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clothe themselves in mats made of reeds or ve getable fibres ;"bthers render pliable the common bark of trees, but none of these will wash, and they are not durable.
Civilized man, however, adapts the means of nature to his purposes, by a process of his own; he separates the fibres themselves, then twists them into thread, and by interweaving this thread, he obtains a pliable and durable material.
115. The most useful plant for this purpose, is flax. It is cultivated like wheat; and, as soon as its seeds are ripe, it is pulled up by the hand: the seed-vessels are taken off, and the stems are put into pits of water, till the mucilaginous or other matter, which holds the fibres of the stalk together, is decayed.
116. After the stalks have been taken out of the pits, they are dried, beaten, and combed, till what remains is fine, loose, and shining : the flax is then spun, or twisted by a distust, and wound on' a reel or spindle. This thread is either adapted for needie-work or is given to the weaver to be woven into linen cloth by his loom
117. The process of weaving is simple :---the threads in their length are called the warp ; and are drawn tight by weights at one end; at the other, they are divided into two sets, cach set composed of alternate threads ;-on moving a treadle, one set, or every other thread, ig. thrown up,' and the other set is biought down; ani, at this instant, a cross thread or roof is Thrown between them by means of a shuttle..
The lower set of ends are then raised, and the other brought down, and the woof is again thrown between. The operation is thus vont nued, till the whole length of the warp has been interwoven with cross threads.
08. 1.A Qure of a simple loom is here given in whielt, abe paid referred to above may easily be traged The foring of looms are, however, various, and orien very intrieate: There are soekine loomg, or frames, ait. Inome, cloth-looms, emitonainoms, lider looms, eatabfiea 19omo, carpet-leeing, lace-loome, e.
9:---At the loom is one of the most important of social homines, ile prineiple of motion ought to be well undera movil. Lokas piece of linen with the eye, or with only imple magnifer, and it will be seen, that the loom 48 imply regged the threndo, and thereby malled the shule lagellier. The four Angera present themselves, we the innat ample illustration of its action but the student mai fusten sin et eight pieces of thing to wall, te pe pipent the warp, ayd then by Falling every other one, and deprezing the others, he will be able to pass the #ouf by any contrivance, whteh will represent the shoes lle, Ite may tho make a piece of packthread-cloth . sed on, completely ilustrate the priociple of weaving
110. After the piece lo heen woven, lt reumire to be bleached lay the ait aud auu, or by exposure to some poid. It is afterwards, if de
ART OB CLOTHING.
33 2009,bizturs sired, printed to any pattern; by means woeks of wood, out out to the pattern, and in then pressed and glazed before it is used. d!
Much skills and experience are required in fixing colours, so that they will not wash ont, but in printing, dying, and similar arts, the Hindous and Chinese excel all qutious.
119. Hemp is another fibrous statke, much cultivated for the manufacture of ropes and sailcloth. But the fibrous substance, now the most used for every purpose of clothing and furniture, is the product of the cotton-tree, or plant.
ods.--Iuliemp, as in fax, it is the cortical part which ie retained for these of the magufacturer & the pith ar medullary part of the stalk being broken and separated from it.
The cotton wool is found in a state nearly fit for the manufacturer, in the seed-pod of the plants; and in the West Indies, they yield two crops
in the year. 120. Hundreds of ships arrive every year from the West Indies, laden with this material.' The chief manufactories of cotton are in Late' cashire and Lanark-shire; and they are wou(fers of buma: invention.
The articles ased in clothing, produced from this substance, are juuslins of every degree of tineness, corduroys, sheeting, calicoes, quilting, bed-furniture, hangings, &c.; all of which have been the means of extending the coinmerce of Britain to every part of the world, Vobr,--Manufactories of cotton are now scattered all ovane United Kingdom ; and employ a million of inelus woman and children.
121. The wonderful operations of a COTTON. MILL, liave been so correctly described by Darwin'; that they will be much better remenbered in that form, ilaj in prose :
First, with nice eye, emerging maidens culi 1. From leathery pode, the vegetable wool)
With więy teeth revolving cards release
While slowly circumvolves the labiring wheel below 122. Civilized map does not disdain to convert the covering of animals to his purpose; but he changes their appearance, and prepare them, so as at once to preserve and clear them from offensive odours.
One of the most common articles of external clothing is derived from the wool of the sheep : and this forms the most admired and useful, of the native manufactures of Great Britain.
123. The flerce, as it comes from the animal, is first pickód und sorted; and then cleunbed Troni stains, dirt, and grease. The wool-comber afterwards prepares it for the spinner; who twists it into woollen-iliread called worstell, or yarn. Of late yerr's, the twisting has been put formed by worsted-wills, on the plan of cotions
124. This varn, or worsted, is then wono in a lvom into cloths, flannels, of stockings, of van
rious degrees of fineness, according to the nature of the fleece: the weaver delivers the cloths to the fuller; who, by means of fuller's earth, aleprives it of all remaining grease.
It is, afterwards, dyed of any required colour; then it is pressed, and, finally, sold under the name of broad and narrow cloth, 10' the draper, tailor, or merchant
035.- England and Wales feed 36 millions of sheep ; each of which, yields a fleece of four pounds wcight ; or 144 millions of pounds at Is. per pound, value 7,400,0001. These manufactured, produce 20 inillions of pounds sterling; leaving a profit of upwards of 12 inillions per anaun, to the manufacturers,
125. Carpets are another production of wool; and in making them, the warp is worked perpendicularly instead of horizontally. The fine shawls of the East, (lately so well imitated in this country,) are made from the fine wool of the sheep, which range the mountains of Thibet,
Obs. --Cable-ropes; of superior strength and durability, bave lately been made from the long wool; which is use1ean for clothing
126. Man's finest clothing, bowever, is de rived from the web of a crawling insect, or caterpillar, called the silk-worm. All the coun: sties of the south and the cast preserve and popagate this insect; and the produce of its labours, forins a considerable article of con: merce with China, India, Persia, Turkey, Italy, and the South of France.
127. The worm is hatched by the heat of the $u!!!, from eggs laid by lively moth; in the preceding year, . Its tood is the leaves of the mulberry; in which tree it lives in warm cli