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847. The following is a survey of those parts of Africa which are perfectly formed :Nations. Chier Cities,

Population, Abyssinia ...Gondar..

9 millions Typt .. Cairo

9 de Morocco

Morocco States of Barbary

3 do, Savuge Tribes

50 do. 3 18. Till the discovery of the powers of the magnetic needle, navigators dared not to ven. ture out of sight of land; but, about 200 years after that discovery, Columbus, a Genoese, Rware that the earth was round, conceived, that if he sailed from Europe westward, he should in time arrive at the East Indies, without having to sail around Africa.

349. He sailed accordingly from Cadiz, in the autumn of the year 1492, across the Atlantic; and, on the morning of the 12th of October, one of his anvious and mutinous crew spied land; not the East Indies, but Cat Island, oue of the Bahamas, and part of a new world, till then unknown to the other three quarters.

350. In fact, Columbus could not reach the Indies in this direction ; because the immense continent of America intervened from the Nouth Pole almost to the South America, and all its islands, were found, at this time, to be peopled by the race described in Art. 316; and among them were established the two extensive and populous empires of Mexico and Peru.

801. Unhappily these empires, and many other parts of this new world, abounded in gold and silver ; and, as the inhabitants knew not the use of gunpowder, and the rapacity of the Spaniards had no bounds, they destroyed nearly thirty millions of the natives, in a few years, to get possession of their riches.

352. The bloody successes of the Spaniards, Lowever, led other European nations to embark in the same enterprize; and, within a century, the Portuguese established themselves in the Brazils, the English iu Virginia, and the French in Canada,

Soon after, the fine islands called the West Indies, were successively colonized by different powers, for the sake of their produce in sugar, rum, and other tropical luxuries.

353. At length, in 1776, the populous Englislı colonies in North America declared themselves independent; and, after a bloody contest of seven years, they were recognized as a new empire, under the title of the United States of America, then thirteen, but now nineteen in number.

354. These States, under a free, prudent, and wise government, form now the liappiest and most Hourishing countries in the world, and are the refuge of people driven from the various nations of Europe, by ruinous wars and political revolutions. Their head is called a President; he is chosen for three years, and governs according to laws made by two houses of legis latore., 356. The chief towns are Washington, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Baltimore, and Charlestown. The chief rivers, and the finest in the world, are the Delaware, the Chesapeak, the Hudson, the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the Missouri.

356. North and westward of the United States, lie Upper and Lower Canada, two immense districts still subject to the British empire; the capitals of which are Quebec and Montreal, botla situated on the inmense river St. Laurence.

Obs. --This great river joins five lakes of fresh water, the largest in the world ; and between two of them are the grand falls of Niagara.

357. Southward of the United States, Ties the Gulf of Mexico; in which are situated, the islands called the West Indies---as Cuba, St. Do. mingo, Jamaica, Porto Rico, Barbadoes, Martinico, Guadaloupe, Tobago, St. Kitts, &c.

358. By turning to the map, it will be seen that North America is joined to South America by a long slip of land called Mexico, and the Isthmus of Darien, occupied or governed by the Spaniards, as well as the greater part of South America itsell, ever since the discoveries of Columbus.

359. In this immense continent, the three Spanish viceroye of Mexico, Peru, and BuenosAyres, have for three centuries governed countries each more extensive than all Europe, and sbouing in gold and silver, and various váluable productions.

300. South America is watered by the largest niers in the world, as the Amazons, La Plata, and Oronooko. In the Andes, it possesses the highest chain of mountains, some of them four miles high; and among thein are the most productive gold and silver mines in the world.

361. South of Peru is Chili; and south of Chili the inhospitable and frozen regions of Patágonia; among whose scanty inhabitants are soine tribes of gigantic stature, from 6 to 7 feet high. Terra del Fuego, of the Land of Fogs, is the most southerly regłon of America, and Cape Horn is its extreme point,

362. The following is an enumeration of the organized districts and countries of America :

Chief Cities.

Population. United States ...

Washington jo millions. Spanish Dominions . Salvador

6 do. British Possessions


I do. Native Tribes

2 do. SOUTH AMERICA, Spanish Dominions.... Lima

9 do, Portuguese Dominions . Rio Janeiro 2 do, Native Tribes

4 do. South Sea Islands

2do. 363. The Great or Pacific Ocean is filled with numerous clusters of islands, called the Society Islands, the Friendly Islands, the Sandwich Islands, Phillips's Island, &c. all discovered by the English within the last fifty years. The inhabitants live in a natural savage state ; and the anecdotes of their simple manners form the charm of the voyages of Wallis, Cook, and others.

364. MAPs are exact portraits of the surface of the earth, viewed as from an eminence, or


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laid down woording to a sent, in which every part retains its exact proportion.

The top of a map is the north, the bottom the south, the right-hand is tlie east, and the left-hand the west: when these points are iudi. cated by a compass engraved on the map, the north is indicated by a Heur-de-lis.

Oss. It would be well to convey the idea of the prineiple of maps to children, by showing them a plan of the place where they live, or a map of their county or district, laying it to the position of the places. 2. Young persone should

be taught the use of maps, Ny means of the problems in Goldsmith's Royal Atlag.

366. The figures running from north to south, or south to north, at the side of a map, indicate the latitude or distance in degrees or minutes from the equator. The lines ucross are mere guides to the eye, to connect the figures on each side, and are called the parallelr of latitude When the figures increase upward, it is worth latitude; if downward, it is south latitude.

960. An imaginary line, which passes over every person or place on the earth, from the north pole to the south pole, is called the Me ridians and the distance between these merit diane, measured at the equator, in called the longitude.

The figures at the bottom and top of the map indicate such distances between meridians, and the lines which join them are called meridians The longitude is east when the distance increases from left to right; or west, when it increases from right to left.

Obn-See the annexed map of the whole world and ex. amine, aludy, and copy it.

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