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led to the efforts of Luther, Calvin, Cranmer, and others.

A reformed religion was, in consequence, established in Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, Holland, and some other countries, called Protestant, from the early reformers protesting against the proceedings of a Romish council.

381. The Protestants have subdivided themselves into

Lutherans, or followers of Luther. Calvinists, or those who prefer the doctrines of Calvin.

Arminians, who follow those of Arminius.
Socinians, those of Socinus.

Anglican, who prefer the national church of England, and its rites and liturgy.

Presbyterians, who deny the authority of bishops.

Independents, who adhere to the principle that every church, or society of Christians, has a right to goveru itself without the interference of another.

Baptists, who disapprove of infunt baptism.

Quakers, who have no external religious coremonies, or sacraments.

Unitarians, who deny the doctrine of the Trinity

Swedenborgiana, who believe in the divine mission of Emanuel Swedenborg.

And Methodists, who use the church-liturgy, but preach extensporaneously.

382. The Jews still exist as a distinct people

in all parts of the world, over which they are disporred, according to ancient prophecy, preserving every where their religion and original language,

mua. In Turkey, and in most parts of Asia and Afrioa, the religion of Nahomet, an Arabian impostor of the 7th century, still prevails; and descendants of Mahomet still occupy several Asiatie and African thrones, as xultaus, empeFors, the

884. In China, the national religion is founded on the pure beliet of ONE (od: and on the moral writings of Controlus, a Chinese philo. sopher,

In India, many superstitions and much idola try prevail; but the ottoet tends to mamtain subordination and industry; while it tenches peace among mon, and charity even to animals and insects.

303. In other nations, Christianity is silently working its way among the people, and civili: zation and Christianity appear happily to go Inand in hand in Africa, in America, and among the South Sea islauders, the majority of whom entertain the grossest superstitions and idola tries.

O&s, For all necessary knowledge an the subject theology, and as a general uete-book to the Rible, and to all religious inquiries, conut Dr, Robinson's Throw logical Dictionary

XVI. Grammar. 386. The power of communicating ideas by speech is peculiar to man; but it is a power on which depends his improvement in all the arts; because the gradation and accumulation of in provements depend on co-operation and contipuation.

Neither could exint, if the power were not attained of describing improvements to the liv. ing, and of trasmitting them to posterity.

387. The language of savage nations is, how. ever, very limited : they are able to call a few hundred things by their names; to express some qualities; and name a few modes of action; but they express more by gesture than by sound : few of them can count above ten ; and when desired to express a higher number, they shew the hair of their heads.

308. The most ancient languages consisted of two or three hundred monosyllables, expressing general ideas : air, seat

, tree, man, God, house, good, bad, &c. : Kud all otlier words, by a systematic combination, were formed out of these : - Nuch were the Welsh, Chinese, and some other languages.

300. The first sounds used by savages, were mere cries of pleasure and pain; as Oh! Ah! and such other words, called INTERJECTIONS.

They next named visible objects: as rirer, tree, grass, &c.: thereby introducing a new class of words, enlled NOUNS.

They then derived from nouns, a class of words to express corresponding actions; as walk, talk, cat, drink, &c., called VERBS.

390. The next class of words were intended to describe the qualities of nouns and verbs ; as tall, swift, short, fast, &c., called ad-NOUNS and ad-VERBS.

Words, to describe the position of nouns in regard to ench other; as to, from, above, below, &c., were also among those necessary to a language, and these were called pre-POSITIONS.

391. The seventh class was a mere refinement of speech, and consisted of words used in place of nouns; as he, she, it, they, &c., called proNOUNS.

The cighth class was intended to give precision to the noun; as a man, or the man, and were, therefore, called ARTICLES.

And the ninth class consisted solely of words iutended to join others together in a discourse; as and, because, but, yet, &c.; and are called CONJUNC-tions.

392. Such were the origin and progress of speech; and such, without variation, is the general composition of language. The English, and most other languages, contain nine kinds of words, or parts of speech, named as above; and the science of grammar merely supplies general rules for their arrangement and goierimeut.

393. The classification of all words into nine kinds, enables grammarians to simplify the rules which direct the construction of language.

stead of a rule for every word, a few rules are all that becouie necessary to regulate fifty thou sand words. | Ober- l'or the details of grammar, I must refer the gtudent to my own Practical Grammar, or to any other modern grammar which is not too long and complex. My own Grammar is in its with edition and liths been most flatteringly received by many eminent schoolmastere,

394. All names of things, are called nouns or substantiven; all qualities of things, are called ad-nouna, or adjectives.

All actious are expressed by verbs.

All words, which modity actions or qualities, are called ad-verbs,

All words, which describe the position of perbons and things, are called pre-posilions,

All words, which are used instead of popus, or for nouns, are called pro-nouns,

All words, which are used to join sentences or parts of sentences, are called conjunctions.

The words a or an, and the , are called ar. ticles,

The exclamatory worls, which express carnestness or surprise, are called interjections,

396. The first written signs of words were hieroglyphics, or characters, which represented the object named by the character; and, of course, there were nearly as many characters as ideas. The characters now used for the signs of the Zodiac and the Planets are specimens of this kind of character; and so is a circle or anake, when wed to signity eternity.

300. The invention of leiters, by combining

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