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Sulphurous acid is found in aomc mineral waters: alkali, or soda, in others; and salts, as sulphuts, hitrais, murints, and carbonats of sochat, or Time: and in chalybeute waters, the carlouat otison
(64-The few of the pretrpce nf carbonic acid in titig mineral water is an infusion of litmun, which will he turned red by water containing ito mud thin neid also gives the brink oc* of ebampaign into whatever it entern, and an acidulated favour to water, Any acid contmiued in any water, may he detected by its curning the Infusion of violeta, red. . Alkalies in water muy, in like manner, be detected, by turning the infusion of violets, green. The inanion of dry violets, or paper tained with them, answers best. The infunion of turmerie, or paper stained with turmerie, is rendered hrown by alkalies or reddish brown, if the quantity in minun when the change in temporary, it in volatile aikali. Sulphur and bitumen may be deiecteil, by the smell and taste, Iron, in mineral water, may be detected by Prunsint of potasi, which will precipitate it, and linge it blue. The solu. tion of galls also is an exquisite free of the presence of front. When there in copper in water, it will now itwell on the surface of any piece of bribe fron put into it. I arsenic, the residuum will tiug (pper, site.
531. The vegetable kingdom utfords manifold beautiful instances of the chemistry of nature. Water may be esteemed the chief 14 bulum of vegetables, which reducing it to its first principles, appropriate its hydrogen and Oxygen in the formation of their respective con stiluent parts.
Air, light, and hent, aid the several processes, whilst the application of manure not only adds to the quantity of nutriment, but at the same Ume stimulates the vegetating principle to in creased action. (See No. 448 10 418)
632. Vegetable substances, subjected to
FERMENTATION, produce, under different cir eumstances, either WINE, from which AlcuIOI. may be obtained, or the AekTIC ACID, le med vinegar, Besides which the following neid may be obtained from vegetables: benzoic. citric, gullie, mulie, oxulie, phosphorie, prusic, tarturie, &e.
6:3, BITUMINS are certain bodieu, wbiedt have considerable resemblance 10 resins and oils, and are found in suloterraneous sit4
06. =- Naphthu is a yellow and transparent Anid, vo Jatile, strongly smelling, and very lights and detroleum resembles naplatha,
Jedinale a bruminops substance, holding mwel car bon, Canal coat is of the name class, but contains more earth, (uneoneon las itu bituminous constituent in turpected by plates of carbonate of Time and oudburet ut iron,
0313*. Animal substances, although contains ing some of the same principles found in the vegetable kingdom, still wanitent cousiderable differences in their wepective analysen
Welatine or Jellu, employed in the ans, as glue abundantly obtained from the skin ut' animals.
Aluwen, is that substance which forins wbud la terred the white of eak,
Muruv hne been determined by the same chemat la be fostaneed in tbe thiekening subalance contained in galva and yelile u precipitate on the addition of strutear silver, and more fully by anotate of lead,
Forin, or the throne pare the blood, in obtained from the medew of animals, or by agitation and waster ing of clotted blood,
Urea do A yellow erystalline substance, of preuliar muell and taste, ablained fram urine, ni A. . Acelarime after la formed in animal proqrveni se! !
Bones are formed of cartilage, gelatine, and fat, de. riving their bardness from the early sects which exist in them ahyodandy. These are phosphate Hud carbonate of lime, and perhaps a small proportion of magnesin,
Shells are formed of the salts of lime, deposited on ani. mal matter disposed in lamella. In bones, there phosphata af dime is most abundant; but in shells, the carbonate of Time prevails:
The Muscles, ot filesh of animals, contain albumen, gelatine, and extractive matter, but are chiefly composed bifibrin,
The skin is divisible into the cutiile, epidermis ar seunf$#in, and the cutis or true skin. The former appears in consist chierly of coagulated albumen, and the latter of gelatine: hence, it may be observed, that it is this part from which the jelly is obtained. * Sperniaceti is fouod in the head of the sperinaceti whale ; whilst from its blubber is obtained truin oil, The fat of some animals, as of the ox and sheer, becoinos # hard substance, whilst that of hogs is much softer.
'Marrow, which is contained in The long bones of unimals, is an animal fixed oil, of peculiar properties, somewhat resembling butter.
Hair, exiats in the different forms of doon, wool, and Aristles.
Feathers appear much to resemble hair in their component parts. The quill, Mr. Hatchett has showu, is chielly formed of hardened albumen.
Blood separates, on standing, into cruor or coagulum, and the serum or tuid part, The cruor contains Asrin which is manifested in a wbite, solid, and elastic form, by washing the clot; and the colouring matter of the blood, which was long supposed to be iron, bui is of an animal nature. The serum is a duid of a greenish yellow, which coagulates at 158, and is divisible into albumen and serosity. The blood coutajos water, fibrin, albumen, benzoic acid, hydrosulphuret of amınauti, sud, raba* phosphate of iron, muriate of soda, phosphate of soda and of lime.
Bile, secreted by the liver of animals into the gall. bladder, is of a dark yellowish green colour, of an une thous fecl, a peculiar smell, and a bitter tasto. It con.
tains a resin, and a substance peculiar to bile, da plerumet, * whitish solid substance formed into globs. with water and salis, chiefly phosphate of lime, nuriate, sulphate, and phosphate of soda,
Definition 1, - When mie chemical substance de poses another, it is called a chemical test.
- If sult be misai in water, it is said to be in sitt tion, and the water is called the menstruun.
3.--If no more salt will dissolve, the water is sa" be saturated,
4. - Il' we would extract the salt, we must eropa de the water by heat, with a still, or retori, or alembic en if the wurour from either of these pass through a spload tube or warm, to the receiver, we shall have distik water, and the residuum of salt will remain in the spil
5.-Solid ambulances are reduced into powders by for turation, pulverization, and levigation : brittle subsias are pulverized by means of lammers, Vestles and we tara, stones and mullers,
0,-- The separation of the finer parts of bodies tropeste the coarser is performed by means of ifting or :)
9,-- Filtration is a finer species of 'sitting, perfurred through the pores of paper, flannel, fine linen, sand, de. It is used only for separating fluids from solids.
M. -"waion, or the melting of a solid body, by the actions of heat, required, according to their several naturen, eta cibles of diferent kinds strong enough to resist the fires made of earthenware, porcelain, or a mixture of day and powder of bland lead, or of black-trad altogether
9. Sometimes crucibles have covers inade of earter Wate, but in other cases the fused metal must be exposed to a current of air, for this purpose the cruciblek irat broad and shallow, anıt are called tupels.
10. -- llou-pipes are used for directing the flume or Candle or lamp against any piece of ore or other substance required to be examined and when the indianehle anes are used instead of courmion air, the heat is molt
II, The various degrees of heat whteti are requerid for the perfon sauce at chemical operations, eender it ore (nary that the chemist should also be ponehed er ufar #16, -See Urammar of Photnsophy.