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604. The ground-plane, is the plane or level, on which boili alle spectator, and the objects that are to be drawni, stand.,

The perspective plane is a supposedl plane standing perpendicularly upon the ground plane; anel ou this plane, as on a pune of glass, the images of objects are supposed to be intercopied; so that their perspective appearance, which drawin, is the appearance they would bave on this plane.

The ground line is the liye on which the pernoctive plane is supposed to rest.

006. The point of night, is that point in the perspetive plane which is ucarest or opposite the cy; and is ut tbe same proportional line tauce on the 10ml-line, as the height of the eye is above the ground plano. The horisontal line, in a lino прон


per spective planr, dawa through the point of Bight, and parallel to the ground.live.

The propendicular, is a line on the perspec. tive plane, drawit through the point of sight, perpendicularly to the ground-line, and 10 The horizontal line.

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The point A, where the perpendicular and horizontal lines cross, is the point of sighi, or vanishing point, of all lines perpendicular to the perspective plane.

686. Points of distance are points on the perspective planc set off from the point of siglit; sometimes on the horizontal line, sometimes on 'the perpendicular ;-at the same proportional distance froin the point of sight, as the eye itself is from the objects. | Measuring points are points, from which any lives in the perspective plane are measured, by Ja ying a ruler from them to tre divisions luid down upon the ground line.

Vanishing points are points, on the perspectire plane, in which parallel lines seem to meet, or vanish:

687. The rules for drawing are,

1. That all lines perpendicular to the groundplane, should be perpendicular to the groundline'; and all lines parallel to the perspective plane, must be drawn parallel to each otlrsr.

2. That all parallel lines mect, or hure unnishing points, in some part of the perspective plan.

3. If the lines lie upon the ground-plane, they will vanish somewhere in the horizontal line; which is, therefore, called the vanishing line of the ground-plane.

4. If parallel lines be perpendicular to the ground-line, they will vanish in the point of sight.

0. If they be oblique to the ground-line, or have a declination from sucli perpendicular, thien

the angle of this obliquity or declination must be set ofl.

088. All the measures of lines upon the ground-plane, are to be laid down upon the ground-line, and the measuring point of all lines parallel to the ground-line, is either of the points of distance on the horisontal line, or the point of sight.

"The measuring point of any line, perpendicular to the ground-line, is in the point of distance on the horizontal line; and the measuring point of a line oblique to the ground-line, is found by extending the compasses from the va. nishing point of that line to the poiut of distance on the perpendicular, and setting it off on the horizontal line.

Obu. ---The above rular committed well to memory will, with some practical instructions from a master, or by practice only, cuable the student in drawing, lo place ni bilo objects la due perspective.

600. The art of painting in oil-colours is the most deservedly admired of scientific arts, whics carried to perfectiou. The requisites of a great painter are,

Correct drawing, without which, all other art is lost : i Junt perceptions of grace and beauty :

Invention, which implies a perfect knowledge of his subject in all its relations, and a choice of the subject adapted to his art :

Composition, or the agreeable distribution, and ellective grouping, of his figures and objects, in his rough, preparatory design:


Colouring, or the imitation of naturei "her happiest moods: this branch of Art avoids all violent transitions and unnatural glares, and renders distant objects less distinct than dear ones.

* The Poet dreamarthe shadow dies,

Aud fainting fast, its image dies,

But lo! the Painter's magic force
“Arrests the phantom's feeting course.
" It lives-it lives--the canvass glows
" Aud enfold vigour o'er it flows.
“The Bard beholds the work achieved,

" And as he sees the shadow rise, “ หนอน”

* ** Sublime before his wond'ring eyes,
“ Starts at the image his own mind conceiv'd.".

M. K. WAIT 690. Paintings, in regard to their subjects, are called historical, landscape, or portrait;

and to the painters, they are divided into
schools or countries ;
As, The Italian school,

The German school,
The Flemish school,
The Dutch school,
The French school,

And the English school. Each of these schools has treated the practice of painting in its peruliar manuer, and each, with exquisite beauty and admirable

effect. Hobs.- Nothing can be more unlike, than an historical painting of the Italian and Duteh schools, nor than a portrait of the German and English schools; yel, cacha hats its admirers and distinctive merits,

691. The great masters of the Italian school, were Michael Angelo, Raffaelle or Raphael, Titian, Corregio, the three Carraecis, Carlo Ma

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ratti, Carlo Dolei, Guide, del Sarto, Parmegiang, Dalvator Rosa, Romana, Caravaggio, Paul Vero Aeg, and Guereina: besides a hundred others, Ante original, and some copiers of the great maniera,

The great painters of the Clerman school, were Albert Durer, Molbein,, Kneller, and Mengs,

002, of the Dutch school, were Rembrandt, Gerard Dow, Mieris, Ostade, Polymberg, der ghem, and Wouvemians,

of the Flemish sehool, were Neubens, Te: niera, Jordaeos, and Vandyck,

The admired painters of the French sehool, are Claude, Poussin, Le Brun, Le Syeur, Vien, and David,

The Spaniards alao have had their Murilla, and Velasques,

608. The eminent painters of the English dehool, are Hogarth, Wright, Reynolds, Wilson, West, Northeate, Gainsborough, Norland, Barry, Copley, Westall, Deris," simirke, Tresham, Wilkie, Daniel, Turner, Canant, law. rence, Pocock, Bone, Opie, and many others still living, whose worka may be seen in the aty Dual exhibitions of the Royal Academy,

XXXIII. Heraldry 004. During the Holy Wars, and the ages when close armour was worn, the warriora ene blazoned or painted their shields and work eredda in their helmpts, to distinguish them in the field of battle,

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