; but the works of man possess every possible variety: and afford evidence of his possessing a mind and soul distinct from the body.

Oda-Man, however, dingraced his intellectual chon racter by engaging in frequent war of aggression, madio, and ambition.. Nor are much wars confined to tha savage tribes of his spreies, but are often wantonly and lightly engaged in, by nations that boast the highest cie vilization.

304. Men are to be found, however, in every stage of improvement in England, in France, Italy, Holland, Germany, and some other European countries; in India, China, and some other Asiatic nations, they appear to approach towards the summit of iheir powers: but in Africa, America, and Siberia, the inhabitants are still in a state below that in which the Ro. mans found the Britons two thousand years ago.

305. Man, in point of nutural intellect, is nearly equal in all countries; notwithstanding the differences of colour and gradations of civilization. Those differences are the effects of climate, habit, and education; and there is little doubt, but the whole human race sprung from pne stock, as recorded in the Scriptures.

306. Considering nian, as we find bim, seattered over the earth, the Laplanders, the Isqui. maux, the Samoides, the Greenlanders, the Nova Zemblaus, and the Kamschatkadales, appear to be of one family, inhabiting the northern frigid zone.

Vast regions, dreary, blenk, and bare!
There, on an icy mountain's height,
Geen only by the inoon'e pale light,
tern Winter reais his giant-form,
lis robe a mist, his voice a storin;
Vis frown, the shivering nations ily,
ind, hid for half the year, in smoky caverns, lle.

SCOTT,

ICE-MOUNTAINS, &c. OF THE FRIGID ZONE.

[graphic]

307. No inhabited land has yet been discovered in the southern frigid zone; but the climate and habits of living, the effect of cliinate, render all the inhabitants of the northern frigid zone of a deep brown colour approaching to blackness. Their statures are shrunk by cold to a diminutive size; and their countenances are as hideous, as their manners are savage.

308. Their usual height is four feet, and the tallest are not above tive feet; their voices are thin and squeaking: their heads large; their cheek-bones high; their eye-lids drawn aside; their mouths large; and their lips thick, and turned outward.

Obs.-Yet, they account themselves the handsomest and most civilized people in the world, and the Greenlanders, when they compliment a stranger, say, He is almost as well-bred as a Greenlander,

The following is Dryden's description of the Polar regions :

The sun from far perps with a sickly face,
Too weak, the clouds and mighty fogs to chase ;

Swift rivers are whila sudden ice constrateeds
And studded wheels are on their back sustain'd
The brazen caldrons with the frost are daw'di
The garment stiť with ice at hearths is thaw'd,
With axes first they cleave the wine ; und thence
By weight, the solid potions they dispense,
from locks uncomb'd, and from the frozen beard,
Long icicles depend, and crackling sounds are heard.
Meantime, perpetual sleet and driving snow,
Obscure the skies, and liang on herds below.
The starving cattle perish in their stalla,
Huge oxen stand inelor'd ja wint'ry walls
Of snow copeeal'd; whole herds are buried there :-
Of mighty stags, and searee their horns appear.
The dextrous huntsman wounds not these afue
With shafts or darts, or makes a distant war
With dogs, or pitches toils to stop their flight
But elose engager'in anequal fight,
And while they strive in vain, to make their way
Through, hills of snow, and pitifully bray
Assaults with dint of sword, or pointed spears,
And homeward, on his back, the hurthea heart,
The men to subterranean caves retire,
Srcure from cold, and crowd the cheerful dre:
With truoks of elms and oaks the hearth they lond,
Nor tempt th' inclemency of heav'n abrond.
Their jovial nights in frolic and in play
They pass, to drive the tedious hours away,

309. Their food consists of dried fish, and the Mesh of bears, rein-deer, and other wild animals. Their drink is water, or train-oil as a luxury, when they can get it.

Obs. Two inhabitants of Nova Zembla were brought to Copenhagen a few years ago i and they pined for want, till they met with sone train oil, which they drank will the same relish as we would drink chorolate or wine; and they danced in cestney, when they found they were to be sent baek to their own country.

310. The next variety of the human species are the Tartars, the Chinese, and time Japanese

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