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whi chall sounds could be represented, is ascribed to some wise man in the reign of Cadmus, king of Thebes. This simple contrivance facilitated the propagation and preservation of knowledge, by enabling us to express a million of words, if we desired it, by the various combination of only twenty-four or five characters.
Obs. 1.-In the GREEK LANGUAGE there are twentyfour letters ; of which seven are vowels, and seventeen consonants :
Delta ..Δίλ το
Epsilon 'Exindy e short 235.
'Ητα 90.. Theta Θητα
Sigma . Σίγμα
Omega. .'Simiyu. Plong The vowels are ", 1, , 2.-The following is the ancient HEBREW ALPHABET of twenty-two letters, of wbich five are vowels, and the rest are consonants
397. The English language consists of about 40,000 words ; and is derived from the Celtic, Gothic, and Latin; successively incorporated by the Welsh, Romans, Saxons, Banes, and Normans; and by the terms used in the sciences, derived from the Greek, French, Italian, and German languages.
898. Graminar, in a limited sense, is the art which teaches the constuction of phrases aud
sentences; but, in an extended sense it embraces the whole science of language.
The study of language is properly divided into the seven following branches : -Orthoëpy, Orthography, Accidence, Syntax, Prosody, Rhetoric and Composition.
399, Orthopy consists of rules for pronouncing letters and syllables according to the esia
Orthography is the art of writing words with the proper and necessary letters.
The Accidence treats of the modification of the different kinds of words, called parts of speech.
Syntar furnishes the rules for the proper construction and just disposition of words in a sentence.
400, Prosody teaches the right accentuation of syllables; and the different measures of verses.
Rhetoric enables us to affect or convince those whom we address in speaking or in writing, by using suitable figures of specch.
Composition teaches us to arrange our thoughts with precision and elegance; and is, consequently, the object and end of the study of language,
401. The nine kinds of words, or nine parts of speech, coinpose most languages; and there are in the English language about 20,500 nouns, 40 pronouns, 0,200 adnouns, or adjectives, 8,000 verbs, 2,000 adverbs, 00 prepositions, 19
conjunctions, 68 interjections, and 2 articles;in all above forty thousand words.
402. After we have acquired a stock of words by reading and copying the best authors, and mixing in good company, we should learn to arrange and combine them in a sentence with elegance; and in such manner, as exactly to express the sense we intend to convey, and no other than that sense ; power of writing, which is called perspicuity.
403. The great rule for the attainment of the art of composition, is to conceive, ourselves, that sentiment which we purpose to convey to others, by previously reflecting upon it; as it is impossible to express clearly to others what we do not well understand ourselves.
404. We should never desire to express too many ideas in one sentence; but dispatch them one after another in their proper order; and copfive ourselves to simple and short sentences till we have acquired facility in the management of them.
035.- The best exercise in writing and speaking in ta read a short story, and then write or epeak it, in our own phraseology. Buch nu prerrise continued every day for two yeart, one day writing, and the other sprake ing, would tench the arts of spelling, writing, and speak ing, at the same instant.
406. We should avoid all quaint phrases, cant words, vuilger proverbs, and foreign idiomis; and make our choice from the phraseology of the OH or New Testaments, the book of Common Prayer, or the works od Addison et Shake
speare; and avoid the latinized phraseology of Johnson, and the Gallio phraseology of some other modern writers,
Obs. --llappily, the translation of the Bible and the book of Common Prayer have served to preserve our language, or it would have been lost amidst the barbarous affectations of Johnson and his followers, We have no where such variety of beautiful and attecting lan. guage as in the Old and New Testaments; and these, with the book of common Prayer, and the works of pur immortal Shakespeare, will, I hope, preserve our lan. guage from the corruptions and innovations daily making in it, by those who prefer sound to sense.
406. To speak or write our ideas in an able and persuasive manner, we ought to possess ourselves of various knowledge; to read the best books on all subjects ; to suffer no hour to pass, without making some improvement; and think, talk, and write ourselves on subjects, on which we have perused the opinions of others,
407. We should commit to memory the terms and leading taots of the various Arts and Sciences; and frequently reduce to writing, striking facts or important sentiments which we meet with in reading. We should compare one author with another on the same subject; and frequently converse with others, on any points in which authors do not satisty our curiosity,
Obs. Dr. Tuvina's Elements of Composition is a lie brary for young penuons, and the study of it should fola low that of every grammar, Adaira Juestiona ander it practical for Schools,