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mates. After it attains its full growth, it winds 'itze in its silky web, attached to one of the leaves; and in this cone of silk, it is converted into a chrysalis !

128. In a few days, the chrysalis produces a lively and delicate moth, which eats its way out of the cone of silk ; Gutters its wings for a few days, lays eggs for future supplies of silk worms,

and then dies! Such is the curious and won. derful economy of this insect, which supplirs iman with the material of silk. See the cutar ter paragraph 505.

120. The cones of raw silk are about the size of a pigeon's egg! and each of them, when wound off, contains, in length, a quarter of a mile! These webs, after slight preparations, are spun into thread, by machinery in silk-mills, and then called organized or thrown silk, The weaver converts the thread into the various clegant fabrics made of silk, and the dyer and prover finish them for consumption.

Obs. -- Attempts have been made to render the web of the spider useful and stockings ha ev artwally been made of this material ! to short, whatever nhan can apio isto thread, bir comtrives to weave into entients: and in this reapree Here is no bound to his traterials, but in nature.

130, llats are made of the five hair of ani. vals, foted, or beat; and then gummed fogether, till they are tenacious and firmu, Shoes and gloves are made of the hides of animals, first prepared by the tanner and currier by ex pelling the fully and unetuous matter of the

mal, and infusing into its place an astrinHent, Dale of ouk back

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Skins are steeped many weeks in the tan-pits bør bark infusions, undergoing this conversion :

and they are then shaved and coloured by the a currier, for their various uses.vats al 8r wote. Vm of Government and Laws.

131. The heads and fathers of Famiiies were anciently their governor's; and this kind of

goverament, was called Patriarchal. The histories of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, are beautiful illustrations of this state of huinan society,

132. When the family grew too large, the branches sometimes separated, as wel observe in the instance of Abraham and Lot, and of Jacob and Esau; but when they resided together, some one would be regarded as the head: in due tine, 1 title would be given to this ruler; and he would be called a chief, captain, judge, dictator, king, sultan, or emperor. Po :133. Such was the origin of governments ; band they would prove of various trodencies, according to the character of the first rulers. Any quarrel between two tribes, would give to both of them a military character.

He who got the better, would be in danger of being inspired with a love of conquest; hence,

much misery would arisé. In time, mariy tribes me or families would unite into one as well tor offence as defence; such, doubtless, was the origin of nations.

34. The land of Canaan, when invaded by the Israelites, was sub-divided in this way, ito


putty tribes; so was Britaire, when it was in. vaded by Cæsar; Italy, also, was divided in the same way, before the ambition and inilitary character of certain Romans led them to make war with their neighbours.

Suel, 100, is the state of live thousand nanıcless tribes in North and South America : in Africa, Tartary, and Siberia, at this day.

135. Every man in a suciety, or nation, is bound to respect its welfare ; to do nothing in, jurious to its ruembers; and to conform himself to the rules or laws by which it is held together, maintained, and protected. By obeying the laws bimselt, he sets au example to others; and he also partakes of the coinmon benefit and protection afforded by them.

What constitutes a stale ?
Not high-rula'd buttlement or Inbouf'd mound,

Thick wall or moated gate :
Not cities prond, with opires and turrels crown'd,

Not biya, and broad-arın'd poris,
Wherr. Inughing at the storm, rich onvies ride,

Not star'd and spangled court,
Where low-bred buseness wafts perfuite lo pride.

No--Men, high-minded men,

Meo why their duties know.
But know their rights, and knowing dare inaintain,

Prevent the long nim'd blow,
And crush tho tyrant while obry rend the chain.

These coustilate a state. 136. A Constitution is that plan of government and system of laws, under which a people live together in the same society. Ta Britain, for example, we have a chief agistrate, ar King, to execute the laws and conduct the butia

win, W. JON.

ness of the government, and we have two houses of parliament, to concur with the king in making laws, and levying money : this arrangement is called the Constitution of Great Britain.

137. The two houses of parliament consist of about 400 peers, or nobles, in the House of Lords; and of 658 members, elected by and representing the people, in the House of Commons.

No law can be enacted without the joint consent of the king, lords, and commons; and nothing can be done contrary to the laws so made : or to the established and known customs, or Common Law, of the country.

138, No tax can be levied on ilic people, unless it originates in the House of Commons; and is first approved of by that assembly. The creation of peers and transactions with foreign nations, belong to the office of King; as do tlie direction and appointment of the Army and Navy, and the management of Wars.

139. The laws of England consist of the Common Law, the Statute Law, and the Civil Law.

The Common Law is the ancient Law of England, supposed to be derived from the Saxon laws, and founded on principles of rcasou and justice, on the revealed laws of God, and on the iinmenorial customs and rights of the people.

The Statute Laws are particular laws to declare, enforce, and modify, the common, law; and are made by the gwo Houses of Parliament, and assented to by the King,

The Civil Law is the law of our spiritua courts and universities; and is derived from the ancient laws of the Romans, as condensed into # code by the emperor Justinian,

140, 'I'he laws are administered in the king's Lame, in the courts of King's Benoh, Exchequer, and Common Pleas, and also at assizes in coumty towns, by two judges; of' whom, there are twelve in England."

There is also a court of Equity, called the Court of Chancery: in which, in particular cases, the letter of the law is moderated.

Obs.There in danger la every country, that those who use aud practise the law may abuse it, and such now to unhappily the case in Britain the people being ground to powder, and vilely abused by the chicanery and villany of low attoroies. A code, such as that made by Justinian, is now called for in Eogland in the people may be relieved from the veration of law-suits by Arbitrations i but they should never refer to a barrister or lawyer

141. There are also courts of quarter-nesalons held by justices of the peace, for trying petty offenders, and by corporate bodies, who Rot under the king's charter.

Courts of request, or of conscience, are instituted for the recovery of debts under five pounds.

142. In Britain no man can be put on him trial, sor any ottener', unless twelve of a Grand JURY have declared, in a bill of indictment, that there is cause for trying him; und he cannot be convicted or punished, except a verdict buo been given against him by another JURY,

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