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plenomena, and, as one mories of phenomena depends on maothur, so all existing phenomena are, in regard to others, physically tit, cumpamble, and harmonious; and, ** matter caugot originate its own motion, Aug in conn mindering motion as the proximate cause of all pleuomena, we arrive, through the asceudung series, at the sublime FIRSTCA USB sold motion and all phenomena.
009. CARNON is the base of almost all vegetas ble and animal substances. Charcoal is impure carbon; and diamond is pure carbon, except it small portion of oxygen with which it has been found to be combined. When combined with oxygon, it forms carbonio oxydo and carbonio
OA: --Carbon exists in large quantities la chalk, lime, stone, Ac From these it is procured in the form of gas, boy aluling sulphuric acid in a certain apparatus, and sold under the name of aerated or woda water, which is merely water impregnated with carbonic acid ras. Care bonile acid gas is the choho damp omiues, Oils, fare &e, are compounds of Canloon and hydrogen,
510, OXYGEN is an element or simple substanee difl'used generally through nature and its different combinations are essential to animal life and combastion,
Combined with culorie, it becomes oxygen gas; 100 parts of atmospheric air coutain 45 parts of exygen gas; and 100 parts of water consist of 80 oxygen and is nitroxen,
Obs. 1-Oxygen gas is disinguished in all other gatrous matter by several inporiant properties, main. mable substances barm in it ander the kane chemistances as in common alr, but with heutely createn with If a taper, the tanie of whlih lia Dern extinguislied, the wick only remaining Moniteul; 'be, plunged into a bottle Ruled with it, the tlame will be ustaarty rekindled, and will be very brilliant, kind manypanied by a roktung nolse. If a steel wird,' or the file having a shart point realed with a bit of wood in combustion, be introduced
A luvte s to do into a jar tiled with the gas, the steel will take fire, au its conibustion will continue to produce a most brilliant phenomenon.
2.-Oxygen gas is respirable; * small animal, rinfited in a jar filled with this gas, lives four or five tane long as in an equal quantity of conson air bence, it has been called vital ades
511. During the burning of any combustible body, the oxygen leaves the atmospherie air, and combines with the calx or resiluun, adding to its weight, and forming what is called un oxyde, or an acid.
Obs. I.-This process is called arygonetlany and it oxygen be combined with sulphur, phasphares, verbors, or any other substance in various degrees, it will produce oxydes or acids of strength proportioned to the degree of oxygenation; which are distinguished by the terminations our and ic; thus, in regard to sulphur and phosphorus, we vary,
. Oxyde of sulphur; 1. Oxyde of phosphorus; 2. Sulphurous acid; 2. Phosphorous acid; 3. Sulphurio acid.
3. Phosphoric acid. 2.-Combined with metals in varioin degrees, oxygen produces oxydes of different colours ; as grey oxyde of lead, red oxyde of lead, &o,
512. Hydrogen is one of the most abundant principles in nature; and 15 parts of it combined with 85 of oxygen, form water.
It is only to be met with in the gåseous form; and, being 19 times lighter than atmospheric air, is employed to fill balloons,
It is also inflammable, and is the gas called the fire-damp, so often fatal to miners. It is the chief constituent of oils, fats, spirits, ether, coals, and bitumen.
Obsydrogen is always produeed from water, muid WATER is formed by the union of oxygen with Hyone OWN. Its existence in water is manllested by water in
a state of vapour being madle to pass over iron wire made red-hot, the oxygen of the water then combines with the iron, the water disappearing, and the hydrogen gas remains.
2.-The process for filling balloons, is by mixing five parts of water with one of sulphuric acid; and, by pouring the mixture on iron filings, the light gas, by the decomposition of the water, will rise into tie balloon; and the balloon, being 12 times lighter than the atmospheric air, will rise through it.
3.-Carburetted Hydrogen gas is now very extensively Usecin lighting the streets of London and other towns. It is distilled from coals, and purified by passing through lime-water. It is then conveyed into a reservoir, called a Gazometer, and from thence through pipes, in light streets, houses, churches, theatres, and shops.
Nitrogen is not to be found in a solid or liquid state ; but, when combined with caloric, it fornis azotic gas, in which no animal can breathe, ok any combustible burn.
Seventy-eight parts combined with 99 parts oxygen, form 100 parts of atmospheric air. In a higher degree of oxygenation, as 30 to 70, it produces nitrous gas; and, still higher, nitric acul.
Obs. 1.--As oxygen is absorbed during burning of breathing, and as soon as the 22 parts, or nearly, of oxygeu are absorbed, the remainder is nitrogen, and becomes me. philic, or deadly, being incapable of sustaining life or flame.
2.-The re-production of oxygen appears in the process of vegetation; healthy plants exposed in the sunsbine to air, containing small quantities of carbonic acid gas, destroy that elastic fluit, and evolve oxygen gns; su That the two classes of organized beings are thus dependent.
3.-It has lately been found, that azote generates urie acid, and gravel and stones iv the klidneys, and hence animal food has properly been forbidden tu persons subject to those allicting disorders.
614. CHLORINI, or Oxymuriatic Acid Gas, ig an elementary sulistauce, of a yellowish green colour; and it is this circuinstance which suggested its name. Its odour is extremely disagreeable. It is not capable of being respired, and even when mixed in very small quautities with common air, renders the air extremely pernicions to the lungs. When an intumed taper is introduced into a phial filled with it, the light coutinues, but of a dull red colour.
Obs.-Chlorive has never been found pure in nature; but exists in many compounds ; particularly in cominon salt, and it may even be produced from that substance.
515. Sulpitur is an inflammable substance found in the neighbourhood of volcanoen, com
bined with earths and metals, from which it is separated by sublimativu in a furnace,
30s.-- Whent combined with oxygen, it forms pillon phurie nud sulphurons acid. This is waually down my burning the sulphur in leader chambers, the town of which are covered with water, with a quantity of nitre that in, one part la mine parts of sulphur) which we fords oxygen tor ihe formation of the acid which is coor denned by the water. The water in then drawn of V.. porated by boiling, and afterwards distilled in retort : the result in sulphuric acid, on oil of vitriol. Sulphur combines with hydrogen, the alkalies, the eartlin, and wetale. These combinations are called sulphurets.
620. Phosphorus is # simple substanee, found in a state of combination with the bones of animals, from which it is extracted.
Its tendency to unite will opgen is so great, that it always burns in the open air; and bursts into flame, at a degree of heat a little above that of the human body.
Its counbinations with earths and metals are called phosphurets.
Ons --Many amusing experiments may be performed with ing but great care should be taken, and is loanin of water kepe at hand, for it will kindle into an unextion guishable name by slight friction,
821. Chernists, by separating earths from toreign matters, and from each other, have disco vered nine primitive Earths, which are not so. luble in water or by beat: they are, ** humine,
Mugnasta, OD These earths combine with acids, alkalies, ory. gen, nulphur, phosphorus, the metals, and with ench other, in various proportions ; and four of them merit special notice.