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Page Statements by:

Bitker, Bruno V., chairman, American Bar Association Advisory Committee on World Peace through Law

198 Brown, Seyom, Brookings Institution..

241 'Buckley, William F., Jr., editor-in-chief, The National Review---- 119, 202 *Coffin, William Sloane, chaplain, Yale University

238 Cousins, Norman, editor; Saturday Review.--

252 Dallin, Alexander, Professor of History and Political Science, Stanford University--

122 Falk, Richard A., Professor of International Law and Practice, Princeton University

153 Frederick, Pauline, former U.N. correspondent for NBC News--Fulbright, Senator J. W., former chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations; sponsor of the Fulbright Resolution of 1943.-

54 Fuller, Buckminster, architect..

182, 189 Gardner, Richard N., Henry L. Moses professor of law and international organization, Columbia University

76 Goldberg, Arthur, former U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations...

10 Lodge, Henry Cabot, former U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations.--

6 Moynihan, Daniel P., of New York, to be the Representative of the

United States of America to the United Nations with the rank and
status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and the
Representative of the United States of America in the Security
Council of the United Nations.--

333 Scali, Ambassador John A., U.S. Representative to the United Nations- 304 Scammon, Richard, Elections Research Center----

197 Segel, Joseph, former chairman, 'board of governors, United Nations

Association; U.S. Alternate Representative to the 29th U.N. Gen-
eral Assembly--

96 Stanley, C. Maxwell, president, Stanley Foundation..

100 Stassen, Harold E., member of the U.S. Delegation to the United Na

tions Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, 1945- 3 Toffler, Alvin, author, "Future Shock”.

260 Yeselson, Abraham, chairman, political science department, Rutgers

University; author, "A Dangerous Place: The United Nations as a
Weapon in International Politics”.

90 Yost, Charles W., former U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations.-

18 Insertions for the record :

"Clash of the 'Two Majorities'," article by Charles W. Yost, New Republic, Dec. 28, 1974.-

18 “The United Nations Was Never More Relevant Than Today," article by Charles W. Yost, Saturday Review, January 1975--

21 "Bending the Rules of the U.N.," article by C. L. Sulzberger, New York

Times, Nov. 16, 1974.----
Letter from C. Maxwell Stanley, president, The Stanley Foundation--- 117
Questions submitted by Senator Percy and answered by Professor
Falk

178 "The Great Rehearsal-The Story of the Making and Ratifying of the

Constitution of the United States," by Carl Van Doren (preface)--- 205 Resolutions unanimously adopted at a meeting of the Governors Commission

209 Text of H. Con. Res. 206_..

210 "Sweeping Change in U.N. is Urged by World Panel," article by Kathleen Teltsch, New York Times, May 21, 1975--

272 Letter transmitting additional comments from Seyom Brown, Brookings Institution

292 "The United States in Opposition,” article by Daniel Patrick Moy. nihan, Commentary, March 1975---

338 “The United States and the New World Society," article by Daniel P. Moynihan, Reader's Digest, June 1975--

353 Letter from John Kenneth Galbraith, Harvard University----

390

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392 413

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460 471

471

Appendices :
Appendix I: Official documents referred to during hearings:

Fulbright Resolution
Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court

of Justice -
"Uniting for Peace”: Resolution of the General Assembly, No. 3, 1950-
Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States : Resolution of the

General Assembly, Dec. 12, 1974.-
Address by Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger, Milwaukee, Wis.,

July 14, 1975-----
Appendix II: Statements submitted for the record :
Statement on substantive issues adopted by delegates present and

voting at the Biennial Convention of the United Nations Association

of the United States of America, Apr. 17, 1975_Statement of Edith Wynner of New York. The World Association of World Federalists Proposals for United Na

tions Reform---Statement of Women's League of Conservative Judaism-Letter from Cordell Burch transmitting a copy of “What's Wrong

with the United Nations” by Reed Benson and Robert Lee, The Re

view of the News, Sept. 9, 1970-
Letter from James L. Elsman..
Statement of Robert Y. Gromet, M.D., chairman, Northern American

Group, World Federal Authority Committee.-
Letter from Herman Will, associate general secretary, Board of

Church and Society of the United Methodist Church, enclosing
official statements of the United Methodist Church concerning the

United Nations...
Statement of Eleanore Schnurr, United Nations Representative,

American Baptist Churches, U.S.A., National Ministries_.
Statement by Campaign for World Government, Inc., submitted by

Georgia Lloyd, executive secretary---
Letter from Mr. and Mrs. Francis M. Randall, Alabaster, Ala--
Telegram from Ruth C. Clusen, president, League of Women Voters

of the United States...
Letter and resolution from the United Nations Association of the

U.S.A., Iowa Division --
Statement by the Citizens for a New International Economic Order

(CNIEO), June 11, 1975----
Letter from Edward J. Sparling, president, World Federalists, U.S.A.,

Chicago Region, Inc.---
Letter and testimony of Walter Hoffman, chairman, executive council,

World Federalists, U.S.A., New Jersey Branch, Inc----
"The 29th General Assembly of the United Nations": Report by
Donald F. Keys and George Mannello, World Federalist Education

Fund. "The U.S. versus the U.N.?”: article by Harlan Cleveland, New York

473

476

477 478

479

479

479

485

486

491

Times Magazine, May 4, 1975---
Statement and article by John Nelson Washburn.-
Letter and article by Benjamin M. Becker, attorney, Chicago, Ill---

499
506
533

THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED NATIONS

THURSDAY, MAY 7, 1975

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,

Washington, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room 4221, the Dirksen Senate Office Building, the Hon. John Sparkman (chairman] presiding

Present: Senators Sparkman, Clark, Case, Javits, and Percy.

OPENING STATEMENT

The CHAIRMAN. Let the committee come to order, please.
We are promised very good attendance today.
We are meeting today to open

a series of hearings on the United States and the United Nations. The purpose of these hearings is to put into perspective what our original hopes and aims were, how the U.N. has developed, and what our future policies and attitudes should be.

I think it is fair to predict that recent world developments will focus greater attention on the United Nations. The question is whether the U.N. will be a constructive force in ameliorating difficult situations, such as in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, or whether it will be a destructive force in pitting the developing and third world nations against the developed, mostly Western countries, thereby further increasing the polarization evident at the U.N.

To start us off, the committee has invited a distinguished panel of past officials whose involvement with the United Nations spans the time of the signing of the Charter at San Francisco in 1945 to the Nixon administration.

We have with us the Honorable Harold E. Stassen, the only living U.S. signatory of the United Nations Charter; our former colleague, both in the Senate and on this committee, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who represented the United States at the United Nations from 1953 to 1960; Justice Arthur J. Goldberg, who held that post from 1965 to 1968; and Ambassador Charles S. Yost, who followed in 1969 and serred until 1971. These gentlemen need no further introduction, but before calling on them I would like to ask Senator Percy, whom I hold responsible for these hearings, and have asked to act as cochairman, to say a few words.

STATEMENT BY SENATOR PERCY

Senator PERCY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I hope you are not implying I am responsible for everything that is said at the hearings. [Laughter.]

(1)

I would like to say I was rather surprised when I finished my tour of duty as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly last fall, to learn that it had been 20 years since the U.S. Senate had held hearings on the United Nations. In view of the U.N.'s potential to promote peace, and the misunderstanding at the U:N. today between the developed and developing worlds over many political, economic and socia issues today, seemed best to stand back now to see where we are and what our policies should be in regard to the U.N.

Certainly the hearings that begin this morning and will continue tomorrow, May 8, and on the 14th and 15th, 21st and 22d, will be quite comprehensive. I am most indebted, Mr. Chairman, to you for the decision that you have made to devote as much of the time of the Foreign Relations Committee to these hearings as you have.

We shall be hearing from those who made and executed U.S. policy at the United Nations over the years, from distinguished experts in international relations and from other prominent Americans who have important viewpoints to express.

I have a deep personal interest because in 1945 I was up in the peanut gallery at San Francisco-I was in the Navy then the war was winding down, and with a little time on my hands, I watched the remarkable proceedings, as the U.N. was put together.

I think it rather remarkable that the four witnesses today have represented different branches of government–a Governor, a Senator, a Justice of the Supreme Court, an Ambassador—and two of them played more than one role during their government service. They certainly are among the four most knowledgeable and devoted Americans who could be testifying this morning.

I think it is an auspicious beginning for these hearings.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Senator Percy.

Senator Percy, you stated that you served last year, was it not, in the United Nations?

Senator PERCY. Yes, sir.

U.S. CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES SENT TO U.N. SINCE 1950

The CHAIRMAN. You know, ever since 1950 we have been sending two Congressional representatives to the United Nations for each session. The Senate one year and the House the next year-one Democrat; one Republican.

I want to say that Senator Lodge and I started that in 1950 when President Truman appointed us to go to the United Nations, and the practice has been followed ever since. It is a great experience, and I enjoyed it very much.

We are very glad to have all of you distinguished gentlemen with us, and if you will take the seats at the table, Governor Stassen, Senator Lodge, Justice Goldberg, Ambassador Yost.

That is quite an array of distinguished talent.

Charlie Yost was around the United Nations when I was there. I have known him through the years and the great work that he has done.

We will be glad to hear from you, gentlemen. I will ask Governor Stassen to lead off.

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