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310. Such are the natures and the varieties of inen, as scattered over the face of the earth. Their numbers united are supposed to be nearly eight hundred millions : of whom, in Europe, every square mile contains 34, in Asia, au, in Africa, 6, and in America 3 individuals.

The whole number of human beings being renewed every 99 years, on the average, 25 millions must die and be boru every year, i. e. 3,000 every hour, or 50 every minute,

Like leaves on trees, the face of miau is found i
Now green in youth, now withering on the ground,
Another race the following spring supplies,
They fall successive, and successive rise i
8o generations in their course decay,
So flourish these, when those are part away.

POP 3:20. As men have divided by chance or de sign, into separate governments, they have us moined the names of Nations, Republics, Kingdoms, or Empires ; and the knowledge of these constitutes a leading feature of geographical study,

The most populous nations are, the Chinese of 300 millions, the Hindoox of 10 millions, the French of 30 millions, and the Hussians of sa millions. The most extensive are the Russians, Chinese, Turkish, French and British empires,

821. From north to South, Europe in divided into Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, Poland, Saxony, Westphalia, France, Wurtemburgh, Ravaria, Switzerland, Austria, Turkey, Italy Naples, Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain and

Ireland. .:. Obe. It will be highly proper that tutors

the map of the world, all these countries to the pupil, and reader him expert in pointing to them bimself. He ought also to be directed to write out the boundaries and latitude and longitude of each from the map. Nothing can be so ridicolous, an to compel children to commit verbal descriptions of the boundaries of countries to me. mory. The only guide is a good map; and that they ought to trace or copy, till they can answer any question that is put to them. No one necd blush for ignorance of geography, after be has twice or thrice traeed or copied maps. The scale of mountains in Goldsmith's “Illustrations of Popular Geography," should also be copied in naps, and the lines of comparative sizes deserve some consideration. The best exercises in mechanical and ma. thematical geography, however, are in the Geographical Copy-Books and the Royal School-Atlas.

322. The following is an enumeration of the names, capitals, and population of the countries of Europe: Nations.

Chief Citica, Population Sweden


3 millione. Russia in Europe Petersburgh

.30 do. Denmark


3 do. Prussia


8 do, Poland


6 du. Batavia or Holland Amsterdam

3 do. Germanic States.

Dresden ...

.18 do. Austria

Vienna ..

.23 do. Turkey in Earope Constantinople 8 do. France (proper) ......


.30 do, Switzerland

2 do. Italy


4 do. Etruria


2 do. Pope's States..


2 do. Naples


6 do. Portugal.


4 do. Spain


Il do, Great Brit. and Ireland . London

. 17 do. 323. Europe has three inland seas: the Mediterranean, the Baltic, and the White Sca; and

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its shores are washed by the Atlantio, the Bay of Biscay, the English Channel, the Northern Ocean, St. George's Channel, and the German Ocean.

:32 4. The great European rivers are, the Danube, the khine, the Elbe, the Weser, the Maine and the (der, in (iermany: the Wolga and the Nieper, in Russia: the Rhone, the Gurome, and the Seine, in France; the Thames, the Se. vern, and the Number, in England; the Clyde, in Scotland ; and the Shannon, in Ireland. On.The rivers of South Britain are thus described :

From his ooky bed, Old Mather Thaines advanc'al hin rev'rend head Around and throne the new-born brothers stood, Whoswell with tributary uron his food. First, the Mam'd authors of his ancient name, The winding twis and the fruitful Romne! The Run will, for silver ecls renown: The Lodilon slow, with verdant a deux crown't (ble, whose darla streams his flow'ry wland lave: And chalky Way that rolls a milky wave! The blue transparent Vandalis appears i The pulplay Lee hierdie trenera Pearu : And sulien Mole that hides his diving lood! And silent Darend sinin'd with Danieli blood. ۴۱۲۰, .

3325. The mountains of Europe are, the Alps, of Switserland : the Pyrenees, between France and Spain; the Dotrafolds, in Norway: the Welsh, in Wales: und Ben Nevis and Dou Los mond, in Scotland. It has also three volcanoes, or burning mountains ; viz. Etna, in Sicily; Visu suvius, near Naples; and Hecla, in lerland

320. The British empire is composed of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and Ar verul swall oues, as the Isle of Mall, the Isle

of Wight, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, Jersey and Guernsey, and the Scilly-islands. Great Britain is 700 miles long, and 250 broad; and Ireland 300 long, and 200 broad. Great Britain includes Scotland on the North, Wales north-west, and England on the south, east, and west. • 827. England is subdivided into 40 counties, as follow: Counties

Chief Torens. Counties. Chief Towns. Northumberlaod Newcastle Warwickshire Warwick Durbam

Darliam Worcestershire Worcester Cumberland Carlisle Herefordshire Hereford Westmoreland Appleby | Monmouthshire Monmouda Yorkshire

York Gloucestershire Gloucester Lancashire Lancaster Oxfordshire Oxford Cheshire

Chester Northamptns.Northampton Shropshire Shrewsbury Buckinghams. Aylesbury Derbyshire Derby | Bedfordshire Bedford Nottinghamsh. Nottinghain Huntingdonsh. Huntingdon Lineolashire Lincoln Cambridgeshi, Cambridge Rutland Oukhum Norfolk

Norwich Leicestershire Leicester | Suffolk

Bury Staffordshire Stafford Essex

Chelmsford Hertfordshire Hertford Hampshire Winchester Middlesex London | Wiltshire Salisbury Kent

Canterbury Dorsetshire Dorset Surry Guildford Somorsetshire

Bath Sussex Chichester Devonshire

Exeter Berkshire Reading Corowall Launceston

328. Walen is divided into 12 counties; as beneath:

Counties. Chief Towns. Countios. Chief Torons. Mintshire

Flint Radnorshire Radnor Denbighshire Denbigh Breck nocksh. Brecknock Montgomerys, Montgomery Glamorganshire Swansea Auglegea Beaumaris Pembrokeshire Pembrok Caernarvoanh, Caernarvon Cardiganshire Cardigan Werlopethshire Haerlech i Carmarthensh. Cammarthen


329. Scotland is divided into 33 counties, as follow:

Shires. Chief Towns, Shires. Chief Towns Edinburgh Edinburgli Argyle

Haddington Dunbar Perth

Dunya Kincardin

Bervie Roxburgh Jedburgh Aberdeen Aberdeen Selkirk

Selkirk | Inverness Inverness Peebles !

Peebles Nairne and 1 Nairpe and Lanerk

Glasgow Cropartie Cromartie Dumfries Dumfries | Fife

St. Andrew's Wigtown Wigtown Forfar

Mootrose Kirkcudbright Kirkcudbri. Banff

Buod Ayr

Ayr Sutherland Strathy Dargoc Dumbarton i Dumbarton Clacmannan Clacmannan Bute and Caithness Rothsay Kinross

Kiurowe Renfrew


Stirling Elgio

Elgin Linlithgow Linlithgow Orkney Kirkwall

330. Ireland is divided into four provinces, Ulster to the north, Leinster to the east, Munster to the south, and Connaught to the west; and these are subdivided into 32 counties.

Counties, Chief Towns. Counties, Chief Towns. Dublin

Dublin | Antrim Carrickfergas Louth

Drogheda Londonderry Derry Wicklow Wicklow Tyrope

Omagh Wexford

Wexford Fermanagh Joniskilling Longford Longford Donegal

Lifford East Meath

Trim Leitrim Balliprobe Westmeath Mullinger Roscommon Roscommon King's County Philipstown Mayo Carrick on Shannon Queen's Co. Maryborough Sligo

Sligo Kilkenny Kilkenny Galway

Galway Kildare Naas and Athy Clare

Ennis Carlow Carlow Cork

Cork Down Downpatrick Kerry

Tralee Armagh

Arinagh Limerick Limerick Monaghan Monaghan Tipperary Clonmell Cawa

Caran Wutorford Watarford

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