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PART 1.

FOREIGN COUNTRIES ;

THEIR

AREA, POPULATION, FISCAL AFFAIRS, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIES, COMMERCE, SHIP

PING, RAILROADS, TELEGRAPHS, BANKING, AND MONEY.

EUROPE.

GREAT BRITAIN.

AREA AND POPULATION.

The area and the distribution of population of the United Kingdom were as follows at the census taken April 1, 1891, and at previous enumerations :

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The estimated population at the end of June, 1897, was: England and Wales, 31,055,355 ; Scotland, 4,218,279; Ireland, 4,550,929 ; total United Kingdom, 39,824,563. Total population in 1861, 29,321,288; in 1851, 27,745,942; in 1841, 27,057,923.

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EMPLOYMENTS OF POPULATION IN ENGLAND AND WALES IN 1891.

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REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

The following table shows the actual revenue and expenditure for the years ending March 31, They are revised so as to exclude, in accordance with the system now adopted, the army and navy extra receipts, and the contributions by India for military charges, formerly brought to account as revenue: Expend

Expend-
Year.
Revenue.
iture.
Year.
Revenue.

iture. 1883. £87,368,505 .£87,288,327 1891.

£89,489,112 £87,732,855 1884 86,160,184 85,954,564 1892.

90,994,786 89,927,773 1885. 87,938,110 89,037,883 1893.

90,395,377 90,375,365 1886. 89,581,301 92,213,844 1894.

91,133.410 91,302,846 1887 90,772,758 89,996,752 1895.

94,683,762 93,918,421 1888 89,802,25 € 87,423,645 1896.

101,973,829 97,761,357 1889 88,472,812 87,68 1,830 1897.

103,948,885 101,476,669 1890.

89,304, 316 86,083,314 1898 (estimated). *11:2,704,000 101,549,000

SOURCES OF REVENUE, 1895, 1896, AND 1897.

(Net Receipts.)

CUSTOMS.

Year
Currants, Spirits,

Tobacco

Other Mis-
Ending
Raisins, F'gn &

and

Imp't'd cellan's Mch. 31. Coffee. D'd Fruits. Colonial, Tea. Snuff. Wine. Articles. Rec'ts. Total. 1895.... £170,025 £396,602 £4,197,260 £3,587,632 £10,415,139 £1,143,698 £197,400 £31,193 £20,138,948

167,673 395,186 4,216,921 3,746,194 10,748,5:22 1,254,994 203,297 29,826 20,762,413 1897.... 172,333 401,244 4,318,192 3,799,372 11,108,018 1,296,181

36,489 21,286,131

1896....

224,272

EXCISE.

1895. 1896. 1897

Total. £25,875,626 26,826,755 27,435,096

Chic- Coffee Mix

Other
Beer. Spirits. ory. ture Labels. R'ways. Sciences. Receipts.
£10, 102,050 £15,269,296 £1,523 £2,101 £260,694 £236,086 £3,876
10,718,719 15,603,680 651 1,808 259,342 238,540 4,015
10,901,094 16,103, 412 1,502 1,792 272,183 210,866 4,247
ESTATES

STAMPS
Total Estate,

Bills of Ex'ge, Life and Rec'ts, Drafts,
Legacy, Suc- Deeds, Bankers' Notes, Marine and other Other
cession, etc. etc.

etc. Insur'ces. Penny Stamps. Receipts.
£8,754,343 £3,266,957 £747,890 £194,405 £1,202,747 £421,312
11,639,900 4,643,822 796,363 211,321 1,261,301 426,424
10,741,379 4,553,301 792,341 216,654 1,305,324 4 13,828

1895 1896. 1897

Total Stamps. £5,833,341 7,339,231 7,311,446

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EXPENDITURES FOR 1894, 1895, 1896 AND 1897, YEARS ENDING MARCH 31.

1897.

National Debt Services

Funded Debt, Interest.
Terminable Annuities and Trustee Savings Bank,

Deficiency Annuity...
Unfunded Debt..
Management of Debt.
New Sinking Fund.

Total.

1894.
1895.

1896.
£16,132,688 £16,220,544 £16,110,274 £16,108,037
6,393,504 6,422,410 6,442,138 7,149,743

468,305 461,830 118,367 112,534

178,911 176,953 176,447 175,692 1,826,592 1,718,263 2, 152,774 1, 453,994 £25,000,000 £25,000,000 £25,000,000 £25,000,000

* Deduct £975,000 for additional relief to agricultural rates, making revenue £101,729,000.

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THE NATIONAL DEBT.
The following statement shows the oscillations of the National Debt of the Kingdom from 1748:

Annual
Principal.

Charge. At the end of the Spanish War, 1748.

£75,812,132

£3,165,765 Decrease during eight years' peace.

1.237,107

412,199 At the commencement of the Seven Years' War, 1756.

74,575,025

2,753.566 Increase during the war...

58,141,024

2,279,167 At the Peace of Paris, 1763...

132,716,049

5,032.733 Decrease during twelve years' peace.

5,873,238

329,214 At the commencement of the American War, 1775.

126,812,811

4,703,519 Increase during the war...

116,220,334

4,837,737 At the end of the American War, 1784.

243,163,145

9,514,256 Decrease during the peace

3,399,724

109,077 At the commencement of the French War, 1792..

239,663,421

9,432,179 Increase during the war..

297,989,587

10,836,372 At the Peace of Amiens, 1802.

537,653,008

20,268,551 Increase during war with Napoleon..

323,386,041

12,377,087 At the Peace of Paris, 1815. .

861,039,049

32,645,618 Decrease during forty years.

91,956,500

4,930,415 At commencement of Crimean War, 1854.

7769,082,549

27,715,203 Increase during the war.

39,028,173

834,836 Debt in 1857....

808,108,722

28,550,039 Decrease since the Crimean War.

151,109,781

3,550,039 Debt on March 31, 1895,

656,998,911

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1896.

648,474,143

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1897.

610,773,679

25,000,000

AGRICULTURE.

The statement following shows the acreage in cereals and green crops in Great Britain and Ireland respectively :

GREAT BRITAIN.
Year.

Wheat. Barley. Oats. Beans. Peas. Potatoes. Turnips.
A cres.

Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. A cres. Acres. 1874.

3,630,300 2,287,987 2,596,381 559,014 310,547 520, 430 2,133,336 1832.

2,219,839 2,036,810 2.497,545 311,310 194,424 525,361 1,937,163 1893

1,897,524 2,075,097 3,171,756 244,954 210, 479 527.821 1,975,235 1894.

1,927.962 2,095,771 3,253, 401 244,180 243,043 504,454 1,956,573 1895.

1,417,483 2,166,279 3,2 6,063 242,665 209,024 541.217 1,915,902 1896.

1,693,957 2,104,764 3,095,488 251,076 196,561 563,741 1,883,118 1897. 1,889, 161 2,035,790 3,035,056

504,914

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The following statement shows the quantities of coal and iron ore produced in the United Kingdom for the years named :

Coal

Iron Ore
Year.
Quantities.

Value,
Quantities.

Value.
Tons.

Tons. 1890.

181,614,288
774,953,997
13,780,767

3,926,445 1891

185,479,126
74,099,816
12,777,689

8,355,860 1892

181,786,871
66,050,451
11,312,675

2,970,632 1893

161.325,795
55,809,808
11,203,476

2,827.947 1891.

188,277,525
62,729,759
12.367,308

3,190,647 1895

189,661,362
57,231,213
12,615,415

2,865,709 1896.

195,361,260
57,190,147
13,700,764

3,150,424 PIG IRON. The production, exports, home consumption, stocks and prices of pig iron have been as follows for the years named :

1896.
1895.
1894.
1893.

1892.
Tons.
Tons.
Tons.
Tons.

Tons. Production of pig iron...

8.659,681 7,895,675 7,364,745 6 829,341 6,616.890 Total exports of iron and steel,

3,592,286 2,838,149 2,649,998 2,856,574 2,739,279 Estimated home consumption.

5,268,532 4,305.029 4,539,299 3,976,632 4,237,883 Stock of pig iron, December 31

1.200.000 1.500.000 1,043,178 868,730 872,095 Average price of Scotch warrants. 46s. 100. 44s, 5d. 428. 8d. 428, 4d. 418. 10d. PRODUCTION OF BESSEMER INGOTS.

Production of OPEN-HEARTH STEEL INGOTS.
Year.
Gross Tons.

Year.

Gross Tons. 1885. 1,304,127 1885

583,918 1886. 1,570,520 1886.

694,150 1887 2,089,403 1887

981,104 1888. 2,032,794 1888

1,292,742 1889. 2.140,791 1889

1,429, 169 1890. 2,014,843 1890.

1,564,200 1891 1.645,005 1891

1,514,538 1892 1,500,810 1892.

1,418,830 1893. 1,493,354 1893,

1,456,309 1894 1,535,384 1894

1,575,318 1895 1,535,225 1895

1,724,737 1896

1,815,842
1896

2,317,555

*Including the Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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