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I. Introductory Particulars. 1. KNOWLEDGE is either necessary and useful, or ornamental and luxurious.
It distinguishes civilized from savage life. Its cultivation in youth promotes virtue, by creating habits of mental discipline; and by inculcating a sense of moral obligation.
Knowledge is, therefore, the best foundation of happiness.
2. Necessary Knowledge is that which sinnply provides man with food; and with the means of sustaining life.
3. Useful KNOWLEDGE is that which teaches the arts of agriculture, clothing, building, reoring health, preserving social order, main taining national independence, and rendering the produce of all climates subservient to the wants of our own.
4. Ornamental KNOWLEDGE relates to subu jects of taste; as drawing, painting, poetry, gramniar, geometry, eloquence, history, music, dancing, dramatic representation, and ihe living languages.
8. Liinews NVOWEngr includes abstinct enquiries: as plante metaphysics, many branches of experimental philosophy, heraldry. antiquities, and the dead laugnages.
6. Man is an animal endowed with the pows ers of communication, memottinesociation, imia tation, reflecom, and reasoning: talents gireit hium by his Maker; for the good use of which he will be accountable in a future state.
7. In his unimpreved and uncnirea contin tfout, man is nakerl, witlont habitation, without means of defence er onlence, and possessed of no means of subsistence, besides the wild fruits and spontancous produce of the earth.
3. To this day, some vations live baked in caverns under ground, perform nu labour, and depend for their subsistence on the spontaneous products of the earth, and on the tiesh of animals, which they destroy by simple stratagens.
Odkriton --Such are some of the various of Africa, the inhabitants of New Holland, the people of many of the North Sea Islands; the Greenlandets the lives of Hudson's Bays and some of the Siberian harians of mhom, very carious particulars will be find os of' vorages and travels, and in Goldsmiths popular con tem of viewgraphy
9. Till the Romans invalled England, the Britons lived naked, chierty under ground, painting their bodies of various eviours, bestening to cultivation on the soil, and dependa
This minisjon of knom levige in tavoidably imper fere is little respected in the details of this work
The observations are not the commiteit to me mort but to he rear by the pupil to the tetor, or by the pupil alone
ing for subsistence on acorns, berries, and roots, aud their skill and success in liuoting and tishing
Obs.---The people of Britain are indelsted to thegreat ambition of Julius Cæsar for the introduction into forse islands of those arts of civilization, which had travelled from the (tanges iuro Persia, from Persin into Egypt, from Egypt to Greece, nod from Cưeece into laly. whenco, by the lust of copquest, they were spread over Europe, In like manner, at this day, and from the same causes, the English are the flystruments of relecting back the arts of civilization, amended by a true religion, to the banks of the Ganges and, oi disseinionting the same blessings among the Africans, the Americans; and the Insulated people of the South Sea Islands.
10. The Romang introduced among the Brions, all the arts and knowledge which they had themselves received from the Greeks; and laid the foundation of that social state, in which we find ourselves'in England, after the lapse of nearly two thousaud years.
Obs. -- To take a view of knowledge, as it has extended itself froin the most barbarous and uncultivated times, down to this age of literalure, science, and philosophy i and to render the whole plain and familinx to young uniwds, and to the mennest capacities, are the objects of the present work
11. 'Of the simple Arts of Savage Life. -11. The arts of savage life are those wbiclrs were possessed by the ancient Britons; anım which are witnessed at this day, among all barbarous people. They include the arts of' swim
hunting, taking aim with missile weapons, and procuring fire.
19. The art of swimming, depends, first, on keping the arms and hands under the water ion protruding only the face and part of the head out of the water; and then using such action, as will direct the body in any particular course.
08. -The inferior animals swim without justruction because they are unable to lift their forelegs over their heads. The seeret of this art depends, then, on keeping down the bande and arme, mid acting under the water with them. The parts of any body which rise out of the water, sink the parts that are immersed within ito s
13. Hunting is performed by mont savage nations on foot, and their only weapons are clubs. The swiftest of foot, and the strongest, usually become, therefore, Chicfs among such people.
Obkleuter, Hercules, the hero of antiquity, is drawn with no other weapon than a club, with whicls, alone, be ja unid to have performed all his wonderful exploita Home nationg, lilile removed above savngen, are, however, found in have acquired the use of bows and arrowy.
14. In taking aim willi missile weapons, the precision which savage nations have attained, is wonderful. In throwing a stone, they seldom miss the smallest matk; they transfix fish in the water; knock down birds on the wing; and strike every enemy with unerring exaciness.
034,--Every one is actuainted with the succes of the shepherd David, in killings Goliah. Even mucli by the precision of the South Sea islandere at the present day.
16. The greatest attainment of savage life is thic
procuring of artificial fire ; but this was not art not known to all barbarous people. The in habitants of Vie Ladrones considered fire as an invisible monster, when the Spaniards first 'intraduced it among them.
16. The l'exajuns, aod other eastern nutions,
after they had once arquirre, or obtained fire. made its preservation & religious duty; and five Aras coutinued in their leiuples, without being once extinguished, tior many hundred years Horce, they bee time, or were considered, fireworshippers.
17. Among suvages, the usual mode of producing fire, is, by the rapid friction of two pieces of wood till they produce dame. Having no metals, they do not possess the simple method of communicating # spark to tinder, by the violent collision of Hint and steel.
18. The cloathing of savage nations has reference solely to the inciemency of the weather'; and consists generally of the skins of animals, or of the natural products of vegetables, with out preparation or the intervention of art.
10. A precarious mode of subsistence is so unfavourable to the human species, that, it is found, savage tribes, in a series of ages, do not increase their numbers: and that they often become altogether extinct.
20. In the back settlements of North America, the souls in the various halt-starved savage tribes, do not exceed twenty thousand ; while, on an equal space of country in China, two or three hundred millions, uided by the arts of civilization, are much better fed and provided for. 1 - 21. The wretched Indians who reside in the districts that Burround Hadson's Bay, oftea pass a week together without food; and the quently die of want, during the case of an ani