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No. 6.



Written anno 1736.

the sea.

The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money.

For six pounds a-year you may have the use of one hundred pounds, provided you are a man of known prudence and honesty.

He that spends a groat a-day idly, spends idly above six pounds a-year, which is the price for the use of one hundred pounds.

He that wastes idly a groat's worth of his time per day, one day with another, wastes the privilege of using one hundred pounds each day.

He that idly loses five shillings worth of time, loses five shillings, and might as prudently throw five shillings into

He that loses five shillings, not only loses that sun, but all the advantages that might be made by turning it in dealing ; which, by the time that a young man becomes old, will amount to a considerable sum of money.

Again ; he that sells upon credit, as a price for what he sells equivalent to the principal and interest of his money for the time lie is to be kept out of it; therefore, he that huys upon credit, pays interest for what he buys ; and be that pays ready money, inight let that money out to use ; so that he that possesses anything he has bought, pays interest for the use of it.

Yet, in buying goods, it is best to pay ready money, because, he that sells upon credit, expects to lose five per cent. by bad debts; therefore he charges, on all he sells upon credit, an advance that shall make up that deficiency. Those who

pay for what they buy upon credit, pay their share of this advance.

He that pays ready money, escapes, or may escape that charge.

A penny sav'd is two-pence clear,
A pin a-day 's a groat a year.

No. 7.



At this time, when the general complaint is thatmoney is scarce," it will be an act of kindness to inform the moneyless how they may reinforce their pockets. I will acquaint them with the true secret of money-catching the certain way to fill empty purses-and how to keep them always full. Two simple rules, well observed, will do the business.

First, Let honesty and industry be thy constant companions, and

Secondly, Spend one penny less than thy clear gains.

T'her shall thy hide-bound pocket soon begin to thrive, and will never again cry with the empty belly-ach: neither will creditors insult thee, nor want oppress, nor hunger bite, nor nakedness freeze thee.' The whole hemisphere will shine brighter, and pleasure spring up in every corner of thy heart. Now, therefore, embrace these rules and be happy. Banish the bleak winds of sorrow froin thy mind, and live independent. Then shalt thou be a man, and not hide thy face at the approach of the rich, nor suffer the pain of feeling little when the sons of fortune walk at thy right hand: for independency, whether with little or much, is good fortune, and places thee on even ground with the proudest of the golden fleece. Oh, then, be wise, and let industry walk with thee in the morning, and attend thee until thou reachest the evening hour for rest. Let honesty be as the breath of thy soul, and never forget to have a penny, when all thy expenses are enumerated and paid : then shalt thou reach the point of happiness, and independence shall be thy shield and buckler, thy helinet aud crown ; then shall thy soul walk upright, nor stoop to the silken wretch because he hath riches, nor pocket an abuse because the hand which offers it wears a ring set with diamonds.

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No. X,


No. 1.



Power of this court. It may receive and promulgate accusations of all kinds, against all persons and characters among the citizens of the state, and against all inferior courts : and may judge, sentence, and condemn to infamy, not only private individuals, but public bodies, &c., with or without inquiry or hearing, at the court's discretion. Whose favour, or for whose emolament this court is

established. In favour of about one citizen in five hundred, vho, by education, or practice in scribbling, has acquired a tolerable style as to grammar and construction, so as to bear printing ; or who is possessed of a press and a few types. This fivehundredth part of the citizens have the liberty of accusing and abusing the other four-hundred and ninety-nine parts at their pleasure ; or they may hire out their pens and press to others for that purpose.

Practice of this court, It is not governed by any of the rules of the common courts of law. The accused is allowed no grand jury to judge of the truth of the accusation before it is publicly made ; nor is the name of the accuser made known to him, nor has he an opportunity of confronting the witnesses against him, for they are kept in the dark, as in the Spanish court of inquisition. Nor is there any petty jury of his peers sworn to try the truth of the charges. The proceedngs are also sometimes so rapid, that an honest good citizen may find hiinself suddenly and unexpectedly accused, and in the same moment judged and condemned, and sentence pronounced against him that he is a rogue and a villain. Yet

if an officer of this court receive the slightest check for misconduct in this his office, he claims the rights of a free citizen by the constitution, and demands to know his accusér, to confront the witnesses, and have a fair trial by the jury of

his peers.

The foundation of its authority. It is said to be founded on an article in the state constitution, which establishes the liberty of the press-a liberty which every Pennsylvanian would fight and die for, though few of us, I believe, have distinct ideas of its nature and extent. It seems, indeed, somewhat like the liberty of the press, that felons have by the common law of England before conviction ; that is, to be either pressed to death or hanged. If by the liberty of the press, we understand merely the liberty of discussing the propriety of public measures and political opinions, let us have as much of it as you please ; but, if it means the liberty of affronting, calumniating, and defaming one another, I, for my part, own myself willing to part with my share of it whenever our legislators shall please to alter the law; and shall cheerfully consent to exchange my liberty of abusing others, for the privilege of not being abused myself.

By whom this court is commissioned or constituted, It is not by any commission from the supreme executive council, who might previously judge of the abilities, integrity, knowledge, &c. of the persons to be appointed to this great trust, of deciding upon the characters and good faine of the citizens: for this court is above that council

, and may accuse, judge, and condemn it at pleasure. Nor is it hereditary, as is the court of dernier resort in the peerage of England. But any man who can procure pen, ink, and paper, with a press, a few types, and a huge pair of blacking balls, may commissionate himself, and his court is immediately established in the plenary possession and exercise of its rights ; for if you make the least complaint of the judge's conduct, he daubs his blacking balls in your face wherever he meets you; and besides tearing your private character to splinters, marks you out for the odiuin of the public, as an enemy to the liberty of the press.

Of the natural support of this court. Its support is founded in the depravity of such minds as have not been mended by religion, nor improved by good education.

There is a lust in man no charm can tame,

Of loudly publishing his neighbour's shame.

On eagle's wings immortal scandals fly,
Wbile virtuous actions are but born and die.

DRYDEN. Whoever feels pain in hearing a good character of his neighbour, will feel a pleasure in the reverse. And of those who, despairing to rise in distinction by their virtues, are happy if others can be depressed to a level with themselves, there are a number sufficient in every great town to maintain one of these courts by subscription. A shrewd observer once said, that in walking the streets of a slippery morning, one might see where the good-natured people lived, by the ashes thrown on the ice before the doors: probably he would have formed a different conjecture of the temper of those whom he might find engaged in such subscriptions. Of the checks proper to be established against the abuses

of power in those courts. Hitherto there are none. But since so much has been written and published on the federal constitution; and the necessity of checks, in all parts of good government, bas been so clearly and learnedly explained, I find myself so far enlightened as to suspect some check may be proper in this part also: but I have been at a loss to inagine any that may not be construed into an infringement of the sacred liberty of the press. At length, however, I think I have found one, that instead of diminishing general liberty, shall augment it ; which is, by restoring to the people a species of liberty, of which they have been deprived by our laws-I mean the liberty of the cudgel! In the rude state of society, prior to the existence of laws, if one man gave another ill language, the affronted person might return it by a box on the ear; and, if repeated, by a good drubbing; and this without offending against any law: but now the right of making such returns is denied, and they are punished as breaches of the peace, while the right of abusing seems to remain in full force, the laws made against it being rendered ineffectual by the liberty of the press.

My proposal then is, to leave the liberty of the press untouched, to be exercised in its full extent, force and vigour, but to permit the liberty of the cudgel to go with it, pari passu. Thus, my fellow-citizens, if an impudent writer attack your reputation-dearer perhaps to you than your

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